Danish West Indies

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Danish West Indies
Dansk Vestindien
Flag of Danish West Indies
Location of Danish West Indies
StatusColony of Denmark–Norway (1754–1814)
Colony of Denmark (1814–1917)
CapitalCharlotte Amalie (1672–1754 and 1871–1917)
Christiansted (1754–1871)
Common languagesDanish
English Creole
Dutch Creole
• 1756–66
Christian Leberecht von Prøck (first)
• 1916–17
Henri Konow (last)
• Saint John colonized and claimed
• Danish West India Company purchases Saint Croix from French West India Company
31 March 1917
[1]400 km2 (150 sq mi)
• 1911[1]
CurrencyRigsdaler (1754–1849)
Daler (1849–1917)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Dutch Virgin Islands
United States Virgin Islands

The Danish West Indies (Danish: Dansk Vestindien) or Danish Antilles or Danish Virgin Islands were a Danish colony in the Caribbean, consisting of the islands of Saint Thomas with 32 square miles (83 km2); Saint John (Danish: St. Jan) with 19 square miles (49 km2); and Saint Croix with 84 square miles (220 km2). The islands have belonged to the United States since they were purchased in 1917. Water Island was part of the Danish West Indies until 1905, when the Danish state sold it to the East Asiatic Company, a private shipping company.

The Danish West India Guinea Company annexed the uninhabited island of Saint Thomas[2] in 1672 and St. John in 1718. In 1733, Saint Croix was purchased from the French West India Company. When the Danish company went bankrupt in 1754, the King of Denmark–Norway assumed direct control of the three islands. Britain occupied the Danish West Indies in 1801–02 and 1807–15 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Danish colonizers in the West Indies aimed to exploit the profitable triangular trade, involving the export of firearms and other manufactured goods to Africa in exchange for slaves, who were then transported to the Caribbean to work the sugar plantations. Caribbean colonies, in turn, exported sugar, rum and molasses to Denmark. The economy of the Danish West Indies depended on slavery. After a rebellion, slavery was officially abolished in 1848, leading to the near economic collapse of the plantations.

In 1852, the Danish parliament first debated the sale of the increasingly unprofitable colony. Denmark tried several times to sell or exchange the Danish West Indies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: to the United States and to the German Empire, respectively. The islands were eventually sold for 25 million dollars to the United States, which took over the administration on 31 March 1917, renaming the islands the United States Virgin Islands.



Map of the Danish West Indies

By the beginning of the 17th century, the great colonial powers, primarily Spain, France, England, and the Netherlands had colonized most of the Caribbean but none of these powers had shown an interest in St. Thomas. The Danish king gave the Dutchman Johann de Villum a royal letter of privilege that gave him exclusive rights to trade between Denmark and the West Indies. It was not until 1652 that Danish merchants saw the opportunities that were in trade with the island, when the ship Fortuna came to Copenhagen with a valuable cargo. The merchants persuaded Frederick III of Denmark Norway to found Caribiske Kompagni.[3]

On 6 May 1665 Erik Nielsen Smit was appointed governor, and on 1 July he sailed with his crew from Copenhagen on the ship "Eendragt". The task was to colonize St. Thomas. The island had previously been populated by Indians, but these had the Spaniards transported to their islands as slaves. In February 1666, the first cargo of sugar, cocoa, cinnamon and pokkenholt went to Copenhagen. Most likely, these goods were purchased from other islands. The colonization attempt became more difficult than first thought. Erik Nielsen Smit died after a short time, there was a shortage of food, and the island was regularly looted by pirates. In 1668, the last survivors returned home to Denmark.[4]

In 1670 Christian V came to the throne, and the following year West Indian-Guinetic Kompagni was established, a privileged company that gained a monopoly on trade between St. Thomas and Denmark. The experienced West Indies explorer Jørgen Iversen Dyppel was appointed governor. With him on the crossing of the ship Faroese, he had 190 men and women and materials to erect a small village. During a stay in Bergen, several Norwegians joined in, as several of the crew had fled. After arriving in St. Thomas, the construction of a fort began in order to defend the new colony. After six months, 161 of the original 190 were dead, and the Danish colonists had to receive reinforcements of exiled or prosecuted Dutch and Englishmen. Jørgen Iversen Dyppels fort was completed in 1680 and was named after King Christian V of Denmark-Norway. In addition to being a defense, Fort Christian was also used as a town hall, Lutheran church and meeting place for locals.[5]

It was difficult to get the manned ships that sailed over to St. Thomas because of the stories of a long and difficult crossing and about life in the West Indies with illness, heat and the almost certain death. To get enough people, the majority of the crew was taken from prisons and improvement facilities.[5] It was common for more than one in three to die along the way and that the same number died within six months of arriving in St. Thomas.[3]

Nicolai Esmit from Holsten was appointed governor after Iversen Dyppel, partly because the Danish state owed him money, and partly because he had 30 years of experience in the West Indies. Esmit treated the slaves directly sadistically, and he went on a leash with the many pirates who at this time ravaged all over the West Indies. Esmit founded the town of Taphus, from 1689 known as Charlotte Amalie. The name Taphus had its background in the many inns that Esmit listed. Esmit found that he could personally make a lot of money by allowing the pirates to use St. Thomas as a base for their many missions against especially English and French ships. Britain objected to this to the Danish government, saying that if it could not keep its colony in order, the British would go in and take St. Thomas. This led to Nicolai Esmit being called home to Denmark.[6]

Jørgen Iversen Dyppel was persuaded by the King to take a second term in the Danish West Indies[7] .Obtaining a crew for Iversen Deep fur's ship to St. Thomas proved difficult. No Danish officers wanted to take part in the crossing, and Dutch officers were recruited instead. The majority of the remaining crew had to be picked up from Copenhagen's prisons. The ship departed from Copenhagen on 10 November 1682, and from the very beginning there were major discrepancies between Iversen Dyppel and the officers. After two months at sea, the ship had only arrived in the English Channel, where the crew made mutiny. Iversen Dyppel, his pregnant wife and their children were killed and thrown overboard. [8]The same fate suffered the officers, with the exception of the mate, who was forced to take the ship to the Azores. On the island of Flores, the slaves, a young assistant Torgersen Rosenberg and some sailors were set aside. Only Rosenberg survived and later returned to Denmark.[9].

Christiansted, the main town of St. Croix in the former Danish West Indies

St Jan becomes part of the colony[edit]

When Denmark established itself as on the uninhabited island of St. Thomas, there were protests from both Britain and Spain. However, after an agreement between the Danish and British kings, the governor of the British Leeward Islands was instructed to assist the Danish colonists. When Governor Jørgen Iversen Dyppel made an attempt a few years later, in 1675, to colonize the neighboring island of St. Jan, the British were not as complicit, and they protested the attempt at colonization. The Danes withdrew, but without giving up hope of gaining dominion over the island.[10]

In the 1680s, relations between Britain and Denmark were cool due to the reign of brothers Adolph and Nicolai Esmit and Gabriel Milan. Their blatant trade in pirates was a business Britain was trying to put an end to. In addition, both countries asserted sovereignty over the island of Vieques. The Danes had established a military guard post on the island, but this was abandoned when a Scottish expedition arrived at Vieques. But the Danes upheld the claim on both St. Jan and Vieques despite foreign protests.

In 1715, Governor Mikkel Knudsen Crone asked the leadership in Copenhagen to explore both St. Jan and Vieques before his governorship ended, when the soil at St. Thomas began to deplete and the plantation owners needed alternative land to grow. The management of the West Indian-Guinean Kompagni did not respond to the inquiry, and the plans were therefore not implemented. The following year, the new governor, Erich Bredal, reported that many plantation owners on St. Thomas wanted to move to St. Jan, but feared British reprisals.[11]

In 1717, the British governor Walter Hamilton came to St. Thomas with the naval ship HMS Scarborough, and he warned the Danes against logging on St. Jan. West Indian-Guinean Kompagni in Copenhagen was unaware of the British's new ban on Danish operations on St. Jan. The leadership in Copenhagen assumed that two years of silence from the British had made the time ripe for Danish colonization. In addition, the company felt that something had to be done, as the British had sent expeditions to both Vieques and St. Jan the year before, perhaps to map and later annex the islands. But despite the order to annex St. Jan, nothing was done in 1717, when Bredal feared the consequences after the British warning against logging on St. Jan.

In September 1717, the British annexed Vieques, and it began to rush to gain control of St. Jan before the British also took control of this island. In the autumn of 1718, Governor Hamilton was pressured by the plantation owners of Anguilla, Tortola and Spanish Town to colonize St. Croix instead. The British plantation owners described St. Jan as "a small indestructible and hilly island" and thus the annexation of St. Jane was a low priority for the British.

On March 25, 1718, Governor Bredal annexed St. Jan. and the Danish flag was hoisted on the Carolina plantation in Coral Bay. The British responded by sending a naval ship to St. Thomas demanding withdrawal from St. Jan. The claim was rejected by Governor Bredal, and the British, who had been ordered not to use force, withdrew. Soon after, the clearing of forests, the construction of plantations and the construction of fort Fortsberg were initiated.[12]

Hamilton's successor, John Hart, asked the colonial leadership in London to conquer St. Jan from the Danes in 1722 and 1724, but was told that St. Jan was not worth a conflict. In 1726, a message was sent to West Indian-Guineian Kompagni stating that one could consider the island to be inhabited. During the first 15 years, 109 tobacco, cottonand sugar plantations were built that covered most of the island.

In 1762, Britain reneduced its claim to St. Jan and recognized the sovereignty of the Danes.[12]

Later history (1801–1917)[edit]

Two-daler banknote from Saint Croix in the Danish West Indies (1898)
Two-daler banknote from Saint Croix in the Danish West Indies (1898)

The first British invasion and occupation of the Danish West Indies occurred during the French Revolutionary Wars, when at the end of March 1801 a British fleet arrived at St Thomas. The Danes accepted the Articles of Capitulation the British proposed and the British occupied the islands without a shot being fired. The British occupation lasted until April 1802, when the British returned the islands to Denmark.

The second British invasion of the Danish West Indies took place during the Napoleonic Wars in December 1807 when a British fleet captured St Thomas on 22 December and Saint Croix on 25 December. The Danes did not resist and the invasion was bloodless. This British occupation of the Danish West Indies lasted until 20 November 1815, when Britain returned the islands to Denmark.

By the 1850s, the Danish West Indies had a total population of about 41,000 people. The government of the islands was under a governor-general, whose jurisdiction extended to the other Danish colonies of the group. However, because the islands formerly belonged to Great Britain, the inhabitants were English in customs and in language. The islands of that period consisted of:[13]

A 1905 gold 20 franc (4-daler) coin of the Danish West Indies, depicting Christian IX of Denmark
  • St. Thomas had a population of 12,800 people and had sugar and cotton as its chief exports.[citation needed] St. Thomas city was the capital of the island, then a free port, and the chief station of the steam-packets between Southampton, in England, and the West Indies.
  • St. John had a population of about 2,600 people.[14]
  • St. Croix, though inferior to St. Thomas in commerce, was of greater importance in extent and fertility, and, with 25,600 people,[citation needed] was the largest in population.

In 1916, a referendum was held in Denmark itself on the future of the islands, which had become both a financial burden and a strategic concern. On 17 January 1917, according to the Treaty of the Danish West Indies, the Danish government sold the islands to the United States for $25 million ($505 million in current prices), when the United States and Denmark exchanged their respective treaty ratifications. Danish administration ended on 31 March 1917, when the United States took formal possession of the territory and renamed it the United States Virgin Islands.[15]

The United States had been interested in the islands since at least the 1860s. The United States finally acted in 1917 because of the islands' strategic position near the approach to the Panama Canal and because of a fear that Germany might seize them to use as U-boat bases during World War I.

At the time of the U.S. purchase of the Danish West Indies in 1917, the colony did not include Water Island, which had been sold by Denmark to the East Asiatic Company, a private shipping company, in 1905. The company eventually sold the island to the United States in 1944, during the German occupation of Denmark.[16]

Postage stamps[edit]

St Thomas was a hub of the West Indies packet trade from 1851 to 1885. Denmark issued stamps for the Danish West Indies from 1856 onward.


The Danish West Indies were inhabited by many different cultures, and each had its own traditions and religions. The king and the church worked closely together to maintain law and order; the church was responsible for people's moral upbringing, and the king led the civil order. There was no state-sponsored religion in Denmark until 1849, but in the Danish West Indies there had always been a great deal of religious freedom. Danish authorities tended to be lenient towards religious beliefs, but required that all citizens had to observe Danish holidays. Freedom of religion was partially granted to help settle the islands, as there was a shortage of willing settlers from Europe. This worked to an extent, seeing that a large proportion of settlers were in fact Dutch and British natives fleeing religious persecution.[17]

Jews began settling the colony in 1655, and by 1796 the first synagogue was inaugurated. In its heyday in the mid-19th century, the Jewish community made up half of the white population.[18] One of the earliest colonial governors, Gabriel Milan, was a Sephardic Jew.

In spite of a general tolerance for religion, many African religions were not recognized because they typically revolved around belief in animism and magic, beliefs that were consistently met with scorn, and were regarded as immoral and subservient. A widespread viewpoint was that if one could convert slaves to Christianity, they could have a better life, and therefore many slaves were converted.[17]

By 1900, with a population of 30,000, a fourth of the people were Roman Catholics, along with Anglicans, and some Moravians and other Protestant groups. For decades, the Moravians had organized missions and also taken charge of the educational system.[19]


Production on the islands increased and the small family farms grew to become larger plantations. The increased production made it necessary to obtain more labour. Both St. Thomas and St. Jan were uninhabited, so labor had to be picked up from the outside. The attempt to use Indians from the American mainland was unsuccessful, and one tried to get young Danes to emigrate to St. Thomas. Few wanted to travel to the West Indies of free will, as they had heard horrific stories about both the crossing and the diseases that could strike them. Recruitment was moved to the prisons, where prisoners with long prison sentences or death sentences were promised freedom after six years of work on a plantation. Few of those who signed the agreement survived the six-year period. Thus, the company turned its gaze to slaves from Guinea in Africa, and in 1673 came the first shipment of African slaves. [4]

The number of slaves increased rapidly, from 175 in 1679 to 333 six years later. Even with the great growth, there was a shortage of labor, and the company leadership wanted more slaves. Should the supply of slaves become too great, they could always be disposed of on the surrounding islands. But the company's poor finances led to too few slave ships being sent across the Middle Passage to meet the needs of plantation owners. To solve the problem, the company management turned to the Prince of Brandenburg, who had great interests in the slave trade, and offered him to use St. Thomas as a trading place for the slaves brought from Guinea. In return, West Indian-Guinean Kompagni would receive 1% of the slaves introduced to the islands and 2% of the slaves that were resold. [5]

The Brandenburgs were "dense packers", and from 1690 to 1698 32 slave ships were sent across the Middle Passage, often with up to 500 slaves on board. St. Thomas became one of the most important trading places for international human trafficking, where the majority of the slaves were sold to the surrounding islands. In 1691, the number of slaves had risen to 751, while the number of whites amounted to 385. When the Brandenburgs suspended their operations, there were 1,317 slaves at St. Thomas.

The Danish slave fort christiansborg on the Gold Coast of Guinea,today located in Ghana's capital Accra. The company management realized what profit opportunities there were in the triangular trade and built several slave forts along the Gulf of Guinea, where Christiansborg outside today's Accra was the largest. The company bought the slaves from local chiefs who had captured them in local tribal wars. In exchange for rum,weapons, gunpowder and clothes, the company was given slaves, ivory and gold.

An important step was taken in 1725, when the Company for the first time allowed private slave traders to introduce slaves to the Danish West Indies. This permission was granted under the British model to increase the import of slaves. The purchase of the island of St. Croix in 1733 led to an economic transition – production on the islands went from the emphasis on cotton to sugar. It proved difficult to get more Danes to immigrate, so the islands were largely populated by emigrated British Catholics who came via Montserrat. In addition, the supply of slaves was increased, not least through private Spanish slave traders. [6]

In 1791 there were 27,608 slaves in the Danish West Indies, but the official figures on slaves in the Danish West Indies are probably too low. The plantation owners had to pay a fixed amount in tax per slave, and the official figures are taken from the tax lists. Governor Erich Bredal complained that many tax cheats hid their slaves in the forest when there was a slave count. [5]

The slaves lived in poor conditions, were forced into hard work and were almost without rights. The slave owners could treat the slaves much as they wanted, but the slaves were also a costly investment that did not have to perish. The danger of rebellion was always present, and several uprisings took place in the Danish West Indies.

The importation of slaves was banned in 1803, but by then the plantation owners had also become "self-sufficient" in that their own slaves gave birth to enough children. Slavery was abolished 45 years after the import ban by Governor Peter von Scholten in connection with a slave rebellion in Frederiksted, St. Croix.

In total, 120,000 slaves from the Danish forts in Guinea were sent to the islands of the West Indies, where about 50,000 went to the Danish West Indies.

The plantation owners made great fortunes at this time. The Schimmelmann family was in a unique position, becoming denmark's richest family in the 18th century due to the sugar trade from the West Indies. The family dominated economic life in Denmark – Heinrich Carl von Schimmelmann was Minister of Finance of Denmark Norway 1768–82, and his son Ernst Heinrich von Schimmelmann from 1784.


Slaves outnumbered whites on all islands, often by large margins. On Saint Thomas, population expansion was recorded as 422 blacks and 317 whites in 1688, 555 blacks and 383 whites in 1699,[clarification needed] and 3,042 blacks and 547 whites in 1715 (a ratio of more than 5:1), and by 1755 slaves outnumbered whites 12:1. On Saint John, there were 677 blacks and 123 whites in 1728, 1086 blacks and 208 whites in 1733 (a ratio of more than 5:1), and by 1770 slaves outnumbered whites 19:1. On Saint Croix in 1797, there were 25,452 slaves and 2,223 whites (a ratio of more than 11:1) as well as 1,164 freedmen, and in 1815 there were 24,330 slaves and 180 whites (a ratio of more than 135:1) as well as 2,480 freedmen. At that time, freedmen (many of whom had purchased their freedom) also outnumbered whites on Saint Thomas and Saint John.[20]

Slave trade[edit]

Trading African slaves was part of the transatlantic slave trade by Denmark–Norway around 1671, when the Danish West India Company was chartered, until 1 January 1803, when the 1792 law to abolish the slave trade came into effect.[21]

By 1778, it was estimated that the Danes were bringing about 3,000 Africans to the Danish West Indies yearly for enslavement.[22] These transports continued until the end of 1802, when a 1792 law by Crown Prince Regent Frederik that banned the trade of slaves came into effect.[23]

Slave codes[edit]

Laws and regulations in the Danish West Indies were based on Denmark's laws, but the local government was allowed to adapt them to match local conditions. For example, things like animals, land, and buildings were regulated according to Danish law, but Danish law did not regulate slavery. Slaves were treated as common property, and therefore did not necessitate specific laws.

The Høgensborg estate on Sankt Croix, 1833

In 1733, differentiation between slaves and other property was implied by a regulation that stated that slaves had their own will and thus could behave inappropriately or be disobedient. There was a general consensus that if the slaves were punished too hard or were malnourished, the slaves would start to rebel. This was borne out by the 1733 slave insurrection on St. John, where many plantation owners and their families were killed by the Akwamu, including Breffu, before it was suppressed later the following year.[24] In 1755 Frederick V of Denmark issued more new Regulations, in which slaves were guaranteed the right not to be separated from their children and the right to medical support during periods of illness or old age. However, the colonial government had the ability to amend laws and regulations according to local conditions, and thus the regulations were never enacted in the colony, on grounds that it was more disadvantageous than advantageous.[25]

1733 slave insurrection[edit]

The 1733 slave insurrection on St. John, which lasted from November 1733 until August 1734, was one of the earliest and longest slave rebellions in the Americas. The insurrection started on 23 November 1733, when 150 slaves, primarily Akwamus, revolted against plantation owners and managers. The slaves captured the fort in Coral Bay and took control of most of the island.[26]

Planters regained control by the end of May 1734, after the Akwamu were defeated by several hundred better-armed French and Swiss troops sent in April from Martinique, a French colony. Colony militia continued to hunt down maroons and finally declared the rebellion at an end in late August 1734.[27]


Emancipation proclamation, 1848

By the 1830s and 1840s, the sugar beet industry had reduced the profitability of sugarcane. The British Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 emancipated slaves in the neighboring British West Indies, fully effective as of 1840. Abolition in the Danish West Indies was discussed, with Governor von Scholten, who had been seeking reforms since 1830, in favor of emancipation.[28][29] Scholarly consensus suggests von Scholten's views were influenced by his free-coloured mistress Anna Heegaard.[30][31][32][33]

King Christian VIII supported the gradual abolition of slavery and ruled in 1847 that every child born of an unfree woman should be free from birth, and that slavery would end entirely after 12 years. That ruling satisfied neither the slaves nor the plantation owners.[34]

Meanwhile, on 27 April 1848, France signed a law to abolish slavery in their colonies within two months, but a slave insurrection on Martinique led to immediate abolition on Martinique on 22 May and Guadeloupe on 27 May.[35]

The slaves in the Danish West Indies did not want to wait for their freedom, either. On 2 July 1848, freedman John Gottlieb (also known as "Moses Gottlieb" or "General Buddhoe") and Admiral Martin King (among others) led a slave rebellion, taking over Frederiksted, Saint Croix.[36] That evening, hundreds of slaves gathered peaceably outside Fort Frederik refusing to work the next day and demanding freedom. By 10 a.m. the following morning, about 8,000 slaves had joined.[37]

The conch blower in the "Freedom Statue" depicts the slaves' call to action in 1848

On the afternoon of 3 July 1848 (now known as Emancipation Day), Peter von Scholten, in order to end the rebellion and prevent bloodshed and damages, went to Frederiksted and announced an immediate and total emancipation of all slaves. He then went to Christiansted, where a second rebellion had formed and some fires had been set, and had notices disseminated to the other islands. General Buddhoe worked with the governor and other officials to end the riots and violence that had broken out on a few estates.[38]

In the aftermath, Buddhoe is said to have been jailed and exiled to Trinidad.[38] Governor von Scholten also fared poorly. As governor, he did not actually have the authority to end slavery, but had found himself in a situation where he needed to take immediate action that could not wait for communicating with Denmark. For his actions, he was called back to Denmark to face a trial for treason. He was first denied his pension, but later cleared of the charges.[39]

When Denmark abolished slavery in 1848, many plantation owners wanted full reimbursement on the grounds that their assets were damaged by the loss of the slaves, and by the fact that they would have to pay for labor in the future. The Danish government paid fifty dollars for every slave the plantation owners had owned and recognized that the slaves' release had caused a financial loss for the owners.[25]


The lives of the formerly enslaved people changed very little because many continued to be bound to the plantation system through contractual servitude.[40] Most were bound to serve the plantations where they had previously been enslaved. As employees, former slaves were not the plantation owners' responsibility and did not receive food or care from their employers. As part of a sharecropping system, some formerly enslaved people received a small hut, a little land, and some money; however, this one-time compensation did not change the harsh working conditions.

The Fireburn labor riot, considered to be the largest labor revolt in Danish colonial history, took place on October 1, 1878.[41] The revolt began because the formerly enslaved continued to live and work in slave-like conditions even though three decades had passed since the abolition of slavery. Mary Leticia Thomas, today referred to as Queen Mary of St. Croix, spearheaded the revolt alongside three other women: Axeline ‘Agnes’ Elizabeth Salomon, Matilde McBean and Susanna ‘Bottom Belly’ Abrahamsson.[42] The Fireburn uprising and its leaders continue to have a meaningful role in St. Croix.

2017 marked the 100-year anniversary of Denmark selling its colony of the Danish West Indies to the United States. With this centennial anniversary, conversations on the legacy of Danish–Norwegian colonization and slavery were reignited in the Scandinavian mainstream.[43][44] For example, the artists Jeannette Ehlers and La Vaughn Belle unveiled Denmark's first statue of a black woman, I Am Queen Mary, to memorialize Denmark's colonial impact.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Dansk Vestindia". Caplex. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  2. ^ Dookhan, Isaac (1974). "3: Danish Colonial Expansion". A History of the Virgin Islands of the United States. Kingston, Jamaica: Canoe Press (published 1994). p. 40. ISBN 9789768125057. Retrieved 7 September 2017. The Danes found no one living on St. Thomas when they landed. The English settlers who had occupied the island after the end of the first Danish settlement, had left six or seven weeks before, though the reason for their departure is not known. [...] Denmark's long association with the Virgin Islands began with this occupation of St. Thomas in 1672.
  3. ^ a b "Sydbank | Din bank til private og erhverv". Sydbank (in Danish). Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  4. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). web.archive.org. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2022. Cite uses generic title (help)
  5. ^ a b "www.soe.dk". web.archive.org. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  6. ^ Dookhan, Isaac (1994). A history of the Virgin Islands of the United States. Kingston, Jamaica: Canoe Press. ISBN 976-8125-05-5. OCLC 31432296.
  7. ^ "www.soe.dk". web.archive.org. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  8. ^ "www.soe.dk". web.archive.org. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  9. ^ Dookhan, Isaac. A History of the Virgin Islands of the United States. Canoe Press, 1974. ISBN 9768125055.
  10. ^ "St. John - History". Virgin Islands. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  11. ^ "St. John - History". Virgin Islands. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  12. ^ a b "SJHS | Danish Struggle to Colonize St. John". web.archive.org. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  13. ^ Stewart, K. J., (1864). A Geography for Beginners. Richmond, Va: J W Randolph.
  14. ^ DK (30 March 2017). What's Where on Earth? Atlas: The World as You've Never Seen It Before!. Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN 9780241308691.
  15. ^ Simonsen, Gunvor (2021). "Digital Resources: Study of Danish Activities in the Caribbean". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199366439.013.763. ISBN 9780199366439. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  16. ^ "Water Island History - the Military History of Water Island".
  17. ^ a b "History: St. Criox, United States Virgin Islands Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved On 14 January 2012
  18. ^ "Historical Synagogue".
  19. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, III: The Nineteenth Century Outside Europe: The Americas, the Pacific, Asia and Africa. (1961) pp 278-79
  20. ^ "Timeline of the Virgin Islands" (PDF). Sara Smollett. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  21. ^ Gøbel, Erik (2011). "Danish Shipping Along the Triangular Route, 1671–1802: Voyages and conditions on board". Scandinavian Journal of History. 36 (2): 135–155. doi:10.1080/03468755.2011.564065. S2CID 143440637.
  22. ^ Kitchin, Thomas (1778). The Present State of the West-Indies: Containing an Accurate Description of What Parts Are Possessed by the Several Powers in Europe. London: R. Baldwin. p. 21.
  23. ^ Gøbel, Erik (2011). "Danish Shipping Along the Triangular Route, 1671–1802: Voyages and conditions on board". Scandinavian Journal of History. 36 (2): 135–155. doi:10.1080/03468755.2011.564065. S2CID 143440637.
  24. ^ Holly Kathryn Norton (2013). Estate by Estate: The Landscape of the 1733 St. Jan Slave Rebellion (PhD). Syracuse University. p. 90. ProQuest 1369397993.
  25. ^ a b Trolle Gronemann, Signe; Vindberg, Rikke (2005). "Begivenheder: 1733". SurtSødt (in Danish). Archived from the original on 26 June 2013.
  26. ^ Sebro, Louise (2013), "The 1733 Slave Revolt on the Island of St. John: Continuity and Change from Africa to the Americas", Scandinavian Colonialism and the Rise of Modernity, Contributions to Global Historical Archaeology, Springer New York, 37, pp. 261–274, doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-6202-6_15, ISBN 978-1-4614-6201-9
  27. ^ "St. John Slave Rebellion". St. John Off the Beaten Track. Sombrero Publishing Co. 2000. Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2008.
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  29. ^ Exec. Order No. 2017-06-26 (June 26, 2017; in en) Governor of the US Virgin Islands. Retrieved on 3 July 2020.
  30. ^ "The Abolition of Slavery in the Danish West Indies and the Governor's Mulatto Mistress". New English Review. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Andersen, Astrid Nonbo. ""We Have Reconquered the Islands": Figurations in Public Memories of Slavery and Colonialism in Denmark 1948–2012." International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 26, no. 1 (2013): 57-76. Accessed 24 May 2021. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42636435.
  • Armstrong, Douglas V., et al. "Variation in venues of slavery and freedom: interpreting the late eighteenth-century cultural landscape of St. John, Danish West Indies using an archaeological GIS." International Journal of Historical Archaeology 13.1 (2009): 94–111.
  • Blaagaard, Bolette B. "Whose freedom? whose memories? commemorating Danish colonialism in St. Croix." Social Identities 17.1 (2011): 61–72.
  • Christensen, Rasmus. "‘Against the Law of God, of nature and the secular world’: conceptions of sovereignty in early colonial St. Thomas, 1672-1680." Scandinavian Journal of History (2021): 1-17.
  • Gøbel, Erik. "Danish trade to the West Indies and Guinea, 1671–1754." Scandinavian Economic History Review 31.1 (1983): 21-49. online
  • Green-Pedersen, Sv E. "The scope and structure of the Danish Negro slave trade." Scandinavian Economic History Review 19.2 (1971): 149-197. online
  • Hall, Neville A.T. "Maritime maroons: grand marronage from the Danish West Indies." in Origins of the Black Atlantic (Routledge, 2013) pp. 55-76. online
  • Hall, Neville. "Slave laws of the Danish Virgin Islands in the later eighteenth century." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 292.1 (1977): 174-186.
  • Hvid, Mirjam Louise. "Indentured servitude and convict labour in the Danish–Norwegian West Indies, 1671–1755." Scandinavian Journal of History 41.4-5 (2016): 541-564.
  • Jensen, Niklas Thode; Simonsen, Gunvor (2016). "Introduction: The historiography of slavery in the Danish–Norwegian West Indies, c. 1950-2016". Scandinavian Journal of History. 41 (4–5): 475–494. doi:10.1080/03468755.2016.1210880.
  • Mulich, Jeppe. "Microregionalism and intercolonial relations: the case of the Danish West Indies, 1730–1830." Journal of Global History 8.1 (2013): 72-94. online
  • Odewale, Alicia, H. Thomas Foster, and Joshua M. Torres. "In Service to a Danish King: Comparing the Material Culture of Royal Enslaved Afro-Caribbeans and Danish Soldiers at the Christiansted National Historic Site." Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage 6.1 (2017): 19-54.
  • Richards, Helen. "Distant garden: Moravian missions and the culture of slavery in the Danish West Indies, 1732-1848." Journal of Moravian History (2007): 55-74. online
  • Roopnarine, Lomarsh. "Contract labor migration as an agent of revolutionary change in the Danish West Indies." Labor History 61.5-6 (2020): 692-705.
  • Roopnarine, Lomarsh. Indian Indenture in the Danish West Indies, 1863-1873 (Springer, 2016).
  • Simonsen, Gunvor. "Sovereignty, Mastery, and Law in the Danish West Indies, 1672–1733." Itinerario 43.2 (2019): 283-304.
  • Simonsen, Gunvor. Slave Stories: Law, Representation, and Gender in the Danish West Indies. (ISD LLC, 2017) online.
  • Sircar, Kumar K. "Emigration of Indian Indentured Labour to the Danish West Indian Island of St. Croix 1863–68." Scandinavian Economic History Review 19.2 (1971): 133-148. online
  • Westergaard, Waldemar. The Danish West Indies under company rule (1671-1754): with a supplementary chapter, 1755-1917 (Macmillan, 1917) online.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 18°19′30″N 64°50′06″W / 18.3250°N 64.8350°W / 18.3250; -64.8350