Darboux's formula

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In mathematical analysis, Darboux's formula is a formula introduced by Gaston Darboux (1876) for summing infinite series by using integrals or evaluating integrals using infinite series. It is a generalization to the complex plane of the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula, which is used for similar purposes and derived in a similar manner (by repeated integration by parts of a particular choice of integrand). Darboux's formula can also be used to derive the Taylor series of the calculus.

Statement[edit]

If φ(t) is a polynomial of degree n and f an analytic function then

The formula can be proved by repeated integration by parts.

Special cases[edit]

Taking φ to be a Bernoulli polynomial in Darboux's formula gives the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula. Taking φ to be (t − 1)n gives the formula for a Taylor series.

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