Dark ride

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Kyöpelinvuoren hotelli (literally "Hotel of the Phantom Mountain"), a dark ride at the Linnanmäki amusement park in Helsinki, Finland

A dark ride or ghost train is an indoor amusement ride on which passengers aboard guided vehicles travel through specially lit scenes that typically contain animation, sound, music and special effects.[1] Appearing as early as the 19th century, such exhibits include tunnels of love, scary themes and interactive stories.


Symbolica is the most expensive attraction in the largest amusement park in the Netherlands, the Efteling

In its most traditional form, the term dark ride refers to ride-through attractions with scenes that use black lights, whereby visible light is prevented from entering the space, and only show elements that fluoresce under ultraviolet radiation are seen by the riders. The size of each room containing a scene or scenes is thus concealed, and the set designer can use forced perspective, Pepper's ghost and other visual tricks to create the illusion of distance. Typically, these experiences also use a series of opaque doors between scenes to further control riders' views within a space-constrained building. Prominent examples include Disneyland's Snow White's Scary Adventures, Pinocchio's Daring Journey, Peter Pan's Flight, Mr. Toad's Wild Ride and Alice in Wonderland, which all rely on the use of blacklights in almost every scene.[2]


The first dark rides appeared in the late 19th century and were called "scenic railways" and "pleasure railways".[3] A popular type of dark ride commonly referred to as an old mill or tunnel of love used small boats to carry riders through water-filled canals. A Trip to the Moon began operation at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition. Marvin Rempfer and Leon Cassidy of the Pretzel Amusement Ride Company patented the first single-rail electric dark ride in 1928. Historically notable dark rides include Futurama at the 1939 New York World's Fair, and Pirates of the Caribbean and The Haunted Mansion at Disneyland.

Modern attractions in this genre vary widely in technical sophistication. Smaller-scale rides often feature the same sorts of simple animation and sounds used since the genre's early days, while more ambitious projects feature complex animatronics, special effects and ride vehicles utilizing cutting-edge technology.[4]

To improve the effect and give a sense of journey, passages in dark rides frequently change direction. Sudden curves give a sense of disorientation and allow new scenes to surprise the rider. The rides may also feature sudden ascents or descents to further the excitement.

Empirical research[edit]

Although ever increasing investments are made in dark rides, empirical research in this area is relatively scarce. Based on a systematic literature review, a team of researchers from the University of Liechtenstein developed a model that illustrates the underlying effect mechanism that attendees of Dark Rides experience. The model suggests that "Storytelling" in Dark Rides influences an attendee's "emotional attachment" to the ride through the mediator of "Immersion". It is assumed that a person's prior knowledge about the ride's story and a person's cultural background have moderating effects on the relationship between "storytelling" and "immersion".[5]


Dark rides have a number of variations that are not necessarily mutually exclusive.

Ghost train[edit]

Ghost train

In the United Kingdom, the United States, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, China and Australia, dark rides with a scary theme are called ghost trains.[citation needed]

The first ride to use the name "Ghost Train" was that of Blackpool Pleasure Beach.[6] The ride was imported in 1930 and originally called The Pretzel (due to the curving shape of its track layout); but as pretzels were little-known in Britain, it was soon renamed after The Ghost Train, a play which ran for a year in London, a film adaptation of which was showing in 1931.[7] It was rebuilt in 1936 and has remained unchanged since. Blackpool Pleasure Beach is also home to Valhalla, the world's largest indoor dark ride,[8].

In Australia, a dark ride is named The Ghost Train at Luna Park, Melbourne,[9] and a similarly-named ride was destroyed by fire in 1979 at Luna Park Sydney.

The concept is also popular in the United States. One notable ghost train from the country is The Haunted Mansion, first opened in Disneyland in Anaheim, California, on August 9, 1969.[10]

Interactive dark ride[edit]

Interactive dark rides feature a component that allows riders to be involved in the attraction's story. The first interactive dark ride ever built is El Paso at the Belgium theme park Bobbejaanland.[11][12]

The vast majority of interactive dark rides are shooting dark rides,[13] which require riders to aim and shoot at targets throughout the ride using handheld or vehicle-mounted light guns. Successfully shooting a target usually triggers special animation, such as flashing lights or moving the target. The more targets riders hit, the higher their scores at the end of the ride. The use of light guns varies between rides, from killing aliens on Men in Black: Alien Attack at Universal Studios Florida to calling turkeys on Gobbler Getaway at Holiday World & Splashin' Safari.[14][15] The ride systems of conventional dark rides can be easily converted into shooting dark rides. Such conversions include Duel: The Haunted House Strikes Back! at Alton Towers and Buzz Lightyear's Space Ranger Spin at Disney's Magic Kingdom. The latter uses facilities that previously housed If You Had Wings, Delta Dreamflight, and Take Flight. A recent dark ride, Wonder Mountain's Guardian at Canada's Wonderland, has the world's longest interactive screen at over 500 feet (150 m).

Among non-shooting interactive dark rides, Etnaland's[16] award-winning[17] Haunted School[18] is described by Park World magazine as "one of the most idiosyncratic dark rides". It is themed to a school exam, with riders individually answering multiple-choice questions throughout it. Riders are graded on their responses, and each receives a school report at the end of the ride.[13] While technically a coaster, the Gekion Live coaster at Joypolis had elements of a dark ride. It used to have a shooting element, only for it to be refurbished with a dance element (tapping buttons on the restraints) later.

Trackless dark ride[edit]

Mystic Manor at Hong Kong Disneyland

Trackless dark rides utilize automated guided vehicles that do not require guide rails, and thus are able to cross existing paths, reverse, and rotate. Some trackless dark rides, such as the Big Red Car Ride at Dreamworld, rely on a buried wire for navigation. Others, such as Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance at Disney's Hollywood Studios and Disneyland Park, Mystic Manor at Hong Kong Disneyland or Ratatouille: L’Aventure Totalement Toquée de Rémy at Disneyland Paris and Epcot, use Wi-Fi and RFID-based local positioning systems.[19]

Enclosed roller coaster[edit]

While some roller coasters may be indoors, simply enclosing a roller coaster does not make it a dark ride. Dark coasters are roller coasters that feature heavily themed layouts, special effects (such as animated characters, fire, smoke, and sound/lighting effects), and a dark ride portion that abruptly transitions into a roller coaster-style layout with heavily banked turns, sharp turns, steep drops, and helices. Some of them include backward motion, and many have launch mechanisms rather than lifts. Examples include:

Test Track at Epcot, Journey to the Center of the Earth at Tokyo DisneySea, and Radiator Springs Racers at Disney California Adventure each use a slot car track rather than that of a roller coaster, but they provide a similar pairing of dark ride scenes with a high-speed thrill ride.

Saw – The Ride at Thorpe Park features an enclosed dark section with strobe lighting and special effects, before the car enters the outdoor section of the ride.

Other attractions incorporating dark ride elements[edit]

Particularly in Disney-built or -influenced parks, a number of attractions use traditional dark-ride features, such as animatronics and theatrical lighting, but are not "dark rides" in that patrons do not board vehicles. Examples include the walk-through dioramas in Disneyland's Sleeping Beauty Castle, and theater-based Disney attractions like Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln, The Hall of Presidents, The American Adventure and Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room. Walt Disney's Carousel of Progress (and its now-closed Disneyland replacement America Sings) had four auditoriums that rotated audiences around a stationary core with show scenes.

The Tomorrowland Transit Authority PeopleMover in the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World and the Disneyland Railroad both include brief dark-ride scenes, but for the most part transport guests outdoors. Expedition Everest at Disney's Animal Kingdom, Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland, Big Thunder Mountain Railroad and Space Mountain at several Disney parks, and Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Cars at Hong Kong Disneyland likewise include some dark-ride elements, but function primarily as indoor/outdoor roller coasters.

List of dark rides[edit]

  • Name in italics means that it has been closed; date of closure follows "−".
Title Open Location Notes
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Submarine Voyage 1971−1994
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo DisneySea
Adventure Thru Inner Space 1967−1985 Disneyland Replaced in 1985 by Star Tours
Alice in Wonderland 1961 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
Alice in Wonderland 1958 Disneyland
Animal Crisis 2014 Quancheng Euro Park
Apiland 2000 Parc du Bocasse
Apirama 1979−1999 Meli Park 8-min. water dark ride with one drop; Transformed by new owner into Het Bos van Plop (Plopsaland)
Atlantis Adventure 2007 Europa-Park
Antarctica: Empire of the Penguin 2013 SeaWorld Orlando A first-of-its-kind motion-based trackless dark ride developed by Oceaneering International
Bermuda Triangle 1994−2010 Sea World Replaced by Storm Coaster
Big Red Car Ride 2005-2020 Dreamworld
Blå Tåget 1935 Gröna Lund Renovated 2011
Boo Blasters on Boo Hill 2010 Canada's Wonderland
Kings Island
Kings Dominion
Formerly a Scooby-Doo-themed ride, rebranded after the parks did not renew the licence
Bubbleworks 1990−2016 Chessington World of Adventures Water dark ride, originally Prof. Burp's Bubble Works, later called Imperial Leather Bubbleworks.
Buzz Lightyear Astro Blasters 2005
Hong Kong Disneyland
Hong Kong Disneyland version closed to make way for Ant-Man and The Wasp: Nano Battle!
Buzz Lightyear's Astro Blasters 2004 Tokyo Disneyland
Buzz Lightyear Laser Blast 2006 Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Buzz Lightyear Planet Rescue 2016 Shanghai Disneyland Park
Buzz Lightyear's Space Ranger Spin 1998 Magic Kingdom
Calico Mine Ride 1960 Knott's Berry Farm
Capitán Balas 2007 Isla Mágica
Carnaval Festival 1984 Efteling
Castillo del Terror Tivoli World
Cave Train 1961 Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk
Challenge of Mondor 2008 Enchanted Forest
Challenge of Tutankhamon 2001 Walibi Belgium
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory: The Ride 2006−2015 Alton Towers Formerly Around The World In 80 Days (1981-1993), then Toyland Tours (1994-2005). Currently closed
Chocolate Tour at Hershey's Chocolate World 1973 Hersheypark
Crush's Coaster 2007 Walt Disney Studios Park This attraction is also a roller coaster
Cueva de las Tarántulas 2006 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Replacing The Old Mine 1910
Cueva del Horror Parque de Atracciones de Zaragoza
The Curse at Alton Manor 1992 Alton Towers Formerly The Haunted House (1992-2003), then Duel - The Haunted House Strikes Back (2003-2023). Refurbished again in 2023 to The Curse at Alton Manor.
Curse of DarKastle 2005−2017 Busch Gardens Williamsburg
Den Flyvende Kuffert 1993 Tivoli Gardens
The Den of Lost Thieves 1998 Indiana Beach Previously opened in 1969 as the Mystery Mansion
Derren Brown's Ghost Train 2016 Thorpe Park An attraction that incorporates virtual reality headsets and motion simulation
Devil's Den 1968 Conneaut Lake Park Haunted house-style dark ride with illusions, stunts, and spooky murals. One of only five Pretzel rides still operating.
Dinolandia Tivoli World
Dinosaur 1998 Disney's Animal Kingdom
Dracula's Castle 1974 Lagoon Amusement Park Refurbished with new scenes in 2007; featured in episode 27 ("Blind Luck") of the 1987-88 television series Werewolf
Dream River 2019 Parque de Atracciones de Zaragoza Formerly Río Misterioso
Droomvlucht 1993 Efteling
Dwarf City 1975 Europa-Park
El Laberinto del Minotauro 2000 Terra Mítica
El Rescate de Ulises 2001 Terra Mítica Boat ride. The longest dark ride in Europe[citation needed]
El Rio del Tiempo 1982−2007 Epcot Changed to Gran Fiesta Tour Starring The Three Caballeros
El Último Minuto 2006 Dinópolis
Elf Ride 1979 Europa-Park
Escape from Pompeii 1996 Busch Gardens Williamsburg
E.T. Adventure 1990
Universal Studios Florida
Universal Studios Hollywood
Universal Studios Japan
Fantasía 1999−2016 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid
Fata Morgana 1986 Efteling
Finding Nemo Submarine Voyage 2007 Disneyland Re-theming of the Submarine Voyage
Fire in the Hole 1972 Silver Dollar City The original Fire in the Hole is closing permanently at the end of 2023. A new Fire in the Hole will debut at the park in 2024.
Frozen Ever After 2016 Epcot Replaced Maelstrom
Ghost Train 1930 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
Ghostwood Estate 2008 Kennywood
Gobbler Getaway 2006 Holiday World
Gran Fiesta Tour Starring The Three Caballeros 2007 Epcot Formerly El Rio del Tiempo dark ride (1982)
The Great Movie Ride 1989−2017 Disney's Hollywood Studios
The Great Pistolero Roundup 1999 Family Kingdom Amusement Park
Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey 2010
Universal Islands of Adventure
Universal Studios Japan
Universal Studios Hollywood
The Haunted Mansion 1969
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Haunted Mansion 1973 Knoebels Amusement Park
Het Bos van Plop 1999 Plopsaland 8-minute boat dark ride with one drop, on track of former Apirama
High Dive 1994 Wakayama Marina City | Porto Europa Arrow Dynamics flume ride
I Corsari: la Vendetta del Fantasma 1992 Gardaland Opened as I Corsari in 1992, in 2018 was renovated and changed the name
If You Had Wings 1972−1989 Magic Kingdom
Indiana Jones Adventure: Temple of the Crystal Skull 2001 Tokyo DisneySea
Indiana Jones Adventure: Temple of the Forbidden Eye 1995 Disneyland
It's a Small World 1964
1964 New York World's Fair
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Hong Kong Disneyland
Jocco's Mardi Gras Madness 2000−2005 Six Flags New Orleans
Journey to Atlantis 1998
SeaWorld Orlando
SeaWorld San Diego
Refurbished in Orlando in 2017; elevator segment in San Diego version
Jumanji - The Adventure 2022 Gardaland
Justice League: Alien Invasion 3D 2012 Warner Bros. Movie World
Justice League: Battle for Metropolis 2015
Six Flags Over Texas
Six Flags St. Louis
Six Flags Great America
Six Flags Over Georgia
Six Flags Great Adventure
Six Flags Magic Mountain
Six Flags Over Texas installation replaced Adventure Theater; Six Flags St. Louis installation replaced Scooby-Doo! Ghostblasters: The Mystery of the Scary Swamp; Six Flags Great America installation replaced Southwest Amphitheater and was converted into a 2D interactive ride in the 2020s
Kärlekstunneln 1917 Gröna Lund Refurbished in 1987
Kingdom of the Dinosaurs 1987−2004 Knott's Berry Farm Replaced by Voyage to the Iron Reef
Knott's Bear-y Tales 1975−1987 Knott's Berry Farm Replaced by Kingdom of the Dinosaurs
Kosmikar Mount Igueldo Amusement Park
Kyöpelinvuoren Hotelli 2013 Linnanmäki
La Aventura de Scooby-Doo 2005 Parque Warner Madrid
La Furia de los Dioses 1999−2010 Isla Mágica
The Little Mermaid ~ Ariel's Undersea Adventure 2011
Disney California Adventure Park
Magic Kingdom
Magic Kingdom installation opened as "Under the Sea ~ Journey of the Little Mermaid".
Living with the Land 1982 Epcot
Looney Tunes River Ride 1991−2011
Warner Bros. Movie World
Warner Bros. Movie World Germany
Los Piratas 1984−1996 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Replaced by The Old Mine 1910
Madame Freudenreich Curiosités 2018 Europa-Park Replaced Universe of Energy, being a retheme of that ride
Maelstrom 1988−2014 Epcot Closed for conversion to Frozen Ever After
Magical Powder 2002 Lagunasia
The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh 1999
Magic Kingdom
Hong Kong Disneyland
Magic Kingdom installation replaced Mr. Toad's Wild Ride, Disneyland installation replaced Country Bear Jamboree
Monsters, Inc. Mike & Sulley to the Rescue! 2006 Disney California Adventure Park
Monsters, Inc. Ride & Go Seek 2009 Tokyo Disneyland
Men in Black: Alien Attack 2000 Universal Studios Florida
Mickey & Minnie's Runaway Railway 2020
Disney's Hollywood Studios
The Mine of Lost Souls 1985 Canobie Lake Park Refurbished in 1992 by the Sally Corporation
Minen 2003 Tivoli Gardens
Monster Mansion 2009 Six Flags Over Georgia Tales of the Okefenokee 1967-1980; Monster Plantation 1981-2009
Mr. Toad's Wild Ride 1955
Magic Kingdom
Magic Kingdom installation replaced by The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh
Mysterious River Monte Igueldo Amusement Park
Mystic Manor 2013 Hong Kong Disneyland
Mystic Motel 2013 Ladera Ranch Notable for being homemade, Mystic Motel contains a small walkthrough section as well as the 60-ft ride
The Old Mine 1910 1997−2004 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Replaced by Cueva de las Tarántulas
Peter Pan's Flight 1955
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Shanghai Disneyland Park
Phantasmagoria 1973−2007 Bell's Amusement Park Was one of the largest and longest haunted amusements in the country with a two-story track and 27 tricks and surprises, ride was demolished June 19, 2007 when Bell's Amusement Park was permanently closed
Phantom Fantasia 1983−2000 Thorpe Park Later Wicked Witches Haunt; closed in 2000 by fire.
Phantom Manor 1992 Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Phantom Theater 1972−2002 Kings Island Replaced with Scooby-Doo's Haunted Mansion and later with Boo Blasters on Boo Hill
Piccolo Mondo 1982 Europa-Park Before 2011 refurbishment was called Ciao Bambini
Pinocchio Tivoli World
Pinocchio's Daring Journey 1983
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Pirates in Batavia 1987−2018 Europa-Park Boat ride with one big drop
Pirates Cove 1972 Waldameer Park
Pirates of the Caribbean 1967
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Pooh's Hunny Hunt 2000 Tokyo Disneyland
Popcorn Revenge 2019 Walibi Belgium
Puppet Boat Ride 1992 Europa-Park
Ratatouille: L'Aventure Totalement Toquée de Rémy 2014
Walt Disney Studios Park
Reese's Xtreme Cup Challenge 2006-2018 Hersheypark
Río Misterioso 1978-2018 Parque de Atracciones de Zaragoza Reopened as Dream River
River Caves 1905 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
Rock 'n' Roller Coaster Starring Aerosmith 1999
Disney's Hollywood Studios
Walt Disney Studios Park

This attraction is also a roller coaster. This attraction also existed at Walt Disney Studios Park, in Paris. The roller coaster closed for the construction of the new Marvel theme area Avengers Campus
Roger Rabbit's Car Toon Spin 1994
Tokyo Disneyland
Scooby-Doo's Haunted Mansion 2000−2009
Canada's Wonderland*
Six Flags Fiesta Texas***
Six Flags St. Louis**
Kings Island*
Kings Dominion*
* indicates replaced by Boo Blasters on Boo Hill
** indicates replaced by Justice League: Battle for Metropolis
*** indicates replaced by Pirates of the Deep Sea
Shootout at the Flooded Mine 1968 Silver Dollar City
Sinbad's Storybook Voyage 2001 Tokyo DisneySea
Snow White's Scary Adventures 1955
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Magic Kingdom installation replaced by Princess Fairytale Hall
Snowflake Sleigh Ride 1998 Europa-Park
Spaceship Earth (Epcot) 1982 Epcot
Spectacolo 2005 Wiener Prater Free-fall dark ride
Splash Mountain 1989
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance 2019
Disney's Hollywood Studios
Submarine Voyage 1959−1998 Disneyland Reopened as Finding Nemo Submarine Voyage in 2007
The Swiss Chocolate Adventure[20] 2014 Swiss Museum of Transport (Verkehrshaus), Lucerne Covers an area of 700 square metres (7,500 sq ft)
Symbolica 2017 Efteling Dark ride about Efteling's mascot, Pardoes; system delivered by Dutch company ETF, developed from cancelled project Hartenhof
Terroride 1967 Lagoon Amusement Park Refurbished with all-new scenes and updated animatronics in 2017. Temporarily renamed Terroride: A Classic Reimagined for its 50th season operating.
Timber Mountain Log Ride 1969 Knott's Berry Farm
Tomb Blaster 2002 Chessington World of Adventures Formerly Terror Tomb, refurbished in 2002 with new scenes and laser-gun game system; replaced The 5th Dimension in 1994
Toy Story Midway Mania! 2008
Disney California Adventure Park
Disney's Hollywood Studios
Tokyo DisneySea
Transformers: The Ride 3D 2011
Universal Studios Singapore
Universal Studios Hollywood
Universal Studios Florida
Universal Studios Beijing
TV's Family Favourites 1995−1998 Crinkley Bottom at Cricket St Thomas
The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror 1994 Disney's Hollywood Studios
Universe of Energy 1994−2017 Europa-Park Rethemed as Madame Freudenreich Curiosités
Valhalla 2000 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
Viaje al Centro de la Tierra 1970−1979 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid
Viaje en el Tiempo 2001 Dinópolis
Viaje Galáctico 1970−1986 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Replaced by Los Piratas
Voyage to the Iron Reef 2015 Knott's Berry Farm
Wacky Factory 2010 Lake Winnepesaukah Formerly Castle
Wallace & Gromit's Thrill-O-Matic 2013 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
The Whacky Shack 1982 Joyland Amusement Park
The Whacky Shack 1970 Waldameer Park
Wild West Adventure 2000 Attractiepark Slagharen
Wonder Mountain's Guardian 2014 Canada's Wonderland

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Shining a Light on Dark Rides". Entertainment Designer. February 9, 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  2. ^ Acorn, S. (2010). Theme park design: Behind the scenes with an engineer. Orlando, FL: Theme Perks Press.
  3. ^ "Archaeology of a Dark Ride". academia.edu.
  4. ^ MacDonald, Brady (October 19, 2015). "25 best theme park dark rides in the world". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  5. ^ Langhof, J. G. & Güldenberg, S. (2019). Pirates, ghosts and customer loyalty – Reviewing the dark ride experience. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 398-420.
  6. ^ "Ghost train". blackpoolpleasurebeach.com.
  7. ^ "Ghost Train". ukrides.info.
  8. ^ Byatt, Flora (2020-07-25). "The 11 long-lost rides of Blackpool Pleasure Beach". LancsLive. Retrieved 2022-03-14.
  9. ^ "Ghost Train (Luna Park)". Parkz. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  10. ^ Finn, Alan (8 August 2014). "13 Facts About Disney's Haunted Mansion". Mental Floss. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  11. ^ "Bobbejaanland - El Paso". 27 March 2018.
  12. ^ "Parkplanet". 13 January 2021.
  13. ^ a b "The School". Park World Magazine: 38. August 2013.
  14. ^ "Alien Invasion on the Gold Coast". Park World Magazine: 13. October 2012.
  15. ^ "Gobbler Getaway". Sally Corporation. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  16. ^ "Etnaland". www.etnaland.eu.
  17. ^ "European Star Award 2013". Gosetto. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  18. ^ "The School - Etnaland Themepark". www.etnaland.eu.
  19. ^ Niles, Robert (9 August 2013). "The Imagineers behind Hong Kong Disneyland's Mystic Manor talk about their award-winning attraction, at Disney's D23". Theme Park Insider. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  20. ^ Mani, Mohan (13 July 2014). "Chocoholics, ahoy! Swiss Chocolate Adventure in Luzern". Newly Swissed. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.

External links[edit]