Pelophylax nigromaculatus

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Pelophylax nigromaculatus
Pelophylax nigromaculatus s1.JPG
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Ranidae
Genus: Pelophylax
Species: P. nigromaculatus
Binomial name
Pelophylax nigromaculatus
(Hallowell, 1861)
Synonyms[2]

Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861 "1860"
Rana marmorata Hallowell, 1861 "1860"
Hoplobatrachus reinhardtii Peters, 1867
Hoplobatrachus davidi David, 1873 "1872"
Hylarana nigromaculata (Hallowell, 1861)

Pelophylax nigromaculatus (formerly Rana nigromaculata), is a species of true frog found in East Asia, first described in 1861. This widespread and common frog has many common names, including dark-spotted frog, black-spotted pond frog, and black-spotted frog.[1][2]

Occurrence[edit]

It occurs across much of eastern and northeastern China, the Amur River valley in Russia, the Korean Peninsula, and most of Japan, although it does not occur on Hokkaidō.[2][3] It has been considered the commonest of the true frogs on the Korean Peninsula, and has been hunted for food and used as an experimental animal.[4] There is an introduced population in Turkmenistan.[3]

Habitat[edit]

The dark-spotted frog is a relatively low-altitude species, not being found above 2200 m. It ranges across a variety of habitats, from deserts and bushland to meadows and forests, and is typically found in or near stagnant or slow-moving water. Although relatively tolerant of human interference, it is increasingly threatened by hunting and water pollution.[1]

Description[edit]

Adult males measure about 62 mm (2.4 in) and females 74 mm (2.9 in) in snout–vent length.[5] The dorsal colouration varies from grey to greyish-olive, olive, and green. There are usually large dark spots, a light mid-dorsal line, and two lines on dorso-lateral folds. The belly is white. The toes are webbed. Males have a paired vocal sac and nuptial pads on the first finger.[3]

Mating season occurs soon after hibernation. Maturation probably occurs at an age of two years, and the total life span may reach 13 years.[3] The clutch size is 1800–3000[1] or 600–5000 eggs.[3] The eggs are laid in shallow water.[1]

Parasites[edit]

Protoopalina pingi,[6] a parasite of the rectum of Pelophylax nigromaculatus in China

Parasites of this frog include the opalinid Protoopalina pingi in the rectum.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Kuzmin, S.; Maslova, I.; Tuniyev, B.; Matsui, M.; Li, P. & Kaneko, Y. (2004). "Pelophylax nigromaculatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell, 1861)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Pelophylax nigromaculatus". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
  4. ^ "참개구리 [Black-spotted pond frog]". Naver Encyclopedia (in Korean). Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  5. ^ "Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell, 1860)". AmphibiaChina (in Chinese). Kunming Institute of Zoology. 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Li, Weidong; Wang, Chong; Huang, Feng; Li, Ming; Nilsen, Frank; Liu, Huiyu; Xu, Jianlong (2014). "Redescription of Protoopalina pingi Nie, 1935 inhabiting the recta of Hylarana guentheri and Pelophylax nigromaculatus in China". Parasite. 21: 46. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014021.