|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Forxiga, Farxiga|
|Licence data||EMA: , US FDA:|
|Molecular mass||408.873 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Dapagliflozin (INN/USAN, trade name Farxiga in the US and Forxiga in the EU) is a drug of the gliflozin class, used to treat type 2 diabetes. It was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in partnership with AstraZeneca.
The FDA approved dapagliflozin on January 8, 2014 for glycemic control, along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes. The FDA approved the combination product dapagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride extended-release, called Xigduo XR, in October 2014.
In April 2012, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency issued a positive opinion on the drug. It is now marketed in a number of European countries.
Since dapagliflozin leads to heavy glycosuria (sometimes up to about 70 grams per day) it can lead to rapid weight loss and tiredness. The glucose acts as an osmotic diuretic (this effect is the cause of polyuria in diabetes) which can lead to dehydration. The increased amount of glucose in the urine can also worsen the infections already associated with diabetes, particularly urinary tract infections and thrush (candidiasis). Dapagliflozin is also associated with hypotensive reactions. There are concerns it may increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Mechanism of action
Dapagliflozin inhibits subtype 2 of the sodium-glucose transport proteins (SGLT2) which are responsible for at least 90% of the glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter mechanism causes blood glucose to be eliminated through the urine. In clinical trials, dapagliflozin lowered HbA1c by 0.6 versus placebo percentage points when added to metformin.
- Statement on a nonproprietory name adopted by the USAN council
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- "FDA approves Farxiga to treat type 2 diabetes". 8 January 2014.
- "US FDA approves once-daily XIGDUO™ XR tablets for adults with Type 2 Diabetes". http://www.astrazeneca.com/. 30 Oct 2014. Retrieved 5 Nov 2014.
- FDA (2015-05-15). "SGLT2 inhibitors: Drug Safety Communication - FDA Warns Medicines May Result in a Serious Condition of Too Much Acid in the Blood". Retrieved 19 May 2015.
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- UEndocrine: Internet Endocrinology Community
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- Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin, Added to Therapy of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With Inadequate Glycemic Control on Insulin, ClinicalTrials.gov, April 2009
- Trial Details for Trial MB102-020, Bristol-Myers Squibb, May 2009