Darbari Kanada

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Darbari Kanada
ThaatAsavari
Time of dayMidnight
ArohanaS R (R)g, (R)g M P d n S'
AvarohanaS' D N P M P (M)g, (M)g M (S)R, S
VadiG
SamavadiD
SynonymDurbari
Similar

Darbari Kanada, or simply Raga Darbari, (pronounced darbāri kānada), is a raga in the Kanada family, which is thought to have originated in Carnatic music and brought into Hindustani classical music by Miyan Tansen, the legendary 16th-century composer in emperor Akbar's court. This tradition is reflected in the name itself; Darbar is the Persian derived word in Hindi meaning "court." As the most familiar raga in the Kanada family, it may sometimes also be called Shuddha Kanada or pure Kanada. It belongs to the Asavari thaat.[1] This raag is called raaga Kaanada in Yakshagana.

It is also sometimes written as Durbari and Durbarikanada.[2]

In Hindustani classical music[edit]

Darbari is a grave raga, played deep into the night, considered to be one of the more difficult to master, and with the potential for profound emotional impact.[3] Darbari is a very serious raga and hence, slow and elaborate meend and andolan are generally more preferred than light and frivolous ornamentations like murki or khatka. The improvisation of Darbari is done more in the mandra saptak, or lower octave.

The ascension of arohana is in the lower and middle octaves. In the avarohana the note Ga (gandhar) komal is used in a slow vibrato (andolan) on this note. Similarly, komal Dha is also used by Andolan. The Andolan of komal Ga and komal Dha add to the gravity of the raga. The association of the notes Ni and Pa sounds pleasing. Its Vadi swara is Re and Samavadi is Pa.

arohana: S R (R)g, (R)g M P d n S'

avarohana: S' D N P M P (M)g, (M)g M (S)R, S

For reference, the set of notes in the Asavari thaat is S R g M P d n, and for Darbari, the role of the komal gandhar is crucial, as is dwelling on the lower komal dhaivat for some time.

Other ragas in the Kanada family include Nayaki Kanada, Abhogi Kanada, Shahana Kanada, Kaushi Kanada, Bageshree Kanada and Adana. (see Adana is part of the Kanada Raga group)

Important recordings[edit]

  • Amir Khan, Raagaas Maarwa and Darbaari, Odeon LP (long-playing record), ODEON-MOAE 103, later reissued by HMV as EMI-EALP1253, critically regarded as a benchmark for both Maarwa and Darbaari.
  • Pt. D. V. Paluskar, Jhanak Jhanakva More Bitchuwa, Golden Milestones, D. V. Paluskar. This is actually closer to raag Adaana than Darbaari.

In Carnatic music[edit]

It is an ubhaya vakra sampurna rāgam derived from the 20th melakarta rāgam Natabhairavi.[4] Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on the notations used):

This scale uses the notes chatusruti rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham, kaisiki nishadham.[4]

Compositions in Carnatic music[edit]

Pâdodhi Kanyakâm by Kalyani Varadarajan

Film Songs[edit]

Language: Tamil[edit]

Song Movie Composer Singer
Mullai Malar Mele Uthama Puthiran G. Ramanathan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Bagavaane Mounam Eno Rambaiyin Kaadhal T. R. Pappa Seerkazhi Govindarajan
Chinna Siriya Vannaparavai Kungumam K. V. Mahadevan T. M. Soundararajan, S. Janaki
Azhagu Dheivam Pesum Dheivam K. V. Mahadevan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Ponn Enbean Siru Policekaran Magal Viswanathan-Ramamoorthy P. B. Sreenivas, S. Janaki
Vasanthathil Orr Naal Moondru Dheivangal M. S. Viswanathan P. Susheela
Kelviyin Nayagane Apoorva Raagangal M. S. Viswanathan Vani Jairam
Maruthamalai Maamaniye Dheivam Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan Madurai Somu
Isaimedaiyil Intha Velayil Ilamai Kaalangal Illayaraja S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Poomaalai Vaangi Vanthaan Sindhu Bhairavi Illayaraja K.J. Yesudas
Kalyana Thennila Mounam Sammadham Illayaraja K.J. Yesudas, K.S. Chitra
Agaya Vennilavey Arangetra Velai Illayaraja K.J. Yesudas, Uma Ramanan
Marugo Marugo Sathileelavathi Illayaraja Kamal Haasan, K.S. Chitra
Mannava Mannava Walter Vetrivel Illayaraja Sunandha
Enakku Piditha Paadal (Jonpuri Traces) Julie Ganapathi Illayaraja Vijay Yesudas, Shreya Ghoshal
Antha Indira Logame Ponnu Pidichirukku Chandrabose S. Janaki
Pudhu Vellai Mazhai Roja A. R. Rahman Unni Menon, Sujatha Mohan
Kaatre En Vasal Rhythm A. R. Rahman P. Unnikrishnan, Kavita Krishnamurthy
Kelamal Kaiyile Azhagiya Tamil Magan A. R. Rahman Sriram Parthasarathy, Saindhavi
Oru Deivam Thantha Poove Kannathil Muthamittal A. R. Rahman P. Jayachandran, Chinmayi
Thenmerku Paruva Kaatru Karuththamma A. R. Rahman P. Unnikrishnan,K.S. Chitra,Vikram
Naane Varugiren Ok Kanmani A. R. Rahman Sathya Prakash, Shashaa Tirupati
Malare Mounama Karnaa Vidyasagar S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Nee Kaatru Naan Maram Nilaave Vaa Vidyasagar Hariharan, K.S. Chitra
Atri Thingal Sivappathigaram Vidyasagar Madhu Balakrishnan, Sujatha Mohan
Orey Manam Villain (2002 film) Vidyasagar Hariharan, Nithyasree Mahadevan
Ennai Konja Konja Aathi Vidyasagar Hariharan, Sujatha Mohan
Malaikaatru vanthu Vedham Vidyasagar Hariharan, Mahalakshmi Iyer
Thenamara Thoopukulle Therku Theru Machan Deva S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Tajmahale Periya Thambi Deva Hariharan, Anuradha Sriram
Enthan Kural Kettu Gokulathil Seethai Deva K.S. Chitra
Vinnothaney Thennavan Yuvan Shankar Raja Srinivas, Mahalakshmi Iyer
Irava Pagala Poovellam Kettuppar Yuvan Shankar Raja Hariharan, Sujatha Mohan
Pookal Pookum Madrasapattinam G. V. Prakash Kumar Roop Kumar Rathod, Harini, Andrea Jeremiah & G. V. Prakash Kumar
Azhagu Saivam G. V. Prakash Kumar Uthara Unnikrishnan(National Award for Best Female playback singer)
Manasellam Mazhaiye Saguni G. V. Prakash Kumar Sonu Nigam, Saindhavi & G. V. Prakash Kumar
Uyirin Uyire Thaandavam G. V. Prakash Kumar Saindhavi, G. V. Prakash Kumar,Sathya Prakash
Nee Malaraa Malaraa Arputham Shiva P. Unnikrishnan, K.S. Chitra
Chillendru Ezhumalai Mani Sharma S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sujatha Mohan
Konjam Thenkasi Thenkasi Pattanam Suresh Peters K.S. Chitra,Srinivas,Sriram

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S R  S M P   
    • Western: C D E C F G A B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:    P M P  R S
    • Western: C A B G F G E D C

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hindustani Sangeetha Paddhati (4 volumes, Marathi) (1909–1932). Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. Sangeet Karyalaya (1990 reprint). ISBN 81-85057-35-4.This book, which establishes the Thaat system, has been widely translated.
  2. ^ Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
  3. ^ Rajan P. Parrikar (2000-12-11). "The Kanada Constellation (Part 1/3)". South Asian Women's Forum. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
  4. ^ a b Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications

External links[edit]