|Star Wars character|
|First appearance||Star Wars (1977)|
|Last appearance||Rogue One (2016)|
|Created by||George Lucas|
|Full name||Anakin Skywalker|
Darth Vader is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. He is a primary antagonist in the original trilogy, but, as Anakin Skywalker, is the main protagonist of the prequel trilogy. Star Wars creator George Lucas has collectively referred to the first six episodic films of the franchise as "the tragedy of Darth Vader."
Originally a Jedi prophesied to bring balance to the Force, Anakin Skywalker is lured to the dark side of the Force by Palpatine and becomes a Sith Lord. After fighting a lightsaber battle with his former mentor Obi-Wan Kenobi in which he is dismembered, Vader is transformed into a cyborg. He then serves the Galactic Empire as Darth Vader until he redeems himself by saving his son, Luke Skywalker, and killing Palpatine, sacrificing his own life in the process. He is also the father of Princess Leia, the secret husband of Padmé Amidala, and grandfather of Kylo Ren, the main villain of the Star Wars sequel trilogy.
The character has been portrayed by numerous actors. His cinematic appearances span the first six Star Wars films, as well as Rogue One, and he is referenced in both The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi. He also appears in television series (most substantially The Clone Wars) and numerous iterations of the Star Wars Expanded Universe, including video games, novels, and comic books.
Darth Vader has become one of the most iconic villains in popular culture, and has been listed among the greatest villains and fictional characters ever. The American Film Institute listed him as the third greatest movie villain in cinema history on 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains, behind Hannibal Lecter and Norman Bates. His role as a tragic hero in the prequel trilogy was met with positive reviews.
- 1 Creation and development
- 2 Appearances
- 2.1 Feature films
- 2.2 Television series
- 2.3 Comics
- 2.4 Canon literature
- 2.5 Virtual reality game
- 2.6 Legends
- 2.7 Video games
- 2.8 Other
- 3 Cultural impact
- 4 Family tree
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Creation and development
Series creator George Lucas initially wrote the series' main villain as separate from Luke Starkiller's father Annikin [sic]. Various combinations of names for the character were built upon the phrase "Dark Water". Then Lucas "added lots of last names, Vaders and Wilsons and Smiths, and [he] just came up with the combination of Darth and Vader." After the release of The Empire Strikes Back (1980), Lucas said the name Vader was based upon the German/Dutch-language homophone vater or vader, meaning 'father', making the name representative of a "Dark Father". However, there is no evidence that Lucas conceived of Vader as Luke's father before 1978. Other words which may have inspired the name are "death" and "invader".
As no other character with the title "Darth" was introduced until the release of The Phantom Menace (1999),[b] some viewers interpreted it as the character's first name, in part because Obi-Wan Kenobi addresses him as "Darth" in the original film. The moniker is bestowed upon Anakin in Revenge of the Sith (2005) upon his turn to the dark side of the Force.
Director Ken Annakin's films Swiss Family Robinson and Battle of the Bulge influenced the original trilogy, leading some to believe that Anakin was named after him. Lucas's publicist denied this following Annakin's death in 2009. Anakin and Luke's original surname "Starkiller" remained in the script until a few months into filming Star Wars, when it was dropped due to what Lucas called "unpleasant connotations" with Charles Manson and replaced with "Skywalker".
Concept and writing
In the first draft of The Star Wars, tall, grim general "Darth Vader" was already close in line with his final depiction, and the protagonist Annikin Starkiller had a role similar to that of his son Luke's as the 16-year-old son of a respected warrior. Originally, Lucas conceived of the Sith as a group that served the Emperor in the same way that the Schutzstaffel served Adolf Hitler. In developing the backstory for The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas condensed this into one character in the form of Darth Vader.
After the success of the original Star Wars (1977), Lucas hired science fiction author Leigh Brackett to write the sequel with him. They held story conferences and, by late November 1977, Lucas had produced a handwritten treatment. The treatment is similar to the final film, except that Vader does not reveal he is Luke's father. In the first draft that Brackett would write from this, Luke's father appears as a ghost to instruct Luke. Lucas was disappointed with the script, but Brackett died of cancer before he could discuss it with her. With no writer available, Lucas had to write the next draft himself. In this draft, he made use of a new plot twist: Vader claiming to be Luke's father. According to Lucas, he found this draft enjoyable to write, as opposed to the year-long struggles writing the first film.
The new plot element of Luke's parentage had drastic effects on the series. Author Michael Kaminski claims and argues in his book that it is unlikely that the plot point had ever seriously been considered or even conceived of before 1978, and that the first film was clearly operating under an alternate storyline where Vader was a separate character from Luke's father. After writing the second and third drafts in which the plot point was introduced, Lucas reviewed the new backstory he had created: Anakin had been Obi-Wan Kenobi's brilliant student and had a child named Luke, but was swayed to the dark side by Palpatine. Anakin battled Obi-Wan on the site of a volcano and was badly wounded, but was then reborn as Vader. Meanwhile, Obi-Wan hid Luke on Tatooine while the Galactic Republic became the tyrannical Galactic Empire and Vader systematically hunted down and killed the Jedi. This change in character would provide a springboard to the "tragedy of Darth Vader" storyline that underlies the prequel trilogy.
After deciding to create the prequel trilogy, Lucas indicated the series would be a tragic one depicting Anakin's fall to the dark side. He also saw that the prequels could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death. This was the final step towards turning the film series into a "saga". For the first prequel, Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999), Lucas made Anakin nine years old[c] to make the character's separation from his mother poignant. Movie trailers focused on Anakin and a one-sheet poster showing him casting Vader's shadow informed otherwise unknowing audiences of the character's eventual fate. The movie ultimately achieved a primary goal of introducing audiences to Anakin.
Author Michael Kaminski, in The Secret History of Star Wars, offers evidence that issues in Anakin's fall to the dark side prompted Lucas to make massive story changes, first revising the opening sequence of the third prequel, Revenge of the Sith (2005), to have Palpatine kidnapped and his apprentice, Count Dooku, killed by Anakin in cold blood as the first act in the latter's turn towards the dark side. After principal photography was complete in 2003, Lucas made even more massive changes in Anakin's character, re-writing his entire turn to the dark side; Anakin's fall from grace would now be motivated by a desire to save his wife, Padmé Amidala, rather than the previous version in which that reason was one of several, including that he genuinely believed that the Jedi were plotting to take over the Republic. This fundamental re-write was accomplished both through editing the principal footage, and new and revised scenes filmed during pick-ups in 2004.
During production of the Clone Wars TV series, Ahsoka Tano was developed to illustrate how Anakin develops from the brash, undisciplined Padawan apprentice in Attack of the Clones (2002) to the more reserved Jedi Knight in Revenge of the Sith. Clone Wars supervising director and Rebels co-creator Dave Filoni said that giving Anakin responsibility for a Padawan was meant to place the character in a role that forced him to become more cautious and responsible. It would also give him insight into his relationship with Obi-Wan and depict how their relationship matured. Ahsoka and Anakin's relationship was seen as an essential story arc spanning both the animated film and Clone Wars television series. Filoni began thinking about the final confrontation between Ahsoka and Vader ever since he created the former; different iterations had different endings, including one in which Vader kills Ahsoka just as she slashes open his helmet to reveal Vader's scarred face.
The original design of Darth Vader's costume did not originally include a helmet. The idea that Vader should wear a breathing apparatus was first proposed by concept artist Ralph McQuarrie during preproduction discussions for Star Wars with George Lucas in 1975. McQuarrie stated that Lucas's artistic direction was to portray a malevolent figure in a cape with Samurai armor. "For Darth Vader, George just said he would like to have a very tall, dark fluttering figure that had a spooky feeling like it came in on the wind." McQuarrie noted that the script indicated that Vader would travel between spaceships and needed to survive in the vacuum of space, and he proposed that Vader should wear some sort of space suit. Lucas agreed, and McQuarrie combined a full-face breathing mask with a Samurai helmet, thus creating one of the most iconic designs of space fantasy cinema. McQuarrie's 1975 production painting of Darth Vader engaged in a lightsaber duel with Deak Starkiller (a character prototype for Luke Skywalker) depicts Vader wearing black armor, a flowing cape and an elongated, skull-like mask and helmet. Its similarity to the final design of Vader's costume demonstrates that McQuarrie's earliest conception of Vader was so successful that very little needed to be changed for production.
Working from McQuarrie's designs, the costume designer John Mollo devised a costume that could be worn by an actor on-screen using a combination of clerical robes, a motorcycle suit, a German military helmet and a gas mask. The prop sculptor Brian Muir created the helmet and armour used in the film.
The sound of the respirator function of Vader's mask was created by Ben Burtt using modified recordings of scuba breathing apparatus used by divers. The sound effect is trademarked in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office under Trademark #77419252 and is officially described in the documentation as "The sound of rhythmic mechanical human breathing created by breathing through a scuba tank regulator."
Commentators have often pointed to the influence of Akira Kurosawa's films such as The Hidden Fortress (1958) on George Lucas, and Vader's Samurai-inspired costume design is held up as a significant example of the Japanese influences on Star Wars.
Darth Vader was portrayed by bodybuilder David Prowse in the original film trilogy, and by stunt performer Bob Anderson during the character's intense lightsaber fight scenes. Lucas originally intended for Orson Welles to voice Vader (after dismissing using Prowse's own voice due to his English West Country accent, leading to the rest of the cast nicknaming him "Darth Farmer"). After deciding that Welles's voice would be too recognizable, he cast the lesser-known James Earl Jones instead. Jones initially felt his contributions to the films were too small to warrant recognition and his role was uncredited at his request until the release of Return of the Jedi (1983). When Jones was specifically asked if he had supplied Vader's voice for Revenge of the Sith—either newly or from a previous recording—Jones answered, "You'd have to ask Lucas about that. I don't know". Hayden Christensen and Gene Bryant alternately portray Vader in Revenge of the Sith. During the production of Revenge of the Sith, Christensen asked Lucas if a special Vader suit could be constructed to fit his own body, rather than have a different actor don one of the original sets of Vader armor worn by Prowse. Brock Peters provided the voice of Darth Vader in the NPR/USC radio series. Both Spencer Wilding and Daniel Naprous portrayed Vader in Rogue One (2016), with Jones reprising his role as the character's voice.
Vader's character has also been portrayed in several video games; in games such as Rebel Assault II: The Hidden Empire and Dark Forces, visual effects artist C. Andrew Nelson appears in short sequences in the Vader costume, voiced by Scott Lawrence. Matt Sloan, who appeared in the YouTube parody Chad Vader, provided the voice of Darth Vader in The Force Unleashed. As a result of his video game appearances, Nelson was cast to appear as Vader in brief sequences inserted into the Special Edition of The Empire Strikes Back, in which Vader is seen boarding his shuttle.
During production of Return of the Jedi, the casting crew sought an experienced actor for the role of Anakin Skywalker since his death was unquestionably the emotional climax of the film, and Sebastian Shaw was selected for the role.[d] When Shaw arrived at the set for filming, he ran into his friend Ian McDiarmid, the actor playing the Emperor. When McDiarmid asked him what he was doing there, Shaw responded, "I don't know, dear boy, I think it's something to do with science-fiction." His presence during the filming was kept secret from all but the minimum cast and crew, and Shaw was contractually obliged not to discuss any film secrets with anyone, even his family. The unmasking scene, directed by Richard Marquand, was filmed in one day and required only a few takes, with no alteration from the original dialogue. Lucas personally directed Shaw for his appearance in the final scene of the film, in which he is a Force Ghost of Anakin. Shaw's image in this scene was replaced with that of Christensen in the 2004 DVD release. This last attempt to tie the prequel and original trilogies together proved to be possibly the most controversial change in the Star Wars re-releases. Shaw received more fan mail and autograph requests from Return of the Jedi than he had for any role in the rest of his career. He later reflected that he very much enjoyed his experience filming Return of the Jedi and expressed particular surprise that an action figure was made of him from the film.
When The Phantom Menace was being produced, hundreds of actors were tested for the role of young Anakin before the producers settled on Jake Lloyd, who Lucas considered met his requirements of "a good actor, enthusiastic and very energetic". Producer Rick McCallum said that Lloyd was "smart, mischievous and loves anything mechanical—just like Anakin." During production of Attack of the Clones, casting director Robin Gurland reviewed about 1,500 other candidates for the role of the young Anakin before Lucas eventually selected Hayden Christensen for the role. When Revenge of the Sith was being produced, Christensen and Ewan McGregor began rehearsing their climactic lightsaber duel long before Lucas would shoot it. They trained extensively with stunt coordinator Nick Gillard to memorize and perform their duel together. As in the previous prequel film, McGregor and Christensen performed their own lightsaber fighting scenes without the use of stunt doubles.
Anakin has also been voiced by Mat Lucas for the 2003 micro-series Clone Wars, and by Matt Lanter in the CGI animated film The Clone Wars, the television series of the same name and for Anakin's small roles in the animated series Rebels and Forces of Destiny. James Earl Jones reprised the voice role for Vader's appearances in Rebels. Both Lanter and Jones contributed their voices for the second-season finale of Rebels, at times with identical dialogue spoken by both actors blended together in different ways.
In Attack of the Clones, Anakin Skywalker feels "smothered" by Obi-Wan Kenobi and is incapable of controlling his own life. By Revenge of the Sith, however, his "father-son" friction with his master has matured into a more equal, brotherly relationship. Once he becomes Darth Vader, each evil act he commits shatters any hope or connection towards his previous life, which makes it harder for him to return to the light, but he ultimately escapes the dark side and redeems himself by sacrificing his life to save his son, Luke Skywalker, and kill the Emperor in Return of the Jedi.
Eric Bui, a psychiatrist at University of Toulouse Hospital, argued at the 2007 American Psychiatric Association convention that Anakin Skywalker meets six of the nine diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD), one more than necessary for a diagnosis. He and a colleague, Rachel Rodgers, published their findings in a 2010 letter to the editor of the journal Psychiatry Research. Bui says he found Anakin Skywalker a useful example to explain BPD to medical students. In particular, Bui points to Anakin's abandonment issues and uncertainty over his identity. Anakin's mass murders of the Tusken Raiders in Attack of the Clones and the young Jedi in Revenge of the Sith count as two dissociative episodes, fulfilling another criterion. Bui hoped his paper would help raise awareness of the disorder, especially among teens.
Darth Vader/Anakin Skywalker appears in seven of the live-action Star Wars films, the animated series The Clone Wars (including the film), Rebels, and the micro-series Clone Wars and Forces of Destiny. He also has a main and recurring role in games, comics, books and the non-canon Star Wars Legends material.
Darth Vader first appears in Star Wars (later retitled A New Hope) as a ruthless cyborg serving the Galactic Empire. He is tasked, along with Grand Moff Tarkin, with recovering the secret plans for the Death Star superweapon, which were stolen by the Rebel Alliance. Vader captures and tortures Princess Leia, who has hidden the plans inside the droid R2-D2 and sent it to find Vader's former Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi on the planet Tatooine. During Leia's rescue by Obi-Wan's allies Luke Skywalker and Han Solo, Vader strikes down Obi-Wan in a lightsaber duel. Having placed a tracking device aboard their ship, the Millennium Falcon, Vader is able to track down the Rebel base on the planet Yavin 4. During the Rebel attack on the Death Star, Vader boards his TIE fighter and attempts to shoot down Rebel X-wing fighters, but Solo intervenes and sends Vader's ship spiraling off course, allowing Luke to destroy the Death Star.
In The Empire Strikes Back, Vader becomes obsessed with finding the Force-sensitive Luke and leads both the 501st Legion and the Death Squadron (Vader's personal Imperial armed forces) to attack on the Rebel base on Hoth, which the Rebels escape. While conversing with Emperor Palpatine via hologram, Vader convinces him that Luke would be a valuable ally if he could be turned to the dark side. Vader hires a group of bounty hunters to follow Luke's friends, and negotiates with Bespin administrator Lando Calrissian to set a trap for them in order to bait Luke. After Han, Leia, Chewbacca, and C-3PO arrive, Vader tortures and freezes Han in carbonite and gives him to the bounty hunter Boba Fett. When Luke arrives, Vader overpowers him in a lightsaber duel, severing his hand. Vader tells Luke that he is his father, and tries to persuade him to join the dark side and help him overthrow the Emperor. Horrified, Luke escapes through an air shaft. Vader telepathically tells Luke that it is his destiny to join the dark side.
In Return of the Jedi, Vader and the Emperor supervise the final stages of the second Death Star's construction. Thinking that there is still good in his father, Luke surrenders to Vader and tries to convince him to turn from the dark side. Vader takes Luke to the Death Star to meet the Emperor. While there, Palpatine tempts Luke to give in to his anger, which leads to Vader dueling with Luke once again. Realizing that Leia is Luke's twin sister, Vader threatens to turn her to the dark side if Luke will not. Furious, Luke overpowers Vader and severs his father's robotic hand. The Emperor entreats Luke to kill Vader and take his place. Luke refuses and the Emperor tortures him with Force lightning. Unwilling to let his son die, Vader throws the Emperor down a reactor chute to his death, but is mortally electrocuted in the process. The redeemed Anakin Skywalker asks Luke to remove his mask, and admits that there was still good in him after all as he dies peacefully in his son's arms. Luke escapes the Death Star with his father's body and cremates it in a pyre on Endor. As the Rebels celebrate the Death Star's destruction and the Empire's defeat, Luke sees the spirits of Anakin, Yoda, and Obi-Wan watching over him.
In Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, which takes place 32 years before the original Star Wars film, Anakin appears as a nine-year-old slave living on Tatooine with his mother Shmi. In addition to being a gifted pilot and mechanic, Anakin has built his own protocol droid, C-3PO. Jedi Master Qui-Gon Jinn meets Anakin after making an emergency landing on Tatooine with Queen of Naboo Padmé Amidala. Qui-Gon learns from Shmi that Anakin was conceived without a father and can foresee the future. Qui-Gon senses Anakin's strong connection to the Force and becomes convinced that he is the "Chosen One" of Jedi prophecy who will bring balance to the Force. After winning his freedom in a podrace wager, Anakin leaves with Qui-Gon to be trained as a Jedi on Coruscant, but is forced to leave his mother behind. During the journey, Anakin forms a bond with Padmé. Qui-Gon asks the Jedi Council for permission to train Anakin, but they sense fear in the boy and refuse. Eventually, Anakin helps end the Trade Federation's invasion of Naboo by destroying their control ship. After Qui-Gon is killed in a lightsaber duel with Sith Lord Darth Maul, Qui-Gon's apprentice Obi-Wan promises to train Anakin, with the Council's reluctant approval. Palpatine, newly elected as the Galactic Republic's Chancellor, befriends Anakin and tells him that he will watch his career "with great interest".
In Episode II: Attack of the Clones, which takes place 10 years after The Phantom Menace, Anakin is still Obi-Wan's Padawan apprentice. After rescuing Padmé from an assassination attempt, Anakin travels with her to Naboo as her bodyguard, and they fall in love. Sensing that Shmi is in pain, Anakin travels with Padmé to Tatooine to rescue his mother. While there, Anakin learns from Shmi's husband Cliegg Lars that she was kidnapped by Tusken Raiders. Anakin locates Shmi at a Tusken campsite, where she dies in his arms. Anakin, enraged, massacres the Tusken tribe and returns to the Lars homestead to bury Shmi. Anakin then travels with Padmé to Geonosis to rescue Obi-Wan from Sith Lord Count Dooku. Dooku captures the trio and sentences them to death. However, a battalion of Jedi arrives with an army of clone troopers to halt the executions. Obi-Wan and Anakin confront Dooku, but the Sith Lord beats them both in a lightsaber duel and severs Anakin's arm. After being rescued by Yoda, Anakin is fitted with a robotic arm and secretly marries Padmé.
In Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, set three years after Attack of the Clones, Anakin is now a Jedi Knight and a hero of the Clone Wars. He and Obi-Wan lead a mission to rescue Palpatine from Separatist commander General Grievous. The two Jedi battle Count Dooku, whom Anakin kills at Palpatine's urging. They rescue Palpatine and return to Coruscant. Anakin reunites with Padmé, who tells him that she is pregnant. Although initially excited, Anakin has prophetic visions of Padmé dying in childbirth.
Palpatine appoints Anakin his personal representative the Jedi Council, but they deny him the rank of Jedi Master and order him to spy on Palpatine. Angered by the perceived snub and instructions to commit treason, Anakin begins to lose faith in the Jedi. Later, Palpatine reveals to Anakin that he is the Sith Lord Darth Sidious, and says that only he has the power to save Padmé from dying. Anakin reports Palpatine's treachery to Jedi Master Mace Windu, who confronts and subdues Palpatine. Desperate to save Padmé, Anakin disarms Windu, which allows Palpatine to kill the Jedi Master. Anakin pledges himself to the Sith, and Palpatine dubs him Darth Vader.
On Palpatine's orders, Vader leads the 501st Legion to kill everyone in the Jedi Temple and assassinates the remaining Separatist leaders on the volcanic planet Mustafar. A distraught Padmé goes to Mustafar and begs Vader to return to the light side. Vader refuses and asks her to help him overthrow Palpatine so they can rule the galaxy together. Seeing Obi-Wan on Padmé's ship, and thinking they have conspired to kill him, Vader uses the Force to choke Padmé into unconsciousness. Obi-Wan engages Vader in a lightsaber duel that ends with Obi-Wan dismembering Vader and leaving him for dead on the banks of a lava flow, severely burned. Palpatine finds Vader and brings him to Coruscant, where his apprentice is resuscitated and his mutilated body rebuilt with the black armor first depicted in the original trilogy. Palpatine tells Vader that he himself killed Padmé in his rage, and Vader screams in agony. At the end of the film, Vader supervises the construction of the first Death Star alongside Palpatine and Grand Moff Tarkin.
Vader's melted helmet appears in The Force Awakens (2015), in which Vader's grandson Kylo Ren is seen addressing him, though Vader does not appear in the film. At one point, his helmet was considered as the film's MacGuffin. Footage of the upcoming Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker (2019) shown at a Disney shareholders event also includes the helmet.
The Clone Wars (film)
In the 2008 3D animated film The Clone Wars, Yoda assigns Ahsoka Tano as Anakin's Padawan apprentice, a responsibility Anakin is at first reluctant to accept. Anakin calls her "Snips" for her "snippy" attitude, while Ahsoka calls him "Skyguy" as a pun on his surname. After earning Anakin's respect during a dangerous mission, Ahsoka joins him on a quest to rescue Jabba the Hutt's infant son, Rotta. Her impetuousness both annoys and endears her to her master, and Anakin develops a friendly affection for his apprentice.
In the first anthology film Rogue One, Vader makes a cameo appearance in which he meets with Imperial weapons engineer Orson Krennic, who asks him for an audience with the Emperor regarding the Death Star which Krennic lost command of to Tarkin. Vader refuses, however, using the Force to humiliatingly choke him, and ordering him to ensure that the Death Star project has not been compromised. At the end of the film, Vader boards the disabled Rebel flagship Profundity with a cadre of 501st Legion troopers and kills several Rebel soldiers as he attempts to recover the plans. However, the docked blockade runner Tantive IV escapes with the plans, setting up the events of A New Hope.
Clone Wars (2003–2005)
Anakin is a lead character in all three seasons of the Clone Wars micro-series, which takes place shortly after the conclusion of Attack of the Clones. Anakin becomes a Jedi Knight and is quickly promoted to a General of the Republic's Clone Army, due in part to Palpatine's influence. Among other missions, he fights a duel with Dooku's apprentice Asajj Ventress, helps Obi-Wan capture a Separatist-controlled fortress and rescues Jedi Master Saesee Tiin during a space battle. During the third season, Anakin frees a planet's indigenous species from Separatist control and sees a vision of his future as Darth Vader. In the season finale, Anakin and Obi-Wan go on a mission to rescue Palpatine from General Grievous, leading to the opening of Revenge of the Sith.
The Clone Wars (2008–2014)
Anakin is a lead character in all seasons of The Clone Wars. As a Jedi Knight, he leads the 501st Legion on missions with both Obi-Wan and Ahsoka throughout the war. Some of Anakin's actions taken out of concern for Ahsoka violate the Jedi code, such as torturing prisoners who may know her location when she goes missing. During the third season, Anakin experiences a vision of his future as Darth Vader.
Darth Vader appears in multiple episodes of the first season of Star Wars Rebels, which takes place 14 years after The Clone Wars concludes. Vader leads a squadron of Force-sensitive Imperial Inquisitors who actively search for and kill any remaining Jedi and Force-sensitive children. In the second-season premiere, Vader discovers that Ahsoka has joined the Rebel Alliance, and the Emperor orders him to hunt her down.
During their first confrontation in years, Ahsoka is overwhelmed when she recognizes Anakin under "a layer of hate" in Darth Vader. Later in the season, Ahsoka has a vision in which Anakin blames her for allowing him to fall to the dark side. In the season finale, Ahsoka duels with her former master inside a Sith Temple, allowing her friends to escape Vader and the temple's destruction. As the episode concludes, Vader escapes from the temple's ruins. Vader makes a final voiceless cameo in the late fourth-season episode "A World Between Worlds", in which it is revealed that Ahsoka escaped from her previous duel with Vader by entering a Force-realm. Shortly afterward, quotes from Vader are heard echoing in the void.
Forces of Destiny (2017–2018)
In 2015, Marvel released a 25-issue series called Darth Vader (2015), which focused on the title character in the aftermath of the destruction of the Death Star, as well as his life after learning about the existence of his son. The series happens parallel to the comic book series Star Wars, with which it has a crossover titled Vader Down.
The five-issue mini-series Obi-Wan & Anakin, written by Charles Soule, depicts the lives of the titular Jedi between The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones. At New York Comic Con 2015, Soule described the story as "pretty unexplored territory." A second series written by Soule called Darth Vader (2017) begins moments after Vader wakes up in his black suit at the end of Revenge of the Sith. The series focuses on exploring the titular character's emotional transformation upon learning of Padme's death, his adjustment to his mechanical suit, how he creates his red-bladed lightsaber, and his hunting of Jedi in the Inquisitor program introduced in Rebels. Its final issue indicates that Palpatine may have used the Force to conceive Anakin in utero, as some fans have theorized that Revenge of the Sith implies.[e]
Star Wars: Lords of the Sith was one of the first four canon novels to be released in 2014 and 2015. In Lords of the Sith, Vader and Palpatine find themselves hunted by revolutionaries on the Twi'lek planet Ryloth.
Virtual reality game
In the 2015 Star Wars Celebration, it was announced David S. Goyer is helping to develop a virtual reality game based on Darth Vader. As a observer with limited influence, the player will be able to walk, pick up, push and open things, and possibly effect the story. There will be three episodes overall, set between Revenge of the Sith and Rogue One, with the first available with the launch of Oculus Quest.
In April 2014, most of the licensed Star Wars novels and comics produced since the originating 1977 film Star Wars were rebranded by Lucasfilm as Legends and declared non-canon to the franchise.
Vader is featured prominently in novels set in the Star Wars universe. In the 1978 novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye by Alan Dean Foster, Vader meets Luke Skywalker for the first time and engages him in a lightsaber duel that ends with Luke cutting off Vader's arm and Vader falling into a deep pit. (In 1999's Vader's Quest, however, Vader encounters Luke for the first time after hiring a bounty hunter to find the pilot who destroyed the Death Star.) Shadows of the Empire (1996) reveals that Vader is conflicted about trying to turn his son to the dark side of the Force, and knows deep down that there is still some good in him.
Anakin Skywalker's redeemed spirit appears in The Truce at Bakura (1993), set a few days after the end of Return of the Jedi. He appears to Leia, imploring her forgiveness. Leia condemns him for his crimes and exiles him from her life. He promises that he will be there for her when she needs him, and disappears. In Tatooine Ghost (2003), Leia learns to forgive her father after learning about his childhood as a slave and his mother's traumatic death. In The Unifying Force (2003), Anakin tells his grandson Jacen Solo to "stand firm" in his battle with the Supreme Overlord of the Yuuzhan Vong.
Upon the release of the prequel films, the Expanded Universe grew to include novels about Vader's former life as Anakin Skywalker. Greg Bear's 2000 novel Rogue Planet and Jude Watson's Jedi Apprentice and Jedi Quest series chronicle Anakin's early missions with Obi-Wan, while James Luceno's 2005 novel Labyrinth of Evil, set during the Clone Wars, depicts Anakin battling Separatist commander General Grievous. In Luceno's Dark Lord: The Rise of Darth Vader (2005), set a few months after the events of Revenge of the Sith, Vader disavows his identity as Anakin Skywalker as he systematically pursues and kills the surviving Jedi and cements his position in the Empire. The novel reveals that Vader plans to eventually overthrow Palpatine and that he betrayed the Jedi because he resented their supposed failure to recognize his power.
In the Dark Nest trilogy (2005), Luke and Leia uncover old recordings of their parents in R2-D2's memory drive; for the first time, they see their own birth and their mother's death, as well as their father's corruption to the dark side. In Bloodlines (2006), Han and Leia's son Jacen – who has himself turned to the dark side – uses the Force to "watch" Darth Vader slaughter the children at the Jedi Temple.
Vader also appears in a series of tongue-in-cheek children's books by Jeffrey Brown. In Brown's series, a hapless Vader sets out to be a father to a young Luke and Leia, with some scenes portraying light-hearted versions of their darker film counterparts (for example, one scene shows Vader, Luke and Leia at the carbonite freezing chamber on Bespin, with Vader pronouncing the freezer adequate for making ice cream).
Anakin Skywalker is a major character in Dark Horse's Star Wars: Republic series (1998–2006).
Darth Vader and Anakin Skywalker appear in a variety of video games such as the Lego Star Wars series and the Battlefront series. Vader plays a central role in Star Wars: The Force Unleashed (2008). He is a playable character in the first level of the game, where he and his armies invade Kashyyyk to hunt down a Jedi who had survived the Order's destruction. Vader kills the Jedi and kidnaps the man's young Force-sensitive son, whom he raises as his secret apprentice, Starkiller. Vader sends Starkiller on various missions throughout the galaxy, with an ultimate goal to assassinate Palpatine so that Vader can rule the galaxy himself. Toward the end of the game, however, it is revealed that Vader isn't planning to overthrow Palpatine at all; he is merely using his apprentice to expose the Empire's enemies. At the game's climax, the player chooses between attacking Palpatine to help his Rebel friends escape the Death Star or killing Vader to become the Emperor's new apprentice. He also appears in the sequel Star Wars: The Force Unleashed II as the final boss. He, Starkiller and Yoda serve as guest characters for Soulcalibur IV (2008), with Vader available for the PlayStation 3 edition and downloadable content for the Xbox 360 edition.
In the Star Wars Holiday Special, a television special broadcast by CBS in 1978, features a brief appearance by Darth Vader, who appears on-screen speaking with Imperial officer "Chief Bast" in footage cut from the original 1977 film. The sequence is dubbed with new dialogue, performed by James Earl Jones. In the story, Vader colludes with Boba Fett to entrap the Rebels.
Darth Vader features in the 1981 radio drama adaptation of Star Wars, voiced by the actor Brock Peters. Vader makes his first appearance on the planet Ralltiir, where he treats Princess Leia with suspicion. In later extended scenes, he is heard interrogating and torturing Leia on board his Star Destroyer and aboard the Death Star.
Vader appears in Star Tours – The Adventures Continue, where he is voiced by Jones. Vader is featured as a combatant in the popular series Death Battle, in which he is pitted against Marvel Comics villain Doctor Doom.
An action figure of Vader comes to life alongside RoboCop and Jurassic Park toys in The Indian in the Cupboard (1995). Vader also had a brief cameo in Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian (2009), in which he and Oscar the Grouch try unsuccessfully to join the army formed by Ivan the Terrible, Napoleon and Al Capone.
Darth Vader has gained much positive reception as a classic film villain. The character ranked number two on Empire magazine's 2008 list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters. Premiere magazine also ranked Vader on their list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time. On their list of the 100 Greatest Fictional Characters, Fandomania.com ranked Vader at number 6. Darth Vader was also the No. 1 supervillain on the Bravo series Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens and Villains, and No. 1 in IGN's list of top 100 Star Wars characters. Furthermore, Darth Vader's quote in The Empire Strikes Back—"No, I am your father" (often misquoted as "Luke, I am your father"),—is one of the most well known quotes in cinema history. The line was selected as one of the 400 nominees for the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes, a list of the greatest American movie quotes. Vader received the Ultimate Villain recognition at the 2011 Scream Awards.
Darth Vader's iconic status has made the character a symbol for evil in popular culture. For example, a three part series of episodes of the YouTube series Epic Rap Battles of History has Darth Vader facing off against Adolf Hitler. Psychiatrists have considered Vader to be a useful example for explaining borderline personality disorder to medical students. Anakin's origin story in The Phantom Menace has been compared to signifiers of African American racial identity, and his dissatisfaction with his life has been compared to Siddartha's before he became Gautama Buddha. A Mexican church advised Christians against seeing The Phantom Menace because it portrays Anakin as a Christ figure. The slime-mold beetle Agathidium vaderi is named after Vader, and several buildings across the globe are regularly compared to him. A grotesque of Darth Vader looms over the east face of the Washington National Cathedral's northwest tower. During the 2007–08 NHL season, Ottawa Senators goaltender Martin Gerber performed so well in an all-black mask that fans endearingly termed him "Darth Gerber". In 2015, a statue of Vladimir Lenin in Odessa, Ukraine, was converted into one of Darth Vader due to a law on decommunization.
Many films and television series have paid homage to Darth Vader. The 1982 compilation movie Cosmic Princess, compiled from parts of Space: 1999 episodes, contains several Star Wars references including a character named "Vader". Marty McFly in Back to the Future (1985), dressed in a radiation suit, calls himself "Darth Vader from the planet Vulcan" to convince the past version of his father to ask his mother to a dance. Rick Moranis plays "Dark Helmet" in the Star Wars parody Spaceballs (1987). In Chasing Amy (1997), Hooper X speaks at a comic convention about Darth Vader being a metaphor for how poorly the science fiction genre treats black people; he is especially offended that Vader, the "blackest brother in the galaxy", reveals himself to be a "feeble, crusty old white man" at the end of Return of the Jedi. The character was also parodied in the Nickelodeon cartoon Rocko's Modern Life in the episode "Teed Off". On another Nickelodeon cartoon, Jimmy Neutron, Darth Vader's infamous line, "I am your father", was interpolated in the mini-episode "New Dog, Old Tricks". The line was also alluded to in Toy Story 2, which also introduces Emperor Zurg (a parody of Vader) to the Disney media franchise. The character of Dark Mayhem in The Thundermans is also a parody of Vader, especially in his original depiction, while his later appearances changed the character to a comical supervillain usually working with incompetent henchmen.
The Final Fantasy IV the character Golbez, who spends most of the game as the main antagonist, was stated by Takashi Tokita to be based on Vader, with his following a similar character arc. In 2010, IGN ranked Darth Vader 25th in the "Top 100 Videogame Villains".
Many commentators and comedians have also evoked his visage to satirize politicians and other public figures, and several American political figures have been unflatteringly compared to the character. In response to Ronald Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative (dubbed "Star Wars" by his political opponents), German news magazine Der Spiegel portrayed the president wearing Vader's helmet on its cover in 1984. In 2005, Al Gore referred to Tele-Communications Inc.'s John C. Malone as the "Darth Vader of cable", and political strategist Lee Atwater was known by his political enemies as "the Darth Vader of the Republican Party". Native American artist Bunky Echohawk portrayed General Custer as Vader in his painting Darth Custer.
In 2006, US Vice President Dick Cheney referenced Darth Vader in an interview with CNN's John King. While discussing the George W. Bush administration's dogma on gathering intelligence, Cheney said, "It means we need to be able to go after and capture or kill those people who are trying to kill Americans. That's not a pleasant business. It's a very serious business. And I suppose, sometimes, people look at my demeanor and say, 'Well, he's the Darth Vader of the administration.'" Following this interview, many pop culture celebrities referred to Cheney in this manner during and after his vice presidency. On January 25, 2007, Jon Stewart put on a Darth Vader helmet to address Dick Cheney as a "kindred spirit" on The Daily Show. Cheney's wife, Lynne, presented Stewart with a Darth Vader action figure on her appearance on the show on October 10, 2007. Both Stewart and Stephen Colbert have occasionally referred to Cheney as "Darth Cheney". In the satirical cartoon show Lil' Bush, Dick Cheney's father is portrayed as being Darth Vader. At her presidential campaign event on September 19, 2007, Hillary Clinton also referred to Cheney as Darth Vader. At the 2008 Washington Radio and Television Correspondents' Association Dinner, Cheney joked that his wife Lynne told him that the Vader comparison "humanizes" him. George Lucas told The New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd, however, that Cheney is more akin to Emperor Palpatine, and that a better stand-in for Vader would be George W. Bush. An issue of Newsweek referenced this quote, and compared Bush and Cheney to Vader and Palpatine, respectively, in a satirical article comparing politicians to various Star Wars and Star Trek characters.
Skywalker family tree
- Christensen replaced Sebastian Shaw's appearance as a Force ghost in the 2004 DVD Special Edition of Return of the Jedi
- Characters in the prequel trilogy such as Darth Sidious, Darth Maul, and Darth Tyrannus reveal that Darth is a title for Sith Lords.
- Making the character 14 years younger by the time of the original film than A Guide to the Star Wars Universe previously stated
- Director Richard Marquand wanted a famous actor like Laurence Olivier to play the role.
- In the film, Palpatine tells Anakin about Darth Plagueis the Wise, "a Dark Lord of the Sith so powerful and so wise, he could use the Force to influence the midi-chlorians to create life." This was preceded by the rough draft of Revenge of the Sith, in which Palpatine says to Anakin, "I arranged for your conception. I used the power of the Force to will the midichlorians to start the cell divisions that created you."
- Two men named Darth Vader were candidates at the 25 May 2014 Kiev mayoral election and the Odessa mayoral election of the same day. A man named Darth Vader earlier had submitted documents to be registered as a presidential candidate in the 25 May 2014 Ukrainian presidential election, but his registration was refused because his real identity could not be verified. In the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election, Darth Vader and Star Wars characters such as Chewbacca, Padmé Amidala and Yoda ran for seats in the Ukrainian parliament. Candidates named Darth Vader reappeared in the 2015 Ukrainian local elections.
- Wakeman, Gregory (December 4, 2014). "George Lucas Was Terrible At Predicting The Future Of Star Wars". CinemaBlend. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
- Thornton, Mark (May 13, 2005). "What is the 'Dark Side' and Why Do Some People Choose It?". www.mises.org. Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
- "Darth Vader – #1 Top 100 Villain". IGN. San Francisco, California: J2 Global. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- "Why Darth Vader Is The Best Villain Ever". Comicbook.com. June 29, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains" (PDF). afi.com. Los Angeles, California: American Film Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2011. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Tragic hero: Anakin Skywalker from Return of the Jedi (1983)". Filmsmarts.com. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- Kinnaird, Brian A. (November 15, 2015). "Darth Vader: The Value of Redemptive Sacrifice". Psychology Today. New York City: Sussex Publishers. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- Murphy, William (November 28, 2017). "Did German Speakers Understand The Darth Vader Reveal Before Anyone Else?". Forbes. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- Kaminski 2008, p. 211.
- Jordan, John-Erik (December 17, 2015). "The real-world origins of the names and languages in 'Star Wars'". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Hill, Amelia (April 16, 2018). "The Definition of the Word 'Darth' in the Star Wars Universe". ThoughtCo. Dotdash. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- Young, Bryan (January 21, 2014). "The Cinema Behind Star Wars: Battle of the Bulge". StarWars.com. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
- McLellan, Dennis (April 24, 2009). "Ken Annakin dies at 94; British director of 'Swiss Family Robinson' and others". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California: Tronc. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Eisenberg, Eric (October 26, 2015). "Why George Lucas Had To Change Luke Skywalker's Name In Star Wars". Cinema Blend. Portland, Oregon: Cinema Blend LLC. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Serafino, Jay (November 17, 2016). "8 Major Changes From the Original Star Wars Trilogy Drafts". Mental Floss. London, England: Dennis Publishing. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
- Kaminski 2008, p. 184.
- Saavedra, John (May 21, 2018). "Star Wars: Leigh Brackett and The Empire Strikes Back You Never Saw". Den of Geek. London, England: Dennis Publishing. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- (Bouzereau 1997, p. 144)
- The Empire Strikes Back (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 2004.
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 120–121
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 164–165
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 299–300
- "Anakin Skywalker". Star Wars Databank. Los Angeles, California: Lucasfilm. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- Slavicsek, Bill (1994). A Guide to the Star Wars Universe (2nd ed.). Del Rey. p. xix. ISBN 0-345-38625-6.
- Houghton, David (May 4, 2016). "George Lucas nearly wrote a perfect prequel trilogy. He just didn't notice". Gamesradar. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- Bowen 2005, p. 22
- Kaminski 2007, pp. 299–300
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 380–384
- Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith documentary "Within a Minute" (DVD documentary). 2005.
- TV Guide Article August 11, 2008
- Minkel, JR (August 11, 2008). "When Clones Attack: Q&A with Clone Wars Director David Filoni". Scientific American. New York City: Springer Nature. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- "From Apprentice to Adversary: Vader vs. Ahsoka featurette". Star Wars Rebels season 2. Archived from the original (Blu-ray) on September 21, 2016.
- Brooks, Dan (August 30, 2016). "Fates Fulfilled: Dave Filoni Reflects on Star Wars Rebels Season Two, Part 1". StarWars.com. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- Whitbrook, James (September 14, 2016). "The Art That Inspired Ahsoka and Darth Vader's Epic Duel in Star Wars Rebels". io9.com. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- Gross, Ed (September 30, 2016). "Star Wars: Dave Filoni talks Rebels as well as Rogue One connections". Empire. London, England: Bauer Media Group. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- "The Old Master: Ralph McQuarrie on Designing Star Wars". Star Wars Insider (76). June 2004.
- Casey, Dan (2015). "64. Ralph McQuarrie, the Conceptual Mastermind". 100 Things Star Wars Fans Should Know & Do Before They Die. Triumph Books. ISBN 9781633193451. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- "Ralph McQuarrie's Most Memorable Masterpieces | StarWars.com". StarWars.com. August 16, 2016. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Gilbey, Ryan (November 1, 2017). "John Mollo obituary: Star Wars costume designer who dressed Darth Vader". The Guardian. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- "Insider Excerpt: Vader Sculptor Brian Muir". StarWars.com. March 24, 2010. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011.
- Rinzler, J.W. (2010). The Sounds of Star Wars. Foreword by Ben Burtt. London: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780857200761.
- O'Reilly, Terry (January 5, 2017). "The Crazy World of Trademarks". Under the Influence. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- Barder, Ollie (December 21, 2015). "Understanding The Japanese Influences Behind 'Star Wars'". Forbes. New York City: Forbes Media. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- "Darth Vader". Star Wars Databank. Lucasfilm. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- "British Darth Vader fighter dies aged 89". BBC News. January 2, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- Lucas, George (writer/director) (1977). DVD commentary for Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope (DVD) (2004 ed.). Los Angeles, California: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment.
- Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy. Star Wars Trilogy Box Set DVD documentary. 
- Russo, Tom. "The Force Wasn't With Them". Premiere. Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S. Archived from the original on May 8, 2006. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
- Lovece, Frank (March 12, 2008). "Fast Chat: James Earl Jones". Newsday. New York. Archived from the original on December 4, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- The Star Wars Trilogy (Bonus Material) [Episode III Preview: The Return of Darth Vader] (DVD). 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. 2004.
- Johnson, Zac (June 24, 2016). "Darth Vader Confirmed to Appear in Rogue One: A Star Wars Story: All the Details". E! News Australia.
- Britt, Ryan (December 14, 2016). "The Most Menacing Figures Who Played Darth Vader". Inverse. Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "Star Wars – Lucas Made Vader Suit Extra Awkward". Contactmusic.com. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- "Rogue One: Darth Vader storms Rhyl for Star Wars showing". BBC Wales. December 22, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
While the actor has the body role, just like his predecessor in the original Star Wars films David Prowse, the voice of Lord Vader is actor James Earl Jones.
- Butler, Tom (December 14, 2016). "Rogue One: Why it took multiple actors to play Darth Vader (exclusive)". Yahoo Movies. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Owen, Luke (April 11, 2016). "Star Wars Exclusive: Rogue One's Darth Vader casting revealed". Flickering Myth.
- DiGiacomo, Frank (January 1, 2010). "The Game Has Changed". The Hive. Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Pirani, Adam (July 1987). "Sebastian Shaw: The Return of Anakin Skywalker". Starlog. Vol. 11 no. 120. pp. 56–57, 96.
- Anders, Charlie Jane (September 25, 2013). "10 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Star Wars: Return of the Jedi". Gizmodo. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
- Chernoff, Scott (April – May 1998). "Ian McDiarmid: An Interview with the Emperor". Star Wars Insider. No. 37. p. 33.
- Johnson, Derek (September 22, 2005). "Star Wars fans, DVD, and cultural ownership: an interview with Will Brooker; Interview". Velvet Light Trap. pp. 36–44.
- Ebert, Roger (May 1, 2005). "Anakin's fans strike back". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois: Sun-Times Media Group. p. 3.
- "Star Wars Episode I Production Notes: The Actors and Characters – Part I". StarWars.com. May 1, 1999. Archived from the original on October 23, 2004. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- "Star Wars Episode I Production Notes: The Actors and Characters – Part II". StarWars.com. May 1, 1999. Archived from the original on October 23, 2004. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
- "The Man (Literally) Behind C-3PO". StarWars.com. November 2, 1999. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- "Robin Gurland – Don't Call Her; She'll Call You". Star Wars.com. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith DVD documentary It's All for Real: The Stunts of Episode III, .
- Breznican, Anthony (April 13, 2017). "Star Wars highlights female heroes in Forces of Destiny". Entertainment Weekly. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- "James Earl Jones to Voice Darth Vader in Star Wars: Rebels' Premiere on ABC!". Star Wars Episode VII News. October 9, 2014. Archived from the original on February 25, 2015.
- Caron, Nathalie (April 21, 2015). "James Earl Jones confirmed as Darth Vader". Blastr.com. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
- "Ahsoka's Untold Tales Panel | Star Wars Celebration Europe 2016". July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016 – via YouTube.
- Bortolin 2005, p. 17
- Kapell, Matthew; Lawrence, John Shelton (2006). Finding the force of the Star wars franchise: fans, merchandise, & critics. New York City: Peter Lang. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-8204-8808-0.
- Bortolin 2005, p. 115
- Bortolin 2005, p. x
- Hsu, Jeremy (June 8, 2010). "The Psychology of Darth Vader Revealed". LiveScience. TopTenReviews. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- "Darth Vader". StarWars.com. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- "Anakin Skywalker". StarWars.com. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- Szostak, Phil (2015). The Art of 'Star Wars: The Force Awakens'. New York City: Abrams Books. p. 79. ISBN 9781419717802.
- Kleinman, Jake (March 8, 2019). "Star Wars Episode 9 Trailer: Footage Solves the Mystery of Rey's Lightsaber". Inverse. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
- Davis, Lauren (December 16, 2015). "Why Ahsoka Tano Is the Best Thing to Happen to Star Wars in 20 Years". io9. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- "This Week in The Clone Wars: Anakin Meets Darth Vader". Wired. February 11, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- Fowler, Matt (October 2, 2014). "Everything You Need To Know About Star Wars Rebels". IGN. Ziff Davis. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- "Darth Vader (2015 – present) | Comics". Marvel. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Schedeen, Jesse (June 3, 2015). "Star Wars Delivers Huge Change for Han Solo". IGN. Ziff Davis. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Schedeen, Jesse (November 17, 2015). "Star Wars: Vader Down #1 Review". IGN. San Francisco, California: j2 Global. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- Brooks, Dan (October 12, 2015). "Obi-Wan & Anakin Interview with Charles Soule". StarWars.com. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- Brooks, Dan (March 10, 2017). "In Marvel's New Darth Vader Series, We Will See the Sith Lord's Rise, the Construction of His Lightsaber, and More". StarWars.com. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- Young, Bryan (December 28, 2018). "Does a New 'Star Wars' Comic Book Reveal Darth Vader's Father?". /Film. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- Gunn, Callum (2019). "Star Wars comic finally reveals Anakin's father". Dork Side of the Force. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- "Disney and Random House announce relaunch of Star Wars Adult Fiction line". StarWars.com. April 25, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Keane, Sean (April 28, 2015). "REVIEW: Star Wars: Lords of the Sith throws Darth Vader and the Emperor onto the battlefield". Daily News. New York. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Goldman, Eric (May 9, 2015). "Star Wars: Lords of the Sith Review". IGN. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- "A Star Wars film based on Darth Vader is on the way". The Independent. July 17, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- Kris, Holt (April 12, 2019). "'Star Wars' VR game 'Vader Immortal' teases story details in trailer". Engadget. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- "The Legendary Star Wars Expanded Universe Turns a New Page". StarWars.com. April 25, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- "Goodnight Darth Vader By Jeffrey Brown – Exclusive Reveal". StarWars.com. February 10, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Hayes, David C. (2015). "The Star Wars Holiday Special". In Rausch, Andrew J.; Riley, R.D. (eds.). Trash Cinema: A Celebration of Overlooked Masterpieces. Albany, Georgia: BearManor Media. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
- McKinney, Brandon; Kolins, Scott; Wallace, Daniel (1998). Star Wars: the Essential Guide to Planets and Moons. New York City: Ballantine Publishing Group. p. 157. ISBN 9780345420688.
- "Listening to Star Wars: Part III – Future of the Force". Future of the Force. February 15, 2017. Retrieved July 11, 2017.[permanent dead link]
- John, Derek (December 18, 2015). "That Time NPR Turned 'Star Wars' Into A Radio Drama — And It Actually Worked". NPR. Archived from the original on July 11, 2017. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- Squires, John (March 30, 2017). "Remember When 'Indian in the Cupboard' Brought Together Darth Vader, RoboCop and 'Jurassic Park'?!". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- "Empire's The 100 Greatest Movie Characters". Empire Magazine. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Premiere Magazine's The 100 Greatest Movie Characters". Filmsite.org. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters". Fandomania.com. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens and Villains Episode Guide 2005 – Ultimate Super Villains". TV Guide. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- "Darth Vader/Anakin Skywalker is No. 1". IGN. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- French, Michael (2003). "The Common Concept of In". TheRaider.net. Retrieved February 26, 2007.
- "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes: Official Ballot" (PDF). AFI.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 19, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Ford, Rebecca (October 15, 2011). "George Lucas Makes Surprise Appearance at Spike TV Scream Awards". The Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Eldridge Industries. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Han, Christopher. "Epic Rap Battles of History: Darth Vader vs Hitler". Gawker.
- Nama, Adilifu (2008). Black space: imagining race in science fiction film. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-0-292-71745-9.
- Bortolin 2005, p. xiii
- Bowen 2005, p. 97
- "Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld are now species of slime-mold beetles – but strictly in homage". Cornell News. Cornell University. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "An architectural Star Wars clash at Sierra Point". San Francisco Chronicle. April 17, 1986. p. 4.
- Egan, Timothy (June 29, 1986). "Focus: Seattle; Creating An Office Empire". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
- "the bell awards – Tom Graff (interview)". Belltown Messenger. June 2007. Archived from the original on June 17, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
- "Search – panels – Dayout New Zealand". Dayout.co.nz. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- Brendan (July 11, 2008). "Wayward Wellingtonians: Grand Canyon Scale for Wellingtonians". Wayward-wellingtonians.blogspot.com. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- "About Darth Vader". Washington National Cathedral. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "Sens' Gerber has new mask, new outlook on season". The Sports Network. September 24, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- Worland, Justin (October 25, 2015). "Ukrainian Lenin Statue Turned into Darth Vader". Time. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- "Cosmic Princess". catacombs.space1999.net. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- "Western Animation: Rocko's Modern Life". TV Tropes. TV Tropes. Retrieved December 20, 2015.[better source needed]
- "The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius > Season 1 > Episode 1 > New Dog, Old Tricks". TV.com. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- "Toy Story references to the Star Wars films". In a far away Galaxy. December 7, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
- "A Conversation With the Creator of Final Fantasy IV". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on April 4, 2015. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- "Darth Vader is number 25". IGN.com. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- Woods, Bob, ed. (1997). "It Took the World by Force". Star Wars: Official 20th Anniversary Commemorative Magazine. New York: Topps. p. 57.
- Gunther, Marc (August 22, 2005). "Al Gore Battles Old Cable Demons". CNN. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "Harvey Leroy "Lee" Atwater, was a Republican political consultant". Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- Steele, Robin (October 5, 2007). "Bunky Echo-Hawk takes the stage with live painting". The Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Dick Cheney (June 22, 2006). "Interview With Dick Cheney". The Situation Room (Interview). Interviewed by John King. CNN. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "The Daily Show: Cheney Camera 3". Comedy Central. January 25, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
- Dowd, Maureen (April 19, 2009). "The Aura of Arugulance". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2009.
- "'Star Wars' vs. 'Star Trek'". Newsweek. Vol. 153 no. 18. May 4, 2009. pp. 54–55. Archived from the original on May 9, 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- "Darth Vader Is Running for Prime Minister of Ukraine, Vowing to Take on Putin". Newsweek. October 24, 2014.
- "Kyiv Election Commission Registers Darth Vader As Candidate For Kyiv Mayor". Ukrainian News Agency. May 1, 2014. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- "Darth Vader candidate for mayor of Odesa]". Espreso TV (in Ukrainian). May 1, 2014.
- "Tsushko to compete for post of Odesa mayor". Interfax-Ukraine. March 29, 2014. Archived from the original on April 3, 2014.
- "Ukraine's Darth Vader presidency bid rejected". Euronews. March 4, 2016. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
- Momtaz, Rym; Jovanovic, Dragana (October 26, 2014). "Pro-Western Parties, Not Darth Vader, Set to Win Ukrainian Elections". ABC News. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
- Cooper, Geraldine (October 26, 2014). "Ukraine's Darth Vader candidate denied vote after refusing to remove mask". The Telegraph. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
Darth Alekseyevich Vader, an official candidate in Ukraine's parliamentary elections, is turned away from a Kiev polling station after refusing to remove his mask
- "Putin headed for victory in Odesa as Darth Vader clouds farcical election". Ukraine Today. October 23, 2015.
- Hidalgo, Pablo (2016). Star Wars Character Encyclopedia: Updated and Expanded.
- "Cliegg Lars". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- "Shmi Skywalker Lars". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- "Beru Lars". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- "Owen Lars". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- "Anakin Skywalker". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Darth Vader". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Padmé Amidala". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Bail Organa". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- "Luke Skywalker". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Princess Leia Organa". StarWars.com. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- The Force Awakens. 2015.
- Bortolin, Matthew (2005). The Dharma of Star Wars. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-497-1.
- Bowen, Jonathan L. (2005). Anticipation: The Real Life Story of Star Wars: Episode I-The Phantom Menace. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-34732-2.
- Kaminski, Michael (2008). The Secret History of Star Wars. Legacy Works Press. ISBN 978-0-9784652-3-0.
- Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Novelization, 1st edition paperback, 1999. Terry Brooks, George Lucas
- Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Novelization, 2003. R. A. Salvatore, ISBN 0-345-42882-X
- Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Novelization, 1st edition hardcover, 2005. Matthew Woodring Stover, George Lucas, ISBN 0-7126-8427-1
- The New Essential Guide to Characters, 1st edition, 2002. Daniel Wallace, Michael Sutfin, ISBN 0-345-44900-2
- Vader: The Ultimate Guide, 2005.
- Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary, hardcover, 1998. Dr. David West Reynolds, ISBN 0-7894-3481-4
- Star Wars: The Phantom Menace: The Visual Dictionary, hardcover, 1999. Dr. David West Reynolds, ISBN 0-7894-4701-0
- Star Wars: Attack of the Clones: The Visual Dictionary, hardcover, 2002. Dr. David West Reynolds, ISBN 0-7894-8588-5
- Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith: The Visual Dictionary, hardcover, 2005. James Luceno, ISBN 0-7566-1128-8
- "Darth Vader in Games: A Visual History". IGN. October 28, 2010.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Darth Vader|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Darth Vader.|