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A darknet (or dark net) is a portion of routed, allocated IP space not running any services. Traffic arriving to such IP dark space is undesired since it has no active hosts.
The term dark net has been mistakenly conflated with the dark web which is an overlay network that can be accessed only with specific software, configurations, or authorization, often using non-standard communication protocols and ports. Dark webs are friend-to-friend networks (usually used for file sharing with a peer-to-peer connection) and privacy networks such as Tor.
As of 2015[update], the term "darknet" is often used interchangeably with the "dark web" due to the quantity of hidden services on Tor's darknet. The term is often inaccurately used interchangeably with the deep web due to Tor's history as a platform that could not be search-indexed. Mixing uses of both these terms has been described as inaccurate, with some commentators recommending the terms be used in distinct fashions.
"Darknet" was coined in the 1970s to designate networks isolated from ARPANET (which evolved into the Internet), for security purposes. Darknet addresses could receive data from ARPANET but did not appear in the network lists and would not answer pings or other inquiries.
The term gained public acceptance following publication of "The Darknet and the Future of Content Distribution", a 2002 paper by Peter Biddle, Paul England, Marcus Peinado, and Bryan Willman, four employees of Microsoft who argued the presence of the darknet was the primary hindrance to the development of workable digital rights management (DRM) technologies and made copyright infringement inevitable.
Journalist J. D. Lasica, in his 2005 book Darknet: Hollywood's War Against the Digital Generation, described the darknet's reach encompassing file sharing networks. Subsequently, in 2014, journalist Jamie Bartlett in his book The Dark Net used the term to describe a range of underground and emergent subcultures, including camgirls, cryptoanarchists, darknet drug markets, self harm communities, social media racists, and transhumanists.
Darknets in general may be used for various reasons, such as:
- Computer crime (cracking, file corruption, etc.)
- Protecting dissidents from political reprisal
- File sharing (warez, personal files, pornography, confidential files, illegal or counterfeit software, etc.)
- To better protect the privacy rights of citizens from targeted and mass surveillance
- Sale of restricted goods on darknet markets
- Whistleblowing and news leaks
- Purchase or sale of illicit or illegal goods or services
- Circumventing network censorship and content-filtering systems, or bypassing restrictive firewall policies
All darknets require specific software installed or network configurations made to access them, such as Tor, which can be accessed via a customised browser from Vidalia (aka the Tor browser bundle), or alternatively via a proxy configured to perform the same function.
- anoNet is a decentralized friend-to-friend network built using VPNs and software BGP routers.
- Decentralized network 42 (not for anonymity but research purposes).
- Freenet is a popular darknet (friend-to-friend) by default; since version 0.7 it can run as a "opennet" (peer nodes are discovered automatically).
- GNUnet can be utilised as a darknet if the "F2F (network) topology" option is enabled.
- I2P (Invisible Internet Project) is another overlay network that features a darknet whose sites are called "Eepsites".
- OneSwarm can be run as a darknet for friend-to-friend file-sharing.
- RetroShare can be run as a darknet (friend-to-friend) by default to perform anonymous file transfers if DHT and Discovery features are disabled.
- Riffle is a client-server darknet system that simultaneously provides secure anonymity (as long as at least one server remains uncompromised), efficient computation, and minimal bandwidth burden.
- Syndie is software used to publish distributed forums over the anonymous networks of I2P, Tor and Freenet.
- Tor (The onion router) is an anonymity network that also features a darknet – its "hidden services". It is the most popular instance of a darknet.
- Tribler can be run as a darknet for file-sharing.
- Zeronet is open source software aimed to build an internet-like computer network of peer-to-peer users of Tor.
No longer supported
- Dark web
- Deep web
- Private peer-to-peer (P2P)
- Virtual private network (VPN)
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- Xiang, Yang; Lopez, Javier; Jay Kuo, C.-C.; Zhou, Wanlei, eds. (2012). Cyberspace Safety and Security: 4th International Symposium : Proceedings (CSS 2012). Springer (Heidelberg). pp. 89, 90. ISBN 9783642353628.
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Media related to Darknet at Wikimedia Commons