Paakantyi (Darling language)

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Darling
Paakantyi
Native to Australia
Native speakers
4 (2005) to 22 (2006 census)[1]
Pama–Nyungan
  • Yarli–Baagandji
    • Darling
Dialects
  • ?Gurnu (Guula)
  • Naualko
  • Baarundji
  • Wiljaali
  • Dhanggaali (Thangkaali)
  • Bulaali
  • Wanyuparlku
  • Pantyikali
  • Barrindji
  • Marawara (Maraura)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 drl
Glottolog darl1243[3]
AIATSIS[1] D12
Darling language.png
The Darling language (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan)

The Darling language, or Paakantyi (Baagandji), is a nearly extinct Australian Aboriginal language spoken along the Darling River in New South Wales from present-day Bourke to Wentworth and including much of the back country around the Paroo River and Broken Hill. The people's and language name refers to the Paaka (Darling River) with the suffix -ntyi meaning 'belonging to',[4]

The major work on the Paakantyi language has been that of linguist Luise Hercus.[4]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Stop plain p̬ (p) t̪~θ̬ (th) t̬ (t) ʈ (rt) c̬ (ty) k̬ (k)
voiceless [b̥] (p) [d̪~ð̥] (th) [d̥] (t) [ɟ̥] (ty) [g̥] (k)
Nasal m n̪ (nh) n ɳ (rn) ɲ (ny) ŋ (ng)
Lateral l ɭ (rl) ʎ (ly)
Rhotic r (rr)
Approximant ɹ~ɻ (r) j (y) w

Vowels

Front Back
Close ɪ~i (i) ʊ~u (u)
Open a~æ~ʌ (a) ɑː (aa)
Long iː (ii) uː (uu)

The sounds within the consonant combinations are italicized above. The sounds include /mp/ /nt/ /nty/ /ngk/ /nhth/, as pronounced as /mb̥/ /nd̥/ /ɲɟ̥/ /ŋg̥/ /n̪d̪~n̪ð̥/.

Dialects[edit]

Dialects of Paakantyi include Southern Paakantyi (Baagandji, Bagundji), Kurnu (Kula), Wilyakali (Wiljagali), and Pantyikali-Wanyiwalku (Wanyuparlku, Bandjigali, Baarundji), Parrintyi (Barrindji), Marawara (Maraura). Bowern (2011) lists Gurnu/Guula as a separate language, though Hercus includes it because of its almost identical vocabulary.[5] Dixon adds several other names, some perhaps synonyms;[2] Bulaali (Bulali) may have been an alternative name for Wilyakali, but also for a different language, Maljangapa.[6]

However; Tindale (1940) mapped the 'Rite of Circumcision' border around Wanyiwalku seperating it from the rest of Paakantyi - Tindale instead groups Wanyiwalku together with Maljangapa, Wadikali & Karenggapa of the Yarli language.

Current status[edit]

The Darling language is nearly extinct, with a recent report indicating that only two people could speak the language fluently.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Darling at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  2. ^ a b Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge University Press. p. xxxvi. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Paakantyi". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ a b Luise Hercus. Baagandji Grammar, ANU 1960; Paakantyi Dictionary (published with the assistance of AIATSIS, 1993)
  5. ^ Luise Hercus. Paakantyi Dictionary (published with the assistance of AIATSIS, 1993)
  6. ^ Bulali at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  7. ^ Paul, Margaret. "Funding sought for Aboriginal language classes". abc.net.au. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 

External links[edit]