Darmiya language

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Darmiya or Darma is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Darma Valley, Dharchula Tehsil, Pithoragarh District of the Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is one of the fifteen tribes, as stated in The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Uttar Pradesh Order, 1967 (C.O. 78) in clause (1) of Article 342 of the Constitution of India. Majorly it is called Bhotia; Bhotia is the broad term used in Himalayan region: several communities and languages are considered under this term. This tribal language is the member of west Tibeto-Burman language family in the Himalayan region of Uttarakhand. It is related to Rangas, Rongpo, Chaudangsi, and Byangsi.[1] Alternate names for this language include Darma, Darma Lwo, Darma-Lwo, Darmani, Saukas, and Shaukas.[1]

Darma
Darmiya
RegionUttarakhand
Native speakers
1,750 (2006)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3drd
Glottologdarm1243[3]

At first Darmiya Language was discovered by Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India, after so many scholar did his great contribution regards in this Language like Krishnamurti, Cristina Wills, Professor K. Srikumar, Prof. Kavita Rastogi and his scholars Ashish Kumar Pandey and vishnu singh from Lucknow University is documenting this language by the help of CIIL India. Darmiya language have 34 phonemes in which 8 vowels and 28 consonants have occurred, there are five long vowels and three short vowels.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Darmiya is spoken in the Dhauli valley, from Tawaghat near Dharchula south to Sipoo in the north along Dhauli river. This area is located in Dharchula and Munsiyari tehsils, Pithoragarh district, Uttarakhand, India (Ethnologue). Darmiya is spoken in Dar, Bongling, Selachal, Nanglin, Baling, Dugtu, Saung, Baun, Philam, Datu, Gwo, Marchha, Dhakar, Sobla, and Sipoo villages (Ethnologue).

Phonology[edit]

The Darmiya language contains the following consonant phonemes:[4]

Consonants
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar
plain aspirated plain aspirated plain aspirated plain aspirated plain aspirated
Stop voiceless p t̪ʰ t͡s ʈ ʈʰ k
voiced b ɟ ɖ ɖʰ g
Fricative voiceless s x
voiced ʝ
Affricate t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ
Nasal m ɲ ɳ ŋ
Approximant l j
Rhotic r ɽ

The language contains the following vowels:[4]

Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-Mid e o
Mid ɘ
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open ɑ

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Darmiya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  2. ^ "Darmiya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-08-05.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Darmiya". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ a b Ramaswami, N (2014). Moran, Steven; McCloy, Daniel; Wright, Richard, eds. "Darmiya sound inventory (RA)". phoible.org. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Retrieved 2017-02-10.

2. Willis, Christina Marie. A descriptive grammar of Darma: an endangered Tibeto-Burman language.—University of Texas, 2007.