A darknet (or dark net) is an overlay network that can only be accessed with specific software, configurations, or authorization, often using non-standard communications protocols and ports. Two typical darknet types are friend-to-friend networks (usually used for file sharing with a peer-to-peer connection) and anonymous peer-to-peer networks such as Tor (via an anonymized series of connections).
Originally coined in the 1970s to designate networks which were isolated from ARPANET (which evolved into the Internet) for security purposes, darknets were able to receive data from ARPANET but had addresses which did not appear in the network lists and would not answer pings or other inquiries.
The term gained public acceptance following publication of "The Darknet and the Future of Content Distribution", a 2002 paper by Peter Biddle, Paul England, Marcus Peinado, and Bryan Willman, four employees of Microsoft who argued that the presence of the darknet was the primary hindrance to the development of workable DRM technologies and inevitability of copyright infringement.
Journalist J. D. Lasica in his 2005 book Darknet: Hollywood's War Against the Digital Generation describes the darknet's reach encompassing file sharing networks. Years later in 2014, journalist Jamie Bartlett in his book The Dark Net would use it as a term to describe a range of underground and emergent sub cultures, including social media racists, cam girls, self harm communities, darknet drug markets, cryptoanarchists and transhumanists.
As of 2015, 'The Darknet' is often used interchangeably with 'The Dark Web' due to the quantity of hidden services on Tor's darknet. The term is often confusingly used interchangeably with the The Deep Web due to how Tor historically could not be search indexed. Mixing uses of these terms has been described as both inaccurate, recommending the terms be used in distinct fashions.
Darknets in general may be used for various reasons, such as:
- To better protect privacy from targeted and Mass surveillance
- Protecting dissidents from political reprisal
- Whistleblowing and news leaks
- Computer crime
- Buy restricted goods on darknet markets
- File sharing
All darknets require specific software installed or network configurations made to access them, such as Tor which can be accessed via a customised browser from Vidalia, aka the Tor browser bundle or alternatively via a proxy server configured to perform the same function.
- Tor (The onion router) is an anonymity network that also features a darknet - its "hidden services". It's the most popular instance of a darknet.
- I2P (Invisible Internet Project) is another overlay network that features a darknet whose sites are called "Eepsites".
- Freenet is a popular darknet (friend-to-friend) by default; since version 0.7 it can run as a "opennet" (peer nodes are discovered automatically).
- RetroShare can be run as a darknet (friend-to-friend) by default to perform anonymous file transfers if DHT and Discovery features are disabled.
- GNUnet is a darknet if the "F2F (network) topology" option is enabled.
- Syndie is software used to publish distributed forums over the anonymous networks of I2P, Tor and Freenet.
- OneSwarm can be run as a darknet for friend-to-friend file-sharing.
- Tribler can be run as a darknet for file-sharing.
- Wood, Jessica (2010). "The Darknet: A Digital Copyright Revolution" (PDF). Richmond Journal of Law and Technology 16 (4): 15–17. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
- Mansfield-Devine, Steve (December 2009). "Darknets". Computer Fraud & Security 2009 (12): 4–6. doi:10.1016/S1361-3723(09)70150-2.
- Miller, Tessa (10 January 2014). "How Can I Stay Anonymous with Tor?". Life Hacker. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Torpey, Kyle (2 December 2014). "Blockchain.info Launches Tor Hidden Service". Inside Bitcoins. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Roger, Jolly. "Clearnet vs Hidden Services—Why You Should Be Careful". Jolly Roger’s Security Guide for Beginners. DeepDotWeb. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- Barratt, Monica (15 January 2015). "A Discussion About Dark Net Terminology". Drugs, Internet, Society. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Om Darknet". Archived from the original on 25 March 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Biddle, Peter; England, Paul; Peinado, Marcus; Willman, Bryan (18 November 2002). The Darknet and the Future of Content Distribution (PDF). ACM Workshop on Digital Rights Management. Washington, D.C.: Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Lasica, J. D. (2005). Darknets: Hollywood's War Against the Digital Generation. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-68334-5.
- Ian, Burrell (28 August 2014). "The Dark Net:Inside the Digital Underworld by Jamie Bartlett, book review". Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Solomon, Jane (6 May 2015). "The Deep Web vs. The Dark Web". Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Clearing Up Confusion – Deep Web vs. Dark Web". BrightPlanet.
- NPR Staff (25 May 2014). "Going Dark: The Internet Behind The Internet". Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Greenberg, Andy (19 November 2014). "Hacker Lexicon: What Is the Dark Web?". Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- "Anticounterfeiting on the Dark Web - Distinctions between the Surface Web, Dark Web and Deep Web" (PDF). 13 April 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Boutin, Paul (January 28, 2004). "See You on the Darknet". Slate.
- "File-sharing 'darknet' unveiled". BBC News. August 16, 2006.
- Darknet 101 - introduction for non technical people