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The Jedi // are the main protagonists in the Star Wars universe. They are depicted as an ancient monastic, academic, meritocratic and paramilitary organization whose origin dates back approximately 25,000 years before the events of the first film released in the franchise.
The Jedi Order mostly consists of polymaths: teachers, philosophers, scientists, engineers, physicians, diplomats and warriors. The Jedi value knowledge and wisdom, and serve others through acts of charity, citizenship, and volunteerism; this ideology is a recurring theme in the Star Wars universe. The Jedi denounce emotions as the root of mortal suffering; they believe fear, anger and love causes sentient beings to lash out in conflict and impede rational action to do what is right. Their traditional weapon is the lightsaber, a device which generates a blade-like plasma powered by a kyber crystal. The fictional organization has inspired a real-world new religious movement, Jediism.
- 1 Etymology of the word
- 2 Overview
- 2.1 Fictional backstory
- 2.2 Fictional Members
- 3 Beliefs and organization of the Old Jedi Order
- 3.1 The Jedi Code
- 3.2 The Four Councils
- 3.3 Ranks of authority and educational progress
- 3.4 Specializations and ocupations
- 3.5 Resources
- 4 Other force-sensitive organizations
- 5 Legends non-canonical portrayal of the Jedi Order
- 6 Real world cultural impact and critical response
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Etymology of the word
The word "jedi" is said to have been adapted by George Lucas from Japanese 時代劇 (jidaigeki) (meaning "period drama" motion pictures about samurai), or perhaps inspired by the words Jed (King) and Jeddak (Emperor) in the Barsoom series by Edgar Rice Burroughs, a series that Lucas considered adapting to film. The film Rogue One suggests that it relates to the planet Jedha, source of the kyber crystals used in lightsabers.
The term "padawan", which is used to refer to the fictional Jedi aprentices, appears to originate in Sanskrit and can be understood as “learner," both in Sanskrit and by contemporary native speakers of Sanskrit-based languages.
As depicted in the canon, the Jedi study and utilize the Force, in order to help and protect those in need. The Jedi members, known as Jedi Knights, respect all life by defending and protecting those who cannot do it for themselves, striving for peaceful and non-combative solutions to any altercations they encounter and fighting only in self-defense and for the defense of those they protect. Like their evil counterparts, the Sith, their main weapon is the lightsaber. By training the mind and the body, the Jedi seek to improve themselves by gaining unfettered access to the Force while also seeking to improve those individuals and groups they come in contact with.
The Lost Twenty
The Lost Twenty was the name given to a group of Jedi Masters—numbering twenty in total—who left the Jedi Order throughout its history. The first twelve of these ‘Lost Twenty’ left the Jedi Order before the Third Great Schism; these twelve Masters later became "Dark Jedi" who eventually founded the first Sith Empire. In the standard years preceding the Clone Wars, Jedi Master Dooku left the Jedi Order as a result of differences with his fellow Jedi, becoming the twentieth Jedi Master in the history of the Order to do so. To commemorate these former Jedi, memorial statue busts were displayed at the Jedi Temple on Coruscant.
Twilight of the Old Republic
The prequel films depict the Jedi in their prime, dealing with the rising presence of the dark side of the Force and determined to fight their mortal enemies, the Sith. In Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999), Jedi Master Qui-Gon Jinn (Liam Neeson) discovers nine-year-old Anakin Skywalker (Jake Lloyd), whom he believes to be the "Chosen One" of a Jedi prophecy who is destined to bring balance to the Force; the boy is eventually paired with Qui-Gon's apprentice, the young Obi-Wan Kenobi (Ewan McGregor), who promises to train him. The sequel, Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones, establishes that the Jedi forswear all emotional attachments, including romantic love, which proves problematic when Anakin, now a young adult (Hayden Christensen), falls in love with Padmé Amidala (Natalie Portman), whom Qui-Gon Jinn and Obi-Wan Kenobi had served ten years before. In Revenge of the Sith, Palpatine (Ian McDiarmid), who is later revealed to be Darth Sidious, the Dark Lord of the Sith, manipulates Anakin's love for Padmé and distrust of the Jedi in order to turn him to the dark side and become his Sith apprentice, Darth Vader. Once corrupted, Vader helps Palpatine hunt down and destroy nearly all of the Jedi, leaving very few left, such as Jedi Masters Yoda and Obi-Wan Kenobi, and Anakin’s former Padawan, Ahsoka Tano.
In accordance with Order 66, for crimes of "sedition and high-treason" against the Galactic Republic, the Jedi are nearly exterminated by the Clone Army and Sith Lord Darth Sidious, with Obi-Wan Kenobi and Yoda among a handful of survivors. The first person to be issued this order was Clone Commander Cody (who until then was under the command of Jedi General Kenobi). Darth Vader led Operation: Knightfall against the Jedi Temple with the 501st Legion while the rest of the clone army around the galaxy carried out Order 66. Palpatine convinced the people of the Republic that Jedi were corrupted warmongers responsible for prolonging the Clone Wars; the Jedi became universally hated with huge bounties placed on them. Darth Vader continued to hunt and execute surviving Jedi during the first 10 years of the Empire's history.
Rebellion Against the Galactic Empire
The Jedi are first introduced in the 1977 motion picture Star Wars as an order of warrior monks who serve as "the guardians of peace and justice in the galaxy" and embrace the mystical Force. Obi-Wan Kenobi (Alec Guinness) explains that the Galactic Empire had all but exterminated the Jedi some twenty years before the events of the film, and seeks to train Luke Skywalker (Mark Hamill) to be the Jedi Order's last hope. Darth Vader (David Prowse/James Earl Jones) is also established as the Jedi's main enemy. By the end of the film, Luke is on the path to becoming a Jedi. In the sequel, The Empire Strikes Back, Luke receives extensive Jedi training from the elderly (and only surviving) Jedi Master Yoda (Frank Oz), even as he learns that Vader is, in fact, his father, former Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker. The third film in the original trilogy, Return of the Jedi, ends with Luke redeeming Vader and helping to destroy the Empire, thus fulfilling his destiny as a Jedi.
Fall of the New Jedi Order
In the sequel-trilogy film series however, Luke's attempts to restore the Jedi Order took a turn for the worse instead when one of his apprentices, his nephew Ben, is drawn to the Dark side by Supreme Leader Snoke and becomes Kylo Ren. He is convinced to destroy all that Luke has built, murdering most of Luke's apprentices in the occasion. Since Ren fell to the dark side of the force, a heartbroken Luke, the last remaining Jedi, takes shelter in a reclusive planet at the edge of the galaxy to find the first jedi-temple.
The exact size of the Pre-Purge Jedi's membership and operations are never specified. However, in the Star Wars Rebels episode "Path of the Jedi", Kanan Jarrus stated: "...There were around 10,000 Jedi Knights defending the galaxy. Now, we are few. But in those days, we had small outposts, temples spread throughout the stars. The Empire sought out these temples and destroyed many of them..."
- Before the films -(About 10'000 Jedi are active. Among them Yoda and Mace Windu. Yoda trains Count Dooku, and Count Dokuu trains Qui-Jon.)
- Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (Qui-jon trains Obi-wan Kenobi, the Sith Lord Darth Maul kills Qui-jon.) -[Film]
- Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (Obi-wan Kenobi trains Anakin Skywalker, and Count Dooku is revealed to have become the Sith Lord, Darth Tyranus.) -[Film]
- Star Wars: The Clone Wars film and series ()-[Animated Series]
- Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith (Anakin Skywalker ceases to be a Jedi, and becomes the Sith known as Vader under Sidious teachngs, and along the Cloone-troopers executes Order 66 and kills all Jedi, except Obi-wan Kenobi and Yoda.)-[Film]
- Star Wars Rebels (Kenobi and Yoda remain in exile. Kanan Jarrus is revealed to have survived, and he trains Ezra Bridger, Kanaan dies and Ezra Bridger fate is unknowwn.)-[Animated Series]
- Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (Obi-wan Kenobi and Yoda, but Kenobi is killed by Darth Vader. Yoda does not appear in the film.)-[Film]
- Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (Yoda trains Anakin's son Luke, despite his death Obi-wan Kenobi still exist as Force ghost.)-[Film]
- Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (Yoda and Luke Skywalker, until Yoda dies leaving Luke as the last remaining Jedi alive. Darth Vader becomes the Jedi, Anakin Skywalker but dies shortly after. Luke remains the last Jedi alive, while Kenobi, Yoda, and Anakin, still exist as Force ghosts.)-[Film]
Yoda was a wise, experienced, and powerful Grand Master of the Jedi of an unknown species and the oldest known prophet (at least 900+ years) in existence, considered the wisest and most powerful Jedi Master within the Star Wars universe. He was knighted at age 100, and spent the next eight centuries mentoring several generations of Jedi, about 20,000 of which he took as Padawans. During this period, the green Jedi Master formed good relations with the Wookies of Kashyyyk on numerous occasions, such as when he saved their Terentatek.
Mace Windu was a male human Jedi Weapons Master of the High Council and one of the last members of the Order's upper echelons before the fall of the Galactic Republic. Born into a tribe of nomads on the planet Haruun Kal, Windu was offered to Jedi anthropologists as a blessing to regain his people's connection to the Force when he was 6 months old, sometime after his parents died in the bordering jungle. He was taken as a Padawan by Mirialan Jedi Master Cyslin Myr, and began using a unique talent of seeing "shatterpoints", or faultlines in the Force that could affect the destinies of certain individuals, and indeed the galaxy itself. Knighted early in his career, the esteemed Windu progressed up the Jedi ranks until reaching his place on the Council, from which he was known as one of the most powerful Jedi and possibly the greatest swordsman of his time. He first appeared in Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace, where he expressed doubt of regarding Qui-Gon Jinn's conclusion on Darth Maul (who attacked him on Tatooine during the mission to escort Queen Amidala of Naboo from her Trade Federation-blockaded homeworld), but nonetheless assured the Council that their full resources would be utilized to verify the theory that the Sith could have returned. The weapons master was even the most reluctant to train young Anakin Skywalker (who Jinn believed was the prophesied Chosen One) at Jinn's request. In Star Wars: Episode II - Attack of the Clones, led a party of 200 Jedi on a mission to rescue Obi-Wan Kenobi, Anakin Skywalker and Padme Amidala from Separatist captivity on Geonosis, where he was able to defeat and kill the bounty hunter Jango Fett in the battle that followed. in the Clone Wars, serving the Republic as an overseer of the war effort and advisor to Supreme Chancellor Sheev Palpatine as well as taking part in such conflicts such as the Battles of Malastare and Dantooine.
Qui-Gon Jinn was a wise and powerful male human Jedi Master, and the Master of Obi-Wan Kenobi. Unlike other, more conservative Jedi, he values living in the moment as the best way to embrace the Force. While other Jedi respect him highly, they are frequently puzzled by his unorthodox beliefs and ultimately deny him a seat on the Jedi Council, despite him being among the wisest and most powerful of the Jedi.
Obi-Wan Kenobi was a male human Jedi Master who initiated Anakin and Luke Skywalker to the Jedi arts and served as a central character during the events of the Clone Wars. Obi-Wan proved himself an adept strategist, duelist, and spy, as his leadership style heavily favored subterfuge and misdirection while commanding clone troopers, or wielding the Force.
Anakin Skywalker was a human male Jedi Knight and main protagonist of the prequel trilogy. He was apprenticed to Obi-Wan Kenobi and proved to be a very gifted duelist and Force user, being appointed to the Jedi High Council at the age of 23, though being denied the rank of Master. He secretly married Padme Amidala and had two children. He eventually fell to the Dark Side and became Darth Vader. While he was not technically a Jedi Master, he was a member of the Old Jedi Council, and trained a Padawan of his own, Ahsoka Tano during the Clone Wars, who dutifully called him "Master".
Kanan Jarrus was a human male Jedi who fought for the Rebellion during its formation. First introduced as a principle character of the animated television series Star Wars Rebels, Jarrus is known to be the leader of a small rebel cell called the Spectres, operating on the planet Lothal. As a survivor of Order 66, Jarrus is forced to break certain Jedi traditions to avoid being detected by Imperial forces that continue their mission to eliminate any Jedi on sight, such as eschewing traditional Jedi robes or occasionally using a blaster, a weapon typically shunned by Jedi. After the Spectres rescued the young Ezra Bridger, Jarrus discovered his Force potential and successfully trains him to become a Jedi. As he trains Bridger and battles Imperial forces, Jarrus' actions draw the attention of the Imperial Inquisitorius, a special task force of Force-attuned individuals who are specialized in hunting and eliminating Jedi, and he occasionally crosses paths with them. Jarrus later earned the title of Jedi Knight during his conflict with the Inquisitors, but shortly after the last of them were defeated at the Sith temple on Malachor, he was betrayed and blinded by the former Sith Lord known only as Maul, who assisted in eliminating them solely to pursue his own goals. Kanan then continued serving the Rebellion as it faced the Imperial tactician Grand Admiral Thrawn, before sacrificing his own life to help his fellow cell members succeed in rescuing one of their own, while simultaneously disrupting production of the Imperial TIE Defender, a powerful starfighter that could have doomed the growing Rebellion.
Luke Skywalker was a male human Grand Master of the Jedi and the protagonist of the Star Wars original trilogy. As the last Padawan of Obi-Wan Kenobi, he became an important figure in the Rebel Alliance's struggle against the Galactic Empire. Luke is heir to a family deeply rooted in the Force, being the twin brother of Rebellion leader Princess Leia Organa of the planet Alderaan, the son of former Queen of Naboo and Republic Senator Padmé Amidala and Jedi turned Sith Lord Darth Vader (Anakin Skywalker), and the maternal uncle of Ben Solo. After redeeming his father from the Dark Side of the Force, Luke set out to train a new generation of Jedi to rebuild the Order, only to have them wiped out by Ren. Skywalker then spent the rest of his life in exile on Ahch-To, with a final heroic act of using Force Projection to distract Ren and help the Resistance flee the planet Crait.
Rey (Star Wars) was a human female Jedi Padawan and Scavenger and one of the main protagonists of the sequel trilogy. She is allied with the Resistance and helped to find Luke Skywalker. She found him on the planet of Ahch-To where he spent the rest of his life. She is also the pilot of the Millennium Falcon with Chewbacca. As the Padawan of Luke Skywalker, She proved that she is powerful with the force and good at dueling. She is now currently the Last Living Jedi since Skywalker joined The Force.
Beliefs and organization of the Old Jedi Order
The Jedi Code
The Jedi Code was a set of rules that governed the behavior of the Jedi Order. It taught its followers to not give in to feelings of anger toward other lifeforms, which would help them resist fear and prevent them from falling to the dark side of the Force.
There is no emotion, there is peace.
There is no ignorance, there is knowledge.
There is no passion, there is serenity.
There is no chaos, there is harmony.
There is no death, there is the Force.
George Lucas acknowledged Jedi, Sith, and other Force concepts have been inspired by many sources. These include: knighthood chivalry, paladinism, samurai bushido, Shaolin Monastery, Feudalism, Hinduism, Qigong, Greek philosophy, Greek mythology, Roman history, Roman mythology, parts of the Abrahamic religions, Confucianism, Shintō, Buddhism and Taoism, not to mention countless cinematic precursors. The works of philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and mythologist Joseph Campbell, especially his book The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949), directly influenced Lucas, and was what drove him to create the 'modern myth' of Star Wars.
The Four Councils
The Four Branches of the Jedi Council was an organized body of Jedi, serving the Jedi Order as an administrative body that governed the Order's academies, temples, and organizations such as the Jedi Service Corps.
Jedi High Council
The Jedi High Council (or Jedi Council) is the main ecclesiastical leadership of the Jedi Order, which is a spiritual, philosophical and paramilitary organization. The Jedi High Council is made up of some of the strongest, wisest and most powerful members of the Jedi Order and are elected to lead the Jedi.
Council of First Knowledge
The Council of First Knowledge administrated the Temple-based academy and its curriculum, and funded scholar's scientific research. To this end, the Council guarded and maintained the Temple Archives and its holocron vaults, as well as the "Shadow program" at the Jedi Temple: Jedi Sentinels tasked with hunting down Sith artifacts.
Council of Reconciliation
The Council of Reconciliation is a fictional institution from the Star Wars universe. It dealt with the Galactic Senate and the Republic Diplomatic Corps in order to help bring diplomatic resolutions to conflicts and end political standoffs. The first face of the Republic presented to worlds interested in joining the Republic, this Council would dispatch diplomats and ambassadors to moderate debate and hammer out treaties
Council of Reassignment
The Council of Reassignment is a fictional institution from the Star Wars universe. It ran the Jedi Service Corps and each of its branch councils. Organizing work for those Initiates who failed out of the academy and Knights with special talents, the Reassignment Council oversaw this branch's missions and assignments.
Members of the Order progress through four educational stages, at times referred to as levels:
Initiation is the first part of Jedi training; they are mentored by Jedi Masters in rudimentary control over the Force and basic self-defense techniques.
Most Initiates were typically Youngling (a child Jedi-in-training) receiving early and first-class education. When Jedi Sentinels discover or test a suitable "force-sensitive" candidate, they are taken to the Jedi Academy at the age of 5 (depending on the species and arbitrary years) with the parent's permission. Jedi scholarship educations are considered prestigious, as most parents are portrayed as either happy or proud of the opportunity, but sad since they are unlikely to see their child again before adulthood. Younglings were seen training under Jedi Master Yoda in a scene on Attack of the Clones and hiding during the assault on the Jedi Temple in Revenge of the Sith.
The “Young Jedi” story arc and the episode “Path of the Jedi” explored the Jedi tradition called "The Gathering"; where initiates traveled to the "Crystal Caves" to harvest kyber crystals, which they would use to build their first lightsabers. Crystals were attuned to individual Jedi and lacked color. The Force spoke to each of the younglings through their crystals. To find their crystal, each initiate had to learn a lesson: courage, hope, patience, trust, confidence, and selflessness.
An Initiate who successfully completes "fundamental training" is given a second-class education and then undergoes Padawan training under the tutelage of Mentor (usually a Jedi Knight or Jedi Master). They are also called "Apprentices" and "Padawan learners". As a rite of passage and the final test before the trials to knighthood, Padawans must build their own lightsabers. In the Old Republic, Padawans usually wore a hair braid on the right side of their head which was removed with a lightsaber upon attaining knighthood. They also served as Commanders in the Clone Wars. The term "padawan" appears to originate in Sanskrit and can be understood as “learner," both in Sanskrit and by contemporary native speakers of Sanskrit-based languages.
Disciplined and experienced, Jedi Knights become so only when they have completed "the trials" (final tests) and may continue to pursue a third-class education (see below) to obtain the equivalent of a habilitation or post-doctoral degree. As the most common rank, it is interchangeably referred to as "Jedi", "Jedi Knight" and "Master Jedi" (although the latter are honorifics used only by Younglings and Padawans when addressing Jedi Knights or above).
The five tests are usually known as Trial of Skill, the Trial of Courage, the Trial of the Flesh, the Trial of Spirit, and the Trial of Insight (or Knowledge). In Return of the Jedi, Master Yoda gives his apprentice, Luke Skywalker, the trial of confronting Darth Vader for a second time so he might become a full-fledged Knight. Occasionally, performing an extraordinary (usually heroic) act can earn a Padawan learner Jedi status, such as when Obi-Wan Kenobi defeats the Sith Lord Darth Maul. By the time of the movies distinct "battle classes" were not necessary as the Republic had not seen war in over a thousand years, and the title of Knight was simply a rank once again.
Jedi Master is a term of respect used by beings who respect the Jedi. Regarded as among the most recognized polymaths in the known galaxy. Upon completion of vocational or postgraduate education, a Jedi Knight becomes a Jedi Master after successfully training a Padawan learner to Knight status. Though this is the most common manner, there are other ways of attaining the rank.
Specializations and ocupations
Various careers, occupations, ranks and titles were available to all Jedi. Upon a Padawan's ascension to "Knighthood-status", a Jedi pursued higher education or vocational education and training in a field of expertise. Before the Great Jedi Purge, Knights would choose a career based on preference, personal talents and skills, and were given the opportunity to join the Order of the Guardian, the Order of the Consular, or Order of the Sentinel. In addition to their specialization, in times of war the High Council could demand that the members of the Order assume military ranks in order to defend the Republic.
- Grand Master of the Jedi: The Grand Master is usually the oldest, most experienced and best trained of all Jedi. A Grand Master is voted unanimously by the Jedi High Council. The Grand Master dictates the organization's general policies while providing direction and guidance to the entire Jedi Order. Yoda and Luke Skywalker were Jedi Grandmasters.
- Master of the High Council: The Master of the High Council is elected by the Jedi High Council, which acts as chairman. Its chief responsibilities include; presiding over High Council meetings of the assembled group, conducts Jedi businesses in an orderly fashion, managing the particulars of the day-to-day administration of the Jedi Order, act as representative or spokesperson to the Galactic Senate, and serving as the Grand Master's junior partner. It is believed that Jedi Master Mace Windu filled this position at the time of the clone wars.
- Chief Librarian of the Archives: The overseer of the Jedi Archives, Holocron Vault, Librarian's Assembly and the Educational Corps. Second only to the Grand Master in administrative importance, the Chief Librarian worked closely with the Council of First Knowledge.
- Jedi General: A title given to those given commanding roles in the Grand Army of the Republic during the Clone Wars.
- Jedi Commander: This title was given to Jedi Padawans under the leadership of Jedi Knights and Jedi Masters with their roles as Jedi Generals in the Grand Army of the Republic during the Clone Wars.
- Jedi Guardian: Jedi Guardians focused all aspects of combat as an extension of their being, and trained on combining and perfecting their athletic, aviation and martial art skills with mastery of the Force. The Force skills studied by the Guardians were typically those used for quickly disabling an opponent and aiding in agility and stamina. Many were stationed within Republic planetary or sectoral government's security agencies where they worked as special peacekeepers and law enforcement agents, helping to quell riots and capture terrorists. The highest ranking Jedi Guardians were stationed at the Jedi academies as instructors tasked with passing down their experience to the young students of the Order. Those Jedi who mastered lightsaber-combat techniques (such as Mace Windu) were dubbed Weapon Masters and were among the greatest warriors of the Order.
- Jedi Consular: Jedi Consulars focused on further mastery of the Force and the sharpening of mental faculties, and wielded a lightsaber only for self-defense. Overseen by the Council of Reconciliation, Jedi Consular's were often called upon to act as impartial advisers, diplomats, and historians. Most Consulars specialized as historians, archivists, librarians, archaeology, geology, biology, mathematics, and astronomy; they contributed to the growth and preservation of the Jedi Archives as "Lore Keepers" directed by the Librarian's Assembly. Some Consulars worked closely with the Republic bureaucrats to assist in greeting unaligned governments and helping them join the Republic and given the authority to hammer out a compromise or treaty during tense negotiations, backed by the full support of the Senate and Jedi Order. Some Consulars joined the Circle of Jedi Healers (headquartered out of the Coruscant Temple's Halls of Healing) and focused on the medical and humanitarian aspects of the Force, manipulating the Living Force to perform the art of healing. Those Jedi specifically predisposed to receive visions through the Force were known as "Seers", maintaining and updating the Order's holocrons; the most perceptive of these Jedi (such as Yoda) were known as Prophets and foretold the future of the galaxy.
- Jedi Sentinel: Jedi Sentinels focused on diverse disciplines, applying their force abilities as engineers, technicians, intelligence and security experts. Most Sentinels were stationed at numerous locations for decades, to serve as liaison officers between the system or sector and the Republic. The anonymous "Jedi Temple Guard" Sentinels were charged with guarding the Jedi Temple. Some Sentinels aided police as detectives through the use of the Force . Since Republic law required all newborns undergo "Force-sensitivity" testing, Sentinels who worked as members of the Acquisition Division of the Order routinely tracked down and identified Force-sensitive children to assess whether they met the qualifications to receive training in the Jedi Order. The most elite Sentinels became "Shadows": the Jedi-secret police who worked under the supervision of the First Knowledge Council to destroy all remnants of the Sith.
Within the Star Wars universe, the Jedi are usually portrayed wearing simple robes and carrying specialized field gear for their missions. Their philosophical lifestyles mirror those of real-world religious vows and evangelical counsels, as their personal possessions are provided exclusively by the Jedi Order, and are only meant to allow self-sufficiency.
The most notable instrument wielded by a Jedi is the Lightsaber. Both Jedi and Sith use lightsabers, though the former regards one as a tool, the latter, a weapon. The Jedi's lightsabers emit cool colors, usually blue or green blades (sometimes yellow, or purple, as seen in the case of Mace Windu), while the Sith emit warm colors (red). Lightsabers can be of many different colors depending on the crystal fixture. Most Jedi use naturally formed crystals, whereas Sith tend to use synthetic crystals, which are usually red in color.
Eta-2 Actis Jedi Interceptors first appeared in Revenge of the Sith. Delta-7B Aethersprite Jedi starfighters appear in Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith. In Attack of the Clones, Obi-Wan Kenobi travels via Jedi starfighter to Kamino to investigate the attempted assassination of Padmé Amidala; he also flies a Jedi starfighter to Geonosis in an attempt to track down the bounty hunter Jango Fett. Lacking a hyperdrive, the starfighter relies on an external sled to propel it through hyperspace. Kenobi and Anakin Skywalker (Hayden Christensen) fly updated Jedi starfighters (called Jedi Interceptors) in the opening sequence of Revenge of the Sith. Later, Plo Koon (Matt Sloan) flies an Revenge of the Sith-era starfighter when he is shot down by clone troopers carrying out Emperor Palpatine's (Ian McDiarmid) Order 66.
The Jedi starfighter's triangular shape in Attack of the Clones stems from the shape of Imperial Star Destroyers in the original Star Wars trilogy. Industrial Light & Magic designer Doug Chiang identified the Jedi starfighter as one of the first designs that bridges the aesthetic between the prequel and original trilogies. Chiang noted that viewers' familiarity with the Star Destroyer's appearance and Imperial affiliation gives added symbolism to the Jedi craft's appearance and foreshadows the Empire's rise to power. The starfighter seen in Revenge of the Sith is a cross between the previous film's vessel and the Empire's TIE fighters from the original trilogy. Hasbro's expanding wings in the Attack of the Clones Jedi starfighter toy inspired the opening wings in the Revenge of the Sith vessel. The starfighter in the Revenge of the Sith is called a Jedi Interceptor Starfighter.
The Jedi Archives, known as The Great Library of Ossus or The Great Library of the Jedi, contained the galaxy's most priceless and ancient of texts sacred to Jedi scholars and archaeologists. Among these were Sith artifacts, considered by the Jedi Order to be the most dangerous artifacts in the galaxy, that were accessible only to those able to control the Dark Side of the Force.
The Jedi archives of the Jedi Temple in the movie Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones bear a startling resemblance to the Long Room of the Trinity College Library in Dublin. This resemblance resulted in controversy as permission had not been sought to use the building's likeness in the film. However, Lucasfilm denied that the Long Room was the basis for the Jedi archives, and officials from Trinity College Library decided not to take any legal action.
The Jedi academies were established to train Force-sensitive beings accepted into the Jedi Order in the ways of the Force. Overseen by the Council of First Knowledge, each academy was governed by an advisory Council appointed by their superiors on Coruscant. Mainstreaming the majority of teachings at the Temple, certain practices were permitted to vary from world to world. However, at all sanctioned academies, a group of Jedi Masters would instruct Initiates to the Order in the ways of the Force. The size of the school varied from world to world; some as small as to consist of a single clan of younglings, and as the large as the main academy housed within the Jedi Temple of Coruscant. Many academies had been established during the Old Sith Wars and were located in the Galactic Rim. Some were located on or near Force-wellsprings or places significant to the Order like crystal caves or nexuses of dark side energies that needed constant monitoring.
In addition to the traditional academies established by the Order, the Exploration Corps maintained several spacefaring mobile academies such as the Chu'unthor so that roaming the galaxy and exploring new worlds could be achieved while still teaching traditional doctrine.
By the fall of the Galactic Republic in 19 BBY, many of the ancient academies had been shut down for decades, with the Council of First Knowledge preferring the central teachings of the Coruscant Temple. After the dissolution of the Order during the Great Jedi Purge, all orthodox Temples and academies were routed and burned in order to prevent any more Jedi from learning the secrets of the Force. However, the Galactic Empire's chokehold on Force-education did not last and the Order was reformed following the conclusion of the Galactic Civil War. When Grand Master Luke Skywalker's New Order became a single class of twelve students including his nephw Ben Solo, whoever it was reduced to only himself when his nephew turned to the darkside and became Kylo Ren.
In the Star Wars prequel trilogy saga, the Jedi Temple is located on the capital planet of Coruscant. As the chief administrative headquarters, the Temple served the Order in three capacities: a monastery and library for the Jedi seeking enlightenment and to reflect on the will of the Force; an academy and training center for Jedi younglings and Padawans who endeavored to join the ranks of the Jedi Knights; and government, in which the Masters of the Jedi High Council guided the Order's direction. It was originally built atop an old "dark-side nexus" shrine during the birth of the Republic, so as to be symbolic to the Coruscant people that the tyrannical rule of the Sith was over.
In Revenge of the Sith, the Jedi Temple is attacked by clone troopers of the 501st Legion, led by the newly christened Darth Vader, who butchered the Jedi within and set the Temple alight. After the fall of the Jedi Order and the Galactic Republic, the Temple became the Palace of the Emperor and a location for his dark side artifacts. It would serve as Sidious' residence for over two decades until his death at the Battle of Endor in 4 ABY. The Temple is visible in the celebrations on Coruscant at the end of Return of the Jedi. After the destruction of the Sith, Luke Skywalker—the last of the Jedi—recovered fragments of a Force-sensitive tree that was once located at the heart of the Jedi Temple.
Architects' Journal rated the temple third on its top-ten architecture of Star Wars list behind the second Death Star and Jabba the Hutt’s palace on Tatooine, and ahead of Coruscant, the capital city of the Old Republic. The temple is described in the article as adapting "the robust typology of Mayan temples, with durasteel cladding specified for the external stone walls for improved defensive strength" and said to be a ziggurat that "is built above a Force-nexus and has ample room for training facilities, accommodation and the Jedi Archive." The temple has five towers, the tallest is Tranquillity Spire, that are stylistically similar to the minarets surrounding the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Star Wars Insider listed it as the one hundredth greatest thing about Star Wars in its one hundredth issue special.
Other force-sensitive organizations
Not every "Dark Side"-user is a Sith; nor is every "Light Side"-user a Jedi. Within the Star Wars Expanded Universe, people of all species have demonstrated varying "force-sensitive" powers and abilities. These "force-wielders" are often depicted with little to no formal Jedi training in the Force and originating from primitive planets.
The Sith Organization
Dark Side Adept
Dark Side Adept is an official term, used to describe someone with the power to use the dark side of the Force outside of the traditions of the Jedi or the Sith. They were often steeped in the lore of the dark side and opposed to those who used the light side, such as Jedi. While all Sith were technically "Dark Side Adepts", the term was not exclusive to them, as non-Sith individuals such as Asajj Ventress, Kylo Ren, and the Grand Inquisitor were considered Dark Side Adepts. Dark Side Adepts were referenced in passing in James Luceno's canon novel Tarkin.
Knights of Ren
Force-wielders without affiliation
Bendu debuted in the Star Wars Rebels season 3 episode, "Steps Into Shadow". Bendu was a Force-sensitive individual who resided on the remote planet of Atollon and represented the "center" of the Force, between the light side and the dark side. "Jedi and Sith wield the Ashla and Bogan. The light and the dark. I'm the one in the middle. The Bendu..." stated Bendu. He is depicted as one who seeks balance, and has been likened to Tom Bombadil of The Lord of the Rings. The term "Bendu" first appears in the original script for Star Wars as the name of the Jedi Knights, the "Jedi-Bendu".
Most notably, Anakin Skywalker's padawan Ahsoka Tano left the Jedi Order, and continued to wield the Force, she never affiliated or created any Force senitive organization.
Legends non-canonical portrayal of the Jedi Order
With the 2012 acquisition of Lucasfilm by The Walt Disney Company, most of the licensed Star Wars novels and comics produced since the originating 1977 film Star Wars were rebranded as Star Wars Legends and declared non-canon to the franchise in April 2014.
The Je'daii Order, precursors to the modern Jedi, studied and used both the light and dark sides of the Force equally. The preview issue of Dawn of the Jedi states that the Je'daii originated ten thousand years before the saga takes place (approximately 46,453 years BBY). They were more monk than warrior, and their capital was Tython in the Deep Core
The New Jedi Order
In novels set after the events of the film series, Luke Skywalker re-established the Jedi High Council as part of his New Jedi Order. The most notable difference between the format of the new council and the old is that only half of the council are made up of Jedi, while the other half consisted of politicians. Following the Yuuzhan Vong War, the Jedi withdrew their support from any one political entity and relocated to Ossus, where Luke had a full Jedi Council re-established.
In novels set after the events of the original-trilogy film series, The New Jedi Order was the restored and reformed Jedi organization, in the wake of the Great Jedi Purge and subsequent fall of the Galactic Empire. The Jedi Knights, reduced in number to only a handful, were slowly restored, primarily under the leadership of Grandmaster Luke Skywalker. Luke Skywalker abolished the traditional Master/Padawan system. He believed all Jedi should be both teachers and students; that they should both learn from and mentor each other, and not just from one Master.
Within the Expanded Universe, The New Jedi Order indicates that the Jedi Temple on Coruscant is no longer standing but it is rebuilt as a gift to Jedi for their services and achievements during the Yuuzhan Vong invasion. The new temple is in the form of a massive pyramid made from stone and transparisteel that is designed to fit into the new look of Coruscant, though internally it is identical to the design seen in Revenge of the Sith.
Real world cultural impact and critical response
The United States Army had a group of officers in the early 1980s who promoted maneuver warfare tactics, and who were derisively referred to as Jedi by more conventional officers who were satisfied with attrition tactics and methods.
In Star Wars and Philosophy, William Stephens compares the Jedi to Stoicism
To recap, the virtues the Jedi shares with the Stoic sage are patience, timeliness, deep commitment, seriousness (as opposed to frivolity), calmness (as opposed to anger or euphoria), peacefulness (as opposed to aggression), caution (as opposed to recklessness), benevolence (as opposed to hatred), joy (as opposed to sullenness), passivity (as opposed to agitation), and wisdom. Given all these virtues, Yoda certainly resembles what the ancient Stoics described as the sage—the ideal person who has perfected his reason and achieved complete wisdom.
Jedi have made their way into certain areas of pop culture, such as "Weird Al" Yankovic's song "The Saga Begins", a parody of "American Pie". In the film The Men Who Stare at Goats (2009), a reporter follows a former soldier who claimed to be a "Jedi warrior", a nickname for psychic spies in the US military.
One of the enduring influences the Star Wars saga has had in popular culture is the idea of the fictional Jedi values being interpreted as a modern philosophical path or religion, spawning various movements such as the Jediism (religious) and the Jedi census phenomenon.
On April 6, 2015, thousands of Turkish students raised their voices in campaigns to build Jedi and Buddhist temples at their universities, after a series of mosques were constructed on their campuses by rectors who stressed “huge demand.” A number of Dokuz Eylül University students in the western province of Izmir have demanded a Jedi temple to be built on their campus. "There are less and less Jedi left on the Earth... the nearest temple [is] billions of light years away," the petition says. It adds that "uneducated Padawan" are moving to the dark side... To recruit new Jedi and to bring balance to the Force, we want a Jedi temple,” said the petition that received more than 6,000 signatures on change.org, referring to the famed knights of the fictional Star Wars universe. The page on Change.org also features a still of Jedi Grand Master Yoda from "Star Wars: Episode II -- Attack of the Clones" teaching young Jedi how to use a light saber. The petition was started by Akin Cagatay Caliskan, an 18-year-old computer science student from Ankara: "We want freedom of worship. There are mosques everywhere, but no Jedi temple!" Caliskan says he is surprised by the impact his petition has made: "I did not expect so many supporters. I thought maybe it might [have] 100."
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