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The Dark Kingdom by Naoko Takeuchi. Left column: Jadeite, Zoisite, Kunzite, and Nephrite. Right column: Queen Metaria, Queen Beryl, and Endou.
|First appearance||Sailor Moon chapter #1: Usagi – Sailor Moon (December 1991)|
|Created by||Naoko Takeuchi|
|Base(s)||D Point, North Pole|
|Member(s)||Four Kings of Heaven
The Dark Kingdom (ダーク・キングダム Dāku Kingudamu?) is a group of fictional characters who serve as antagonists in the Sailor Moon manga series by Naoko Takeuchi. They are the primary antagonists of the first story arc in every version of the series. They are first introduced in chapter #1 of the manga, "Usagi – Sailor Moon", originally published in Japan's Nakayoshi on December 28, 1991. In some English adaptations of the anime, the Dark Kingdom's name is changed to "Negaverse".
The Dark Kingdom comes into being in the 20th century when those who served the evil Queen Metaria a millennia before in the battle that destroyed the civilization on the Moon are reawakened. The group is led by Queen Beryl and the Four Kings of Heaven and attempt to gather human energy with which to reawaken Metaria.
- 1 Creation and conception
- 2 Key figures
- 3 Four Kings of Heaven
- 4 Servants
- 5 Monsters
- 6 Reception
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Creation and conception
The Dark Kingdom is first referenced in Naoko Takeuchi's previous story Codename: Sailor V, which features Sailor Venus as main character confronting a group of villains called the Dark Agency. In the final volume of Codename: Sailor V, the Dark Agency is revealed to be a subset of the Dark Kingdom, which leads to the beginning of Sailor Moon. Takeuchi developed the Sailor Moon series, and the Dark Kingdom by extension, when Codename: Sailor V was proposed for an anime adaptation. The idea was dropped but Sailor Venus became part of a group along with Sailors Moon, Mercury, Mars and Jupiter, and instead of fighting the Dark Agency, they fought the Dark Kingdom.
The names of Queen Beryl and the Four Kings of Heaven are derived from minerals: beryl, jadeite, nephrite, zoisite, and kunzite. Kunzite's name is changed to Malachite in some English language versions. Several villains from subsequent arcs follow this pattern of using minerals as namesakes.
In the DIC Entertainment English adaptation, the Dark Kingdom's name is changed to the "Negaverse", a portmanteau of negative and universe.[not in citation given] Beryl and her cohorts use "Nega" as a common prefix to show their devotion to wickedness and to underscore their dimension's inherent negativity — e.g. "negapower", "negahistory". In the Cloverway English adaptation, references were made at first to "old enemies" but this was soon dropped entirely.
Queen Beryl (クイン・ベリル Kuin Beriru?), named after the mineral beryl, is the first main antagonist in the Sailor Moon series. Beryl has immense magical power, but she uses most of it to channel the life energy harvested by her servants to the entity called Queen Metaria. In most versions of the story, she has the ability to corrupt others into serving the powers of darkness. Her generals, for instance, were once the bodyguards and best friends of Prince Endymion, and in most versions of the story she is able to use her powers to sway Tuxedo Mask into her service.
Before the events of Sailor Moon, she is a young girl on Earth during the age of Silver Millennium. Beryl is in love with Prince Endymion, but her love is unrequited. After discovering Prince Endymion's relationship with Princess Serenity, she sides with Queen Metaria and is corrupted. Beryl mobilizes the Earth in a war against their protectors, the Silver Millennium. Beryl kills Prince Endymion while protecting Princess Serenity, leading to the princess' own suicide. Later, Sailor Venus kills Beryl with the holy moon sword. Queen Serenity seals away Metaria again, and sends the whole of her Kingdom to be reincarnated on Earth before she dies. Beryl is "reborn" in the 20th century, but finds Queen Metaria sealed within the Earth while traveling in the Arctic. She becomes Queen of the Dark Kingdom, communicating with Queen Metaria and wielding her reincarnated generals Jadeite, Nephrite, Zoisite, and Kunzite to find the "Legendary Silver Crystal" and defeat the newly awakened Sailor Soldiers. Queen Beryl is able to summon the reincarnated Prince Endymion, Mamoru Chiba, to her side, but only after he has been killed and merely exists as a mindless zombie. In the end she fails to get the Silver Crystal, and is again killed by Sailor Venus, who drives a sword through her body. As she falls, she says Endymion's name, and murmurs that she had always just been watching him. She is generally portrayed in a more tragic light in the manga than she is in the anime, even experiencing a brief moment of regret as she knows that she can no longer turn back.
In the anime adaptation, Queen Beryl attacks Tokyo while Usagi Tsukino, and later the other Sailor Soldiers, are searching for the Moon Princess. She also kidnaps and manipulates Mamoru in order to force him to kill his lover. But when he breaks free of her control and attacks her she lies in a swoon and begs Queen Metaria for more power, which results in Beryl becoming Metaria's vessel for the destruction of everything on Earth called Super Beryl. Queen Beryl is soon obliterated along with Metaria when Usagi, who has transformed into Princess Serenity, combines the power of the Silver Crystal with that of the Moon Stick. In the DIC English adaptation, she is the ruler of the Negaverse from which she is somehow able to escape in order to attack this dimension. Despite being an extra-dimensional monster in human form that was never born on Earth, Beryl has a similar origin because when she sees Tuxedo Mask without his mask, she recognizes his face and seeks to claim him as her own. Beryl has heard of love when Jadeite mentions it as a human phenomenon. She is, however, capable of carnal lust, as seen with her attraction to Darien. The DIC adaptation also changes Beryl's personality to become assertive, vindictive, power hungry, and possessive.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Beryl has the Four Kings of Heaven collect energy for Metaria, find the princess, and obtain the Silver Crystal. Despite this, Jadeite and Nephrite were rivals for her affections; Zoisite was more loyal to Prince Endymion than to her; and Kunzite had set his sights on taking Queen Metaria's power for himself. However, it was soon revealed that Beryl had revived the four and used her magic to bring them into her service, though only Jadeite and Nephrite are completely under her spell as they have forgotten their past memories. At one point, Beryl creates a shadow of herself, Mio Kuroki, who sets out to ruin Usagi Tsukino's reputation while being Beryl's eyes and ears. When she learns that Mamoru Chiba was Prince Endymion, Beryl forces him to come with her by showing him that she can easily kill the Four Kings of Heaven with Nephrite as an example. Once she has the object of her desire under her services, Beryl has Jadeite implant an item in Mamoru's body that will shorten his life when he is with Usagi. However, Mamoru still risks his life for Usagi and Beryl loses control over Metaria's actions due to the overuse of the Silver Crystal. She is killed when her castle crumbles under the stress of a distraught Princess using the Silver Crystal to destroy Earth. However, for all her sadness she is not alone, as Jadeite stays by her side after she removes her mind-control spell on him, saying that Beryl is his master by choice.
Beryl appears in the first musical, Gaiden Dark Kingdom Fukkatsu Hen and its revision, in a similar plot to the series' first story arc. She is then revived in the semi original musical Eien Densetsu and its revision by Sailor Galaxia, who merely uses her as a puppet to awaken Saturn. Beryl dies while protecting Sailor Moon from a stab by the evil Tuxedo Mask mud puppet, her last statement being, "This time I die for passion". Similarly, in Shin Densetsu Kourin Beryl kills the evil King Endymion mud puppet to give Sailor Moon a fighting chance against Galaxia. Several times in the musical, Beryl and Sailor Pluto share the song Onna no Ronsou which explains why betrayal by Endymion in the past killed Beryl's emotion of love. Each time this song is played, Sailor Pluto would always begin with "Because we are the same" or a similar phrase.
In the anime series, her voice actress is Keiko Han. During recording, this contrast resulted in occasional fits of giggles among the cast when Han would change from Luna's cute, catlike voice to the deep, evil tones of Queen Beryl. Sometimes, she would accidentally play Beryl with Luna's voice. In Sailor Moon Crystal, she is voiced by Misa Watanabe. In the DIC English adaptation, she is voiced by Naz Edwards, with Jill Frappier as a stand-in. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Cindy Robinson. In the stage musicals, Queen Beryl has been played by two actresses: Yuri Nishina and Akiko Miyazawa (who previously played Sailor Venus). In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, she is portrayed by adult J-pop idol Aya Sugimoto.
Queen Metaria (クイン・メタリア Kuin Metaria?) is a malignant, amorphous energy being, similar to the depersonalized Japanese god of evil Amatsu-Mikaboshi. She/it was born as a result of radioactivity in the Sun and is the true mastermind behind the Dark Kingdom. Like all arch-villains in the Sailor Moon manga, she is an incarnation of the final arch-villain, Chaos. While the first official English release of the anime in English spelled her name as "Metalia", it was a translation error and reprints of the manga in English as well as multiple reprints in Japanese have consistently depicted the character's name spelled as "Metaria" in Latin letters. The name is both a Latin word referencing being buried in the Earth (as she is in the manga), and a phonetic play on the word "metal".
Before the beginning of the series, when Prince Endymion and Princess Serenity are to be wed, Metaria corrupts the people on Earth who resents the union, such as Beryl, whose affections for Endymion were preyed on by Metaria. After the war, Metaria is sealed at the North Pole and placed in suspended animation. In the 20th century, Metaria manages to return a reborn Beryl to her service and orders her to find the Silver Crystal so it may be used to free Metaria. After Endymion's reincarnated form is captured, Metaria enters the young man's body to use him as a suitable host, letting Beryl die in battle. After Sailor Moon is forced to kill Endymion, Metaria is freed to resume her evil. She is eventually destroyed by Sailor Moon.
In the anime adaptation, Metaria is much the same, with a few exceptions. She eventually becomes powerful enough to resurrect on her own and then takes possession of the dying Beryl, transforming into a towering goddess-like creature referred to as Super Beryl. In the DIC English adaptation, her name was changed to the "Negaforce" and she is a god/demon-like creature to the peoples of the Negaverse. She always seems content to have Beryl do the actual work. Despite this, she is Beryl's primary adviser and responsible for Beryl's scheme. She is also more treacherous and manipulative as opposed to Metaria.
In the live-action series, Metaria lacks a personality other than the desire to destroy the world. Beryl originally intends to use the Silver Crystal to control Metaria, but later learns that the gem's power only makes Metaria stronger due to Usagi's rage transmitted through it. This escalates to the point where Beryl can no longer control the actions of her own Youma and fears that Metaria may destroy everything. During Acts 45-46, Metaria transfers her will into the strongest Youma at its service. In a vain attempt to stop Metaria, Endymion takes the creature into his own body with the intent of committing suicide to take it with him. This has nightmarish results, as Metaria takes control of Endymion and then uses him in an attempt to force Sailor Moon to use the Silver Crystal's power. Metaria's plan succeeds, but only after Sailor Moon is forced to kill Endymion. But Sailor Moon manages to revive Mamoru with the Silver Crystal's power, with Metaria gone for good.
In the anime series, her voice actresses are Noriko Uemura in the first series and Yōko Matsuoka in the anime reboot Sailor Moon Crystal. In the DIC English adaptation, she is voiced by Maria Vacratsis. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Mary Elizabeth McGlynn. In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, she was portrayed by Miyū Sawai.
Four Kings of Heaven
The Four Kings of Heaven (四天王 Shiten'ō?, lit. "Four Heavenly Kings") (Negacommanders in the DiC English dub) are the commanders of the Dark Kingdom working directly under Queen Beryl. They provide the major antagonistic force for the beginning of every version of the series—manga, anime, musicals, and live-action. The group's title, Four Heavenly Kings, comes from Buddhist mythology. Each member has epaulettes on his uniform, which indicate their respective ranks.
Before the events of the series, the Four Kings of Heaven originally function as the four guardians of Earth's crown prince Endymion. They are led astray during the time of the Silver Millennium, finally selling their souls to the Dark Kingdom and becoming Queen Beryl's servants. When reincarnated in the 20th century, they again fall prey to her and obey her every command, but retain a sense that they need to seek out their real master and aid him. They continue to appear after the first season as spirit-advisors to Mamoru, the reincarnation of Endymion. In the live-action series, their past becomes more frequently seen.
In the anime, the Four Kings of Heaven serve as Queen Beryl's servants but have no connection to Mamoru. Once they are killed, the four only appear in flashbacks afterwards. In the DIC English adaptation, the Four Kings of Heaven served as human-like beings from the Negaverse, an alternate dimension of evil, and had only a vague understanding of human ways.
In Sailor Moon Crystal, the Four Kings of Heaven, called the "Four Heavenly Kings" are kept alive beyond the time they died in the manga, which was one of the biggest deviations from the manga. They are able to discover their past lives, but are once again brainwashed by Queen Beryl. When they attempt to take down the Sailor Soldiers, Sailor Venus reveals that they and the Four Heavenly Kings were in love during their past lives in the Silver Millennium. When their brainwashing is broken, they remember everything only to be killed by Queen Metalia. After their death, they revert to stones, which form a shield for Mamoru when Usagi attempts to kill him.
The Four Kings of Heaven appear in several musicals. In many of them, they are paired with the Sailor Soldiers. In musical adaptations of the last arc, the Four Kings are revived by Sailor Galaxia to work under her service, but in some versions they betray her. The musical Kakyuu-Ouhi Kourin had a group that which called themselves the Neo Shiten'ou. The members of the Neo Shiten'ou were Kunzite, Hematite, Hiddenite, and Kalunite. There was no explanation for changing their names, but Hematite, Hiddenite, and Kalunite looked identical to Zoisite, Nephrite and Jadeite respectively. In La Reconquista, the Shitennou disguise themselves as a boy band known as Pandemic 4. The group consisted of Kunza, Jed, Nephra, and Zoi. The band appeared in the Pandemic Love game, in which they used the game to drain energy for Beryl, and had one song, Erosion Boy (イロージョンボーイ Irōjon Bōi?).
In the Sailor Moon: Another Story video game, the Four Kings of Heaven appear as ghosts who help four of the Sailor Soldiers get the respective gems of each of the Four Kings of Heaven when Mamoru ends up injured by the Opposito Soldier.
Jadeite (ジェダイト Jedaito?) is the first of the Four Kings of Heaven to appear. In her Materials Collection, Naoko Takeuchi describes him as being about 18 years old in appearance, making him the second-youngest, while in the live-action series he is the youngest. He is the head of the Dark Kingdom's Far-Eastern Division and is named after the mineral jadeite.
Jadeite's mission is to track down the Silver Crystal but eventually changes to gathering life energy to awaken Queen Metaria. He has very little interaction with the other Four Kings of Heaven, only briefly being seen with and mocked by Nephrite. He expresses an attraction to Sailor Mars and is the first one killed when Rei uses her Akuryo Taisan technique. After Jadeite's death, Nephrite vows to exact revenge as he preserves Jadeite's skeleton in a glass coffin. In the later side story Casablanca Memories, Zoisite also tries to avenge Jadeite. Jadeite is briefly revived and was able to remember the Golden Kingdom and his time as a military officer of Prince Endymion before being turned into the stone from which his name was derived. The piece of jadeite (along with the stones for the other three Kings of Heaven) were kept by Mamoru Chiba and he used them to call upon his Kings of Heaven for advice.
In the first anime adaptation, hunting energy is Jadeite's primary mission. He is misogynystic towards women. After failing numerous times Queen Beryl freezes Jadeite to death for his incompetence and Nephrite succeeds him. In the live-action series, Jadeite is totally subservient to Beryl, for which she rewards him with her favor, sending him on missions that range from gathering energy to spying on his fellow warriors to attacking the Sailor Guardians directly. He disappears early in the series reverting to crystalline form due to an injury from one of his battles, but is revived by Metaria. Firmly loyal to Beryl, he rejects Endymion as his true master until the series finale where he stays with Beryl as her castle collapses around her.
In Sailor Moon Crystal, Jadeite survives the battle against Sailor Mars, but Beryl sends Nephrite to fulfill their mission. In his past life, he was the love-interest of Sailor Mars. He is killed by Queen Metalia along with the other Kings of Heaven in Episode 12.
In the original Japanese series, he is voiced by Masaya Onosaka. In Crystal, he is voiced by Daisuke Kishio. In the DIC English adaptation, his name was changed to Jedite and is voiced by Tony Daniels. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Todd Haberkorn. In the live-action series he was portrayed by Jun Masuo, and was portrayed in the musicals by Susumu Futabashi and Yuhka Asami.
Nephrite (ネフライト Nefuraito?) is the second of the Four Kings of Heaven to appear. Takeuchi describes him as cocky and emotional, writing in her concept notes he will probably get himself killed right off. He is the second-oldest, estimated at about 19 years old, and is in charge of the Dark Kingdom's North American division. He is named after the mineral nephrite.
Nephrite's primary goal is to locate the Silver Crystal, but he also takes vows to exact revenge for the death of Jadeite. He uses a female "shadow" of himself to attack his victims, simultaneously taking control over their bodies and draining their energy. Makoto Kino kills him with her Jupiter Thunderbolt technique before any harm is done. Nephrite is briefly revived and is able to remember the Golden Kingdom and his time as a military officer of Prince Endymion before being turned into the stone from which his name was derived. The piece of nephrite (along with the stones for the other three Kings of Heaven) were kept by Mamoru Chiba and he used them to call upon his Kings of Heaven for advice.
In the first anime adaptation, Queen Beryl appoints Nephrite to continue the energy hunting job after freezing Jadeite. Nephrite hypothesizes that more energy can be taken by concentrating on a single human than by drawing from a crowd as Jadeite usually did which he said that it is one of the reasons why Jadeite had failed Queen Beryl. Establishing himself in an abandoned church, he uses intonation with the stars to detect the "energy potential" of individual people before attacking them when he implants the essence of one of his Monster into a specific person's object. Nephrite's only disguise is "Masato Sanjouin" (三条院正人 Sanjōin Masato?), a wealthy businessman and socialite. Over the course of his missions, Nephrite inadvertently attracts the attention and affections of Usagi's best friend, Naru Osaka, which interferes with his progress. When Nephrite discovers that Tuxedo Mask is Sailor Moon's weakness, Beryl orders Nephrite to destroy Sailor Moon. Despite being unable to destroy Sailor Moon, he siphons some energy from Naru earlier to Beryl. The Dark Crystal he crafts to detect the Silver Crystal reacts instead to Naru's love for him. Eventually, he comes to return her love and chooses to rescue her from Zoisite at the cost of his own life.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Nephrite is Jadeite's main rival for the attentions of Queen Beryl, who considers him useless. His physical appearance is drastically changed, and he is portrayed as hot-headed and violent. Repeatedly humiliated by the Sailor Soldiers, and mocked by the other Kings of Heaven, he strives to win Beryl's favor, but she kills her as a demonstration of her power. He is then reborn in Tokyo as a normal human being with all his memories intact, getting a job at the karaoke parlor and forging a tenuous friendship with Ami Mizuno, who was compassionate toward him when she was Dark Mercury. At the end of the series, he is re-established with the other Kings of Heaven as one of Prince Endymion's guardians.
In Sailor Moon Crystal, Nephrite attempts to appeal to Queen Beryl to take Jadeite's place after calling him out for his failures only for Zoisite to intervene. Later, when his Soul Shadow is destroyed by Usagi, Nephrite rejoins the other Kings of Heaven to threaten the Sailor Soldiers. In the next episode, he attempts to find the Legendary Silver Crystal using a youma who resembles a bride. However, he is attacked by Makoto and is forced to flee. In his past life, he was the love-interest of Sailor Jupiter. He is killed by Metalia.
In the Japanese series, he is voiced by Katsuji Mori in the first series and in Crystal by Kōsuke Toriumi. In the DIC English adaptation, his names were changed to "Neflite" or "Nephlite" and Maxfield Stanton, and he is voiced by Kevin Lund. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Liam O'Brien. In the live-action series he was portrayed by Hiroyuki Matsumoto, and was portrayed in the stage musicals by Toshikazu Seike and Karen Yoda.
Zoisite (ゾイサイト Zoisaito?) is the third of the Four Kings of Heaven. Of the four, his character has undergone the most drastic changes from version to version of the story. He is the youngest, at about 16–17 years of age, described by Takeuchi as the least mature and most effeminate. He manages the Dark Kingdom's European Division and is named after the mineral zoisite.
Zoisite first mocks Nephrite after Jadeite is killed, and then cries out in anguish when he is killed. However, he also works closely with Kunzite, sharing concerns and strategies as he works. Seeking the Silver Crystal, he uses news reports and press releases to make the population of Tokyo help with his search, then resorts to taking their energy when they fail. He very nearly defeats the Sailor Soldiers, but is killed by Minako Aino's Crescent Boomerang. Zoisite was briefly revived near the end of the "Dark Kingdom" arc and was able to remember the Golden Kingdom and his time as a military officer of Prince Endymion before being turned into the stone from which his name was derived. The piece of zoisite (along with the stones for the other three Kings of Heaven) were kept by Mamoru Chiba and he used them to call upon his Four Kings of Heaven for advice.
In the first anime, Zoisite is Kunzite's lover. He is introduced along with Nephrite, mocking him in each episode. Later, he orders the Plant Sisters to kidnap Naru and kill Nephrite. After Queen Metaria's awakening, Beryl appoints Zoisite to find the Rainbow Crystals. He is more successful than either of his predecessors, obtaining the seven fragments of the Silver Crystal. Mamoru saves Usagi from certain death by intercepting Zoisite's attack. The two are then revealed to be Princess Serenity and Prince Endymion. Infuratied that Zoisite has injured Prince Endymion, Beryl fatally wounds Zoisite, who dies in Kunzite's arms. In some English adaptations of the anime, Zoisite's gender was changed from male to female in order to make their relationship more socially acceptable for the 1990s, when very few homosexual couples were portrayed in the media. This censorship has led to a great amount of criticism since then, with some pointing out that the changes were made to force the series into a heteronormative perspective.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Zoisite is a pianist, using magical songs to hunt for the hidden Moon Princess. In addition to his own "Requiem for a Princess", he plays such compositions as the "Fantaisie-Impromptu" and "Moonlight Sonata." He cares very little for Queen Beryl and comes to recognize Prince Endymion as his master long before the others. After being killed by Sailor Venus and later revived by the power of Queen Metaria, he ignores Queen Beryl and uses his music to attempt to reach out to Endymion and to restore the memories of their collective past life to his fellow Kings of Heaven. His loyalty to Endymion is such that he offers his own life in exchange for the Prince's, and when Queen Beryl asks for Usagi's life instead, Zoisite sets out to kill her. Diverted from this course of action by Endymion, he dies protecting Sailor Moon instead.
In Sailor Moon Crystal, Zoisite also calls Jadeite out for his failures and is later wounded by Usagi's Moon Healing Escalation technique. However, Queen Beryl nurses him back to health. He attempts to kill both Mamoru and Usagi, only for Minako and Artemis to seriously wound him again and cause him to flee. In his past life, he was the love-interest of Sailor Mercury. He is killed by Queen Metalia in Episode 12.
In the anime series, he is voiced by Keiichi Nanba, with Masaya Matsukaze taking over the role for Crystal. In the DIC English adaptation, the character's name is changed to Zoycite and his gender is changed to female, voiced by Kirsten Bishop. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his name is spelled as Zoicite and his voice is supplied by Lucien Dodge. In the live-action series he is portrayed by Yoshito Endou, and in the musicals, he is portrayed by Toshitaka Akita, Misao Idono, Akira Tomemori and Kaname Aoki.
Kunzite (クンツァイト Kuntsaito?) is the fourth and final member of the Four Kings of Heaven, and the highest in rank and by far the strongest. He carries a shortsword, and Takeuchi describes him as the greatest of the four, with the majesty of an Arabian king. She also admits to being very fond of him as a character. He is about 25–26 years old, leads the Dark Kingdom's Middle Eastern Division, and is named after the mineral kunzite. Unlike the others, he wears a white cape in addition to his uniform, with his tunic partially opened.
Before the beginning of the series, Kunzite is a military officer of Prince Endymion before being turned into the stone from which his name was derived. He is then revived by Queen Beryl. Introduced as Zoisite's advisor, Kunzite becomes Queen Beryl's henchman after the death of the other Kings of Heaven. He defeats the Sailor Soldiers at Tokyo Tower and nearly kills Usagi, but Mamoru takes the injury for her, and they are revealed to be Princess Serenity and Prince Endymion. Remembering that Endymion is his former master, Kunzite becomes uncertain about his loyalties causing Queen Beryl to plant a crystal in his forehead that reduces him to little more than a mindless slave. It takes the combined strength of all the Sailor Soldiers to defeat him. During that time, Kunzite tells Mamoru where Queen Metaria's weakness is. The piece of kunzite (along with the stones for the other three Shiten'ou) were kept by Mamoru Chiba and he uses them to call upon his Kings of Heaven for advice.
In the first anime, Kunzite and Zoisite are lovers as well as allies. Following Queen Metaria's awakening, Kunzite has occasionally assisted Zoisite in obtaining the Rainbow Crystals. After losing the rainbow crystals, Kunzite is spared while Zoisite is killed at the hands of Beryl. She forewarns Kunzite that if he harms Prince Endymion, she will kill him. He resents being forced to work with the brainwashed Prince Endymion, feeling responsible for Zoisite's death, and Beryl favoring him. Following Zoisite's death, Kunzite plans to exact revenge on the Sailor Soldiers, and often turns any human into a Monster to help him. Eventually, he captures the Sailor Soldiers except for Sailor Moon. Kunzite is killed when Usagi reflects his own energy blade back at him.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Kunzite is first introduced in the form of an amnesiac man named Shin, whom Usagi attempts to befriend. His memories are restored by Queen Beryl, causing him to be a ruthless and powerful warrior. His efforts to reawaken Queen Metaria are largely motivated by a desire for personal gain, and he is dismissive to Beryl, sometimes to the point of insubordination. He mostly works with her toward their shared goals, and he also transforms Sailor Mercury into Dark Mercury. Kunzite is awakened early on to the memory that Endymion was his master in his previous life, but he feels extreme contempt for the prince, believing he betrayed the Four Kings of Heaven in ages past and left them for dead. Eventually, at the cost of his life, he saves Endymion from an attack by Jadeite and professes his loyalty to the prince.
In Sailor Moon Crystal, Kunzite calls out Jadeite for his failures. Later, he turns off Tokyo's power to provoke Minako into attacking him. However, he flees with Mamoru and is rejoined by the other Four Kings of Heaven. In his past life, he was the love interest of Sailor Venus, a fact which Venus desperately tries to remind him of each time they face off. In his last moment prior to being killed by Metalia, he manages to briefly acknowledge that he returns Venus's love. His spirit appears to Mamoru one final time to tell him of Metalia's weak spot.
In the original Japanese series, he is voiced by Kazuyuki Sogabe until episode 44 of Sailor Moon, and by Eiji Takemoto in all media following Sailor Moon Crystal. In the DIC English adaptation, his name was changed to "Malachite" and he is voiced by Denis Akiyama, with John Stocker as a stand-in. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Patrick Seitz. In the live-action series he is portrayed by Akira Kubodera, and he was portrayed in the stage musicals by Yuuta Mochizuki, Ryuji Kasahara, Hideka Asano and Miki Kawasaki.
In both the anime and manga, Queen Beryl found out that Mamoru Chiba is the reincarnated Prince Endymion and used her magic to brainwash him into serving her. In this form, he is known as Endou in the manga. Sailor Moon managed to break Queen Beryl's spell in the final battle.
In the live-action series, Kunzite attempts an experiment in which he turns one of the Sailor Guardians evil. In Act 20, he kidnaps Ami Mizuno, who at the time is the loneliest and most vulnerable member of the team, and exposes her to the power of Queen Metaria, changing her into her evil alter ego, Dark Mercury. A black motif is added to her uniform, and she uses "Dark" powers and an icicle sword. Kunzite keeps her fairly close, being careful to withdraw her whenever Sailor Moon attempts a healing, but he does take advantage of her newly-sadistic personality by allowing her to attend school and antagonize Usagi. While a part of the Dark Kingdom, Mercury is as arrogant as her allies, but she does extend a small amount of kindness to Nephrite. Queen Beryl finds the experiment interesting, but does not entirely trust it. In the end, Dark Mercury is very nearly able to kill Sailor Moon, but the knowledge that she has injured her friend finally reverts her back to her true form.
Mio Kuroki (黒木ミオ Kuroki Mio?) is a minor villain appearing only in Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. On the outside, she was a new teenage idol whose signature song, "Change of Pace", had a following comparable to that of Minako Aino's "C'est la Vie." Also like Minako, she was good at volleyball, and claimed to be a good friend of Usagi's. The truth, however, was much more sinister. Mio was a "shadow" of Queen Beryl, created by her and Jadeite some time between Act 25 and Act 28. Her objectives in life were: to be Beryl's eyes and ears in the human world, to give Mamoru Chiba to Queen Beryl, and to generally make the lives of the Sailor Guardians as miserable as possible - especially Usagi's. Mio was the principal player in getting Mamoru Chiba into Beryl's grasp; she also generally watched Mamoru during his time in the Dark Kingdom and mocking him and Rei about the fact that Princess Serenity will use her powers to destroy everything again. However, Mio's treatment of Mamoru inadvertently came back to haunt her when Prince Endymion was possessed by Queen Metaria, who seemingly blasted her out of existence.
Unfortunately, it turned out that the attack did not completely destroy her, though it took her four years to completely recover without Beryl's power to help her. Nevertheless, she returned in the Special Act and attempted to recreate the Dark Kingdom with her as its queen - and Mamoru as the king. After realizing that Mamoru would always love Usagi even when brainwashed, she transformed into her true form: a terrifying, giant black flower with sharp vines. She was finally destroyed when the Sailor Guardians, sans Mars (whom she had managed to defeat earlier on, rendering her incapacitated) performed the Sailor Planet Attack.
She was played by Alisa Yuriko Durbrow.
In Codename: Sailor V, Minako Aino faces off with the Dark Agency, a group of villains posing as a talent and idol agency. The Dark Agency manipulated idols into helping them gather energy for the Dark Kingdom. In the final volume of the manga, it is revealed that the Dark Agency was established by the Dark Kingdom. Their leader is Danburite, whose real identity is Minako's love interest Phantom Ace. After Sailor V defeats him, the group dissolves and the Dark Kingdom begins to act directly, thus leading into the Sailor Moon series. They are never mentioned in the Sailor Moon manga or other continuities.
The Monsters (妖魔 Yōma?) are the Dark Kingdom's army of monsters. Kunzite's monsters are created from human beings in the first anime while Jadeite's monsters are conjured from the ground in the second anime. Any monster created from humans can be returned to their human form by Sailor Moon using "Moon Healing Escalation" (which restores the human while destroying/expelling the monster side) while others would be killed off by "Moon Tiara Action" (or other Sailor Soldier attacks on occasion). In the DIC English adaptation, the Negaverse refers to the monsters as their "servants", while the Sailor Soldiers and Tuxedo Mask just call them "monsters" or sometimes "Negamonsters". There are various monsters in Queen Beryl's throne room where they are silhouette with some of them in hooded robes.
Morga (モルガ Moruga?) is the first Dark Kingdom monster to appear in the series, appearing as a female zombie-like humanoid created by Jadeite. She disguises herself as Naru Osaka's mother Mayumi to sell discount jewelry that drain their wearers of their energy. When Naru starts asking questions, Morga assumes her true form and attempts to kill the girl when Usagi intervenes. Though she uses the affected humans to defend her, Morga is the first to be killed when Usagi temporarily incapacitates the monster through her screams and petrifies her with her Moon Tiara Boomerang.
In the anime series, Morga is voiced by Michiko Abe in Sailor Moon, with Sanae Kobayashi taking over the role in Crystal. In the DIC English adaptation, she is voiced by Maria Vacratsis. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Wendee Lee.
Soul Shadow is a female monster created by Nephrite and disguised as an interpreter for Princess D. It possesses Princess D and attempts to steal the treasure, which is thought to be the Silver Crystal. Once it reveals its true form, it becomes immune to Rei's attacks. Usagi eventually kills the monster when she interrupts the fight and uses her Moon Twilight Flash technique on her. In the anime, Nephrite creates Soul Shadow as a monster and possesses Princess D after mistaking her for a Sailor Soldier. However, the monster is eventually killed by Usagi.
Seven Great Monsters
The Seven Great Monsters (最強妖魔七人衆 Saikyō Yōma Shichininshū?) are a group of monsters who appear only in the anime as the most powerful monsters in the Dark Kingdom. Before being reawakened by Zoisite, the monsters are sealed within seven separate shards of the Silver Crystal and carried to Earth by Queen Serenity where they are reincarnated centuries later. Zoisite reawakens them one by one, only for Usagi to heal them with her "Moon Healing Escalation" and revert them to their current incarnation while destroying the monster form. Queen Beryl later manipulates Prince Endymion to capture the hosts of the Seven Monsters in order to combine them into one powerful Monster. However, before Prince Endymion gets to Rei's grandfather, Ami destroys the crystal holding the other six hosts of the Seven Monsters.
- Gēsēn (ゲーセーン?) (Game Machine Man): The keeper of the red Rainbow Crystal, he is a cybernetic monster reborn as Crane Joe, a pro at arcade games. His name is short for "game center" and is the first to be reawakened by Zoisite. His voice actor is Masaaki Okura. In the DiC English adaptation, his name is changed to Game Machine Man and is voiced by Rino Romano. In the Viz Media English adaptation, he is voiced by Grant George.
- Boxy (ボクシー Bokushi?): The keeper of the orange Rainbow Crystal, he is a winged, boxing monster reborn as a priest who Naru Osaka meets at a cemetery. While fighting, Boxy repeatedly paraphrases American boxer Muhammad Ali. His name is a pun on bokushi, meaning "priest" in Japanese, and bokushingu, meaning "boxing". He is voiced by Hideyuki Umezu in the Japanese version. In the DiC English adaptation, his name is changed to Bobo the Vulture and is voiced by David Huband. In the Viz Media English adaptation, he is voiced by Kyle Hebert.
- Bumboo (ブンボー Bumbō?): The keeper of the yellow Rainbow Crystal, he is a lizard-like monster reborn as Ryo Urawa, who Ami Mizuno develops a crush on. Though the beast awakened, Urawa attempts to retain control himself and attacks Zoisite, only to end up completely under his control. He is voiced by Shinichiro Ohta. In the DiC English adaptation, he is voiced by Harvey Atkin. In the Viz Media English adaptation, he is voiced by Vic Mignogna.
- Veena (ビーナ Bīna?): The keeper of the green Rainbow Crystal, she is an angel-like monster reborn as local artist Yumeni Yumeno. Her attacks are art-based. In the original Japanese series, her voice actress is Yuriko Fuchizaki. In the DiC English adaptation, she is voiced by Maria Vacratsis. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Tara Sands.
- Rikokeidā (リコケイダー?) (Techniclon): The keeper of the blue Rainbow Crystal, she is a monster wearing a black bandeau bathing suit reborn as Motoki's girlfriend, Reika Nishimura. She is voiced by Rica Fukami in the Japanese version. In the DiC English adaptation, her name is changed to Techniclon and she is voiced by Kirsten Bishop. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Erica Mendez.
- Jiji (ジジ?): The keeper of the indigo Rainbow Crystal, he is an Oni-like monster who is reincarnated as Rei's grandfather. He is voiced by Tomomichi Nishimura in the Japanese version. In the DiC English adaptation, his name is changed to Pox and is voiced by Harvey Atkin. In the Viz Media English adaptation, he is voiced by Michael Sorich.
- Bakēne (バケーネ?): The keeper of the violet Rainbow Crystal, he is a beastly cat monster reborn as the cat Rhett Butler, who liked Luna, even in his monster form. He is voiced by Masahiro Anzai. In the DiC English adaptation, his name is changed to Hercules.
The DD Girls (ディーディー・ガールズ Dī Dī Gāruzu?) are a group of five high-ranking monsters who work directly for Queen Beryl. The DD Girls have the power to fly, to produce powerful tentacles from their bodies (flexible or rigid and sharp like spears), generate electricity, and to create illusions of people the Sailor Soldiers care about (namely Tuxedo Mask for Usagi, Motoki Furuhata for Makoto and Ryo Urawa for Ami) in danger or pain, as well as one of a giant fireball that gave off real heat while the fireball itself was fake. The source of these illusions is the stone in the leader's forehead decoration, which is eventually destroyed by Ami.
When Queen Beryl asks her Monsters which of them would like to dispose of the Sailor Soldiers (when they attempt to find their location) and earn their place in Dark Kingdom history, the DD Girls volunteer to use their illusionary powers to kill the Sailor Soldiers. However, the Sailor Soldiers destroy the DD Girls at the cost of their lives, ensuring the Sailor Moon reach their destination. In the DIC English adaptation, the storyline is altered that the Monsters only captured Sailor Moon's allies.
In the anime series, their voice actresses are Naoko Nakamura and Asako Satou. In the DIC English adaptation, their name is changed to the "Doom and Gloom Girls" and are voiced by Tracey Hoyt, Mary Long, Tracey Moore, Barbara Radecki, and Nadine Rabinovitch. In the Viz Media English adaptation, they are voiced by Tara Platt and Wendee Lee.
The DD Girls appear in the Sailor Moon: Another Story video game where they were a reincarnated Queen Beryl's last line of defense.
Three DD Girls appear in the first musical, Gaiden Dark Kingdom Fukkatsu Hen, played by Hisako Doubayashi, Yuko Nishi and Mayumi Maikuma, and in its revision, played by Yuriko Nishiyama, Kaori Ishikawa and Ai Suzuki.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, the monsters serve much the same purpose as in the anime adaptation, except that they are more often monsters in their own right, rather than possessing the bodies of human beings. The creature designs used for individual Youma are not thematically influenced by the story of the episode, and they are usually portrayed by human actors in suits with only two being computer-generated. They never speak and are commanded by the Four Kings of Heaven. Also, none of them are named in the series except for the ones in the Special Act.
In the second half of the live-action series, swarms of black hooded-robed monsters begin to appear after Sailor Moon is revealed to be the Princess. Their loyalty is to Queen Metaria herself rather than to Queen Beryl and her servants, and their abilities include earth-swimming and fast movement. The costumes for these entities are recycled from the Golem Soldiers from the Super Sentai series Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger with hooded robes added.
In Act 41, the remains of numerous hooded robed monsters merge into a single monster. This composite entity is an agent of Metaria, gathering energy from everything around it and responding to the Silver Crystal. Naru and Motoki are among its numerous victims. Using the energy it gathers, the monster is powerful enough to withstand attacks by the Sailor Guardians. Princess Sailor Moon almost finishes him off in Act 42, but Usagi restrains herself because she knows the power will make Queen Metaria stronger. In Act 43, he appears again with the hooded robed Youma but is unimpressed with the Sailor Guardians. He fights Sailor Moon along with Zoisite's monster in Act 44. It impales Zoisite with crystals from its body and Zoisite manages to fire off energy that causes the monster to retreat. By Act 45, Queen Metaria turns it into her host in order to absorb every bit of energy in the world. However, she is soon forced by Sailor Venus to leave her host which is then destroyed by a group attack. This monster was capable of speech while Metaria was using it as a host.
When analyzing the contrast between young heroines and evil older women in manga, Kathryn Hemmann noted that "Queen Beryl is in no way girlish" and that, while the Sailor Soldiers have enormous eyes, Beryl's "are narrow and shaded." Mie Hiramoto also established a contrast between Beryl and the Sailor Soldiers in an analysis of anime and intertextualities, explaining that while the Soldiers use Japanese women's language, Beryl uses the more formal Standard Japanese most frequently than any other character, which is typical of villains in other anime series. The inclusion of Beryl as an evil character in a line of dolls for girls has been described as a "radical idea".
Author Patrick Drazen described DIC's name change for Nephrite's disguise, Maxfield Stanton, as "ridiculously soap-opera." However, Drazen later made a later review about Nephrite's death at the hands of Zoisite's monsters, and stated that this scene must have been an unexpected development for viewers used to happy endings. Drazen also cited Nephrite's death in Naru's arms as a scene of redemption, saying that him smiling and laughing during his death "would have been beyond him in the past, but love is turning him human." Kotono Mitsuishi, the voice actress of Usagi Tsukino, said she was particularly touched by this sequence. Sara Roncero-Menendez from The Huffington Post stated that the homosexual relationship between Zoisite and Kunzite in the anime adaptation was censored in the English versions by changing Zoisite's gender from male to female.
In 1993, Animage made a male anime character popularity poll, in which Zoisite was the tenth most popular, and Nephrite was the joint seventeenth, tying with a character from Zettai Muteki Raijin-Oh. The first official Sailor Moon character popularity poll ranked Zoisite as the twentieth most popular character, Kunzite was the twenty third, Nephrite was twenty fourth, Jadeite was twenty sixth, Endou was twenty ninth, Beryl was thirtieth and Queen Metaria was thirty fourth, out of thirty eight choices.
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- Takeuchi, Naoko (November 1997). コードネームはセーラーＶ (3). Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-322834-7.
- McCarter, Charles. "Public Interview with Takeuchi Naoko" (Q & A Interview). EX: CLUSIVE. www.ex.org. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
- Benkoil, Dorian (18 February 1995). "Move Over Power Rangers. Here Come's Japan's Sailor Moon". The Free-Lance Star 111 (42): 27. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, 1993). "Act 12". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1992). "Act 7". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4.
- Sailor Moon episode 045
- Dub episode 2, "Talk Radio", equivalent to original episode 3, "Mysterious Sleeping Illness, Protect the Girls' Hearts in Love."
- Dub episode 40, "Day of Destiny", equivalent to original episode 46, "Usagi's Everlasting Wish! A New Reincarnation"
- Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Eien Densetsu kaiteiban, after Galaxia Gorgeous Galaxia gets a vision of Hotaru sadly saying she cannot transform and protect the princess, and Galaxia decides to use the Queen of Darkness (Beryl)
- Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Eien Densetsu kaiteiban, before Mou ii No (Its alright)
- Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Shin Densetsu Kourin after Onna no Ronsou
- "Onna No Ronsou". Retrieved 2008-06-01.
- Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Eien Densetsu kaiteiban
- Sailor Moon Musical 1998 Shin Densetsu Kourin
- Sailor Moon Musical 2004 Kakyuu-Ouhi Kourin
- "Sailor Moon Omake Making Of". Sailor Moon. Season 2. May 8, 1993. Toei.
- "Sailor Moon Crystal Cast Adds Misa Watabane, Daisuke Kisho, Kousuke Toriumi and More". Anime News Network. 2014-06-30.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon reprint 1st and 2nd edition, Vol. 3, Table of Contents;
- Takeuchi, Naoko. Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Perfect Edition, Vol. 2, Table of Contents;
- Dubbed Episode 17, "An Animated Mess". Equivalent to original Episode 21.
- Sailor Moon Musical, 1997 Eien Densetsu, during Itsuwari no Forevermore
- Sailor Moon Musicals, 2003 Starlights - Ryuusei Densetsu, before Prince of Earth
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992). "Act 2". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992). "Act 3". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 2000). Sailor Moon Scout Guide - Meet Sailor Moon: Crystal. Tokyopop Press. ISBN 1-892213-32-X.
- Yoda, Karen. "Profile". Administrative Scrivener Karen Yoda Office. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1992). "Act 6". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4.
- Roncero-Mernandez, Sara (May 21, 2014). "Sailor Neptune and Uranus Come Out of the Fictional Closet". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1992). "Act 8". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4.
- "Bunny's Tour Through the Silver Millennium". Retrieved 2007-02-18.
- Sailor Moon episode 025
- Sailor Moon episode 026
- Sailor Moon episode 027
- Sailor Moon episode 028
- Sailor Moon episode 029
- Sailor Moon episode 030
- Sailor Moon episode 031
- Dub episode 40
- [dead link]
- Hemmann, Kathryn (2014). "Short Skirts and Superpowers: The Evolution of the Beautiful Fighting Girl". U.S.-Japan Women's Journal. University of Hawai'i Press. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
- Hiramoto, Mie (December 1, 2010). "Anime and intertextualities: Hegemonic identities in Cowboy Bebop". Media Intertextualities. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
- Klugman, Karen (1999) "A Bad Hair Day for G.I. Joe" in Beverly Lyon Clark, Margaret R. Higonnet ed. Girls, Boys, Books, Toys: Gender in Children's Literature and Culture page 173
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 284. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- "Sailor Moon Omake Making Of". Sailor Moon. Season 2. 1993-05-08. Toei.
- "月刊アニメージュ【公式サイト】". Web.archive.org. 2009-03-06. Archived from the original on March 6, 2009. Retrieved 2016-07-02.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, 1993). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6.