Darth Vader

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Darth Vader
Star Wars character
First appearanceStar Wars (1977)
Created byGeorge Lucas
Portrayed by
Voiced by
In-universe information
Full nameAnakin Skywalker
Occupation
  • • Slave [r]
  • • Apprentice [s]
  • • Jedi Knight [t]
  • • Member of the Jedi High
         Council [u]
  • • Jedi General in the Grand
         Army of the Republic [v]
  • • Dark Lord of the Sith [w]
  • • Commander-in-Chief of
         the Imperial Military [x]
Affiliation
WeaponLightsaber
FamilyShmi Skywalker (mother)
SpousePadmé Amidala (wife)
ChildrenLuke Skywalker (son)
Leia Organa Solo (daughter)
RelativesBen Solo (grandson)
Master
ApprenticeAhsoka Tano
HomeworldTatooine

Darth Vader is a character in the Star Wars franchise. He is the primary antagonist of the original film trilogy and, as Anakin Skywalker, is the protagonist of the prequel trilogy. Originally a slave on the planet Tatooine, he becomes a powerful Jedi. He is lured to the dark side of the Force by Chancellor Palpatine, and becomes the Sith Lord Darth Vader. After being severely wounded in a lightsaber battle, he is transformed into a cyborg. He is the husband of Padmé Amidala and the biological father of Luke Skywalker and Leia Organa Solo.[1][2][3]

David Prowse physically portrayed Vader in the original trilogy, while James Earl Jones provided his voice in all of the films and some television series. Sebastian Shaw portrayed the unmasked Anakin in Return of the Jedi, as well as the character's spirit in the original release of that film. Jake Lloyd played young Anakin in The Phantom Menace (1999), while Hayden Christensen portrayed him as a young adult in Attack of the Clones (2002) and Revenge of the Sith (2005). Christensen also played Anakin in post-2004 releases of Return of the Jedi and in the series Obi-Wan Kenobi (2022) and Ahsoka (2023). In the standalone film Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (2016), Vader is portrayed by Spencer Wilding and Daniel Naprous. Vader has also appeared in books, comics, and video games. He has become an iconic villain of cinema.[4][5][6]

Profile[edit]

Darth Vader began life as Anakin Skywalker. He and his mother Shmi were slaves owned by the junk dealer Watto on Tatooine. The Jedi Master Qui-Gon Jinn orchestrated Anakin's liberation, hoping to train him as a Jedi. The Jedi Council at first denied Anakin entry, but eventually allowed him to become an apprentice of Obi-Wan Kenobi.[7]

Anakin was assigned to protect Senator Padmé Amidala. He fell in love with her, despite a Jedi Code prohibition against romantic relationships. At the same time, Anakin began having visions of his mother dying. He travelled to Tatooine, and found that she had been kidnapped by Tusken Raiders. She died in his arms, which led Anakin to slaughter every Tusken in sight. After fighting in several battles related to the Clone Wars, Anakin married Padmé in a secret ceremony.[7]

As the Clone Wars continued, Anakin became a hero. He also grew vastly in power, and Jedi Master Yoda assigned him an apprentice, Ahsoka Tano. When Anakin discovered that Padmé was pregnant, he had visions of her dying in childbirth. As Anakin’s anxiety grew, Palpatine told him a Sith legend about people with the ability to prevent death. Entranced, Anakin was desperate to learn this power. Palpatine revealed himself to be a Sith Lord, Darth Sidious, and promised to train Anakin in the ways of the dark side.[7]

Anakin succumbed to this temptation, maiming former ally Mace Windu to save Palpatine, who claimed the mantle of Emperor. As Darth Vader, Anakin led the Empire’s eradication of the Jedi Order. He told Padmé of his plan to overthrow Palpatine and rule ths galaxy with her, but the idea repulsed her. When Vader found Obi-Wan hiding on his ship, he believed his wife had betrayed him, and he choked her into unconsciousness. He then dueled with Obi-Wan, and was dismembered and severely burned. Recovered on the banks of a lava flow by Palpatine, Vader was encased in mechanical black armor that kept him alive. Padmé died after giving birth to twins – Luke and Leia – and Vader was heartbroken. Obi-Wan hid the children from their father, and they grew up without any knowledge of him.[7][8]

The emergence of the Empire gave rise to a Rebellion. As Palpatine's enforcer, Vader hunted the Rebels throughout the galaxy, eventually learning that his son Luke was among them. After battling his son in Cloud City, Vader revealed that he was Luke's father. The two met again when Luke—now a Jedi Knight himself—surrendered to Imperial troops on Endor, hoping to bring his father back from the dark side of the Force. Vader resisted and brought his son to Palpatine, who invited Luke to join the dark side. Luke refused, and Palpatine began torturing him with Force lightning. Luke's compassion awakened the long-dormant goodness in Vader, and he saved Luke from Palpatine before killing the Emperor. Mortally wounded, Vader shared a final moment of reconciliation with his son. As Luke and his friends celebrated the end of the Empire, Anakin returned as a Force spirit to watch over them.[9][7]

Creation[edit]

Originally, Lucas imagined the Sith as a group that served the Emperor in the same way that the paramilitary Schutzstaffel served Adolf Hitler. While developing the backstory for The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas condensed the group into one character in the form of Vader.[10] As part of the development for A New Hope, Lucas hired the artist Ralph McQuarrie to create conceptual images for characters. For Vader, Lucas asked McQuarrie to depict a "very tall, dark fluttering figure that had a spooky feeling like it came in on the wind."[11] Lucas also wanted the character to wear a cape and samurai armor.[citation needed] Because the script described Vader traveling between spaceships, McQuarrie suggested that he should wear a space suit. Lucas agreed, and McQuarrie created Vader's iconic mask by combining a full-face breathing mask with a samurai helmet.[12][11] McQuarrie's 1975 production painting of Vader engaged in a lightsaber duel with Deak Starkiller (who later became Luke Skywalker) depicts the former wearing black armor, a flowing cape and a skull-like mask and helmet. This initial design was similar to Vader's final appearance.[13]

Working from McQuarrie's concepts, the costume designer John Mollo devised an outfit that included clerical robes, a motorcycle suit, a German military helmet and a military gas mask.[14] The prop sculptor Brian Muir created the helmet and armor.[15] The sound of Vader's breathing was created by the sound designer Ben Burtt using modified recordings of a scuba breathing apparatus.[16] The sound effect is trademarked at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.[17]

Lucas has provided differing accounts of how the name "Darth Vader" originated. In a 2005 interview with Rolling Stone, he claimed it was a modified version of "Dark Father."[18] On another occasion, he said it was inspired by the phrase "Dark Water".[19] It is also possible that "Darth Vader" originated from the name of Gary Vader, a boy who went to high school with Lucas.[20]

Although "Darth" is a title, and not a first name, this is not made clear in the first Star Wars film from 1977 (which was titled Star Wars, then later retitled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope). In that film, Obi-Wan Kenobi addresses Vader as "Darth", and in the credits he is referred to as Lord Darth Vader, which seems to imply that his title is "Lord", his first name is "Darth", and his last name is "Vader". The prequel trilogy, however, makes it clear that "Darth" is a title for Sith Lords, such as Darth Sidious, Darth Maul, and Darth Tyranus. When Anakin turns to the dark side of the Force in Revenge of the Sith, he is given the title "Darth" and the name "Vader".[citation needed]

Director Ken Annakin's films Swiss Family Robinson and Battle of the Bulge influenced the original trilogy, leading some to believe that Anakin Skywalker was named after him.[21] Lucas's publicist has denied this claim, however.[22] Anakin and Luke's original surname was "Starkiller", and it remained in the script until a few months into filming A New Hope.[citation needed] It was dropped due to what Lucas called "unpleasant connotations" with Charles Manson, who had murdered actress Sharon Tate in the late 1960s (making him a "star killer"). Lucas replaced the problematic name "Starkiller" with "Skywalker".[23][y]

In France, Darth Vader's name was changed to Dark Vador starting with A New Hope.[25][26] In Italian-language films, the character is named Dart Fener. In 2005, before the release of Revenge of the Sith, an online survey asked Italian fans whether they would rather maintain the Italian name or switch it to the original; the Italian version prevailed. Ahead of the 2015 release of The Force Awakens, however, the name was changed to "Darth Vader".[27] In Iceland, Vader's name is Svarthöfði, which means "black-head".[28]

Character development[edit]

After the success of A New Hope, Lucas began working on a sequel, which was eventually titled The Empire Strikes Back. By November 1977, he had produced a handwritten treatment. He wrote, "When we kill [Vader] off in the [third film], we'll reveal ... [h]e wants to be human—he's still fighting in his own way the dark side of the Force." Lucas considered introducing a new lair for Vader to replace the Death Star, such as an Imperial city, a cave, a tower surrounded by lava, or "a little castle on a rock in the middle of the ocean".[29][z]

After writing the second and third drafts of Empire, Lucas reviewed the new backstory he had created: Anakin had been Obi-Wan's brilliant student and had a child named Luke, but was drawn to the dark side by Palpatine. Anakin battled Obi-Wan on a volcano and was badly wounded, and then was reborn as Vader. Obi-Wan hid Luke on Tatooine while the Galactic Republic became the tyrannical Galactic Empire, and Vader systematically hunted down and killed the Jedi.[30] When filming The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas kept secret the plot twist that Vader is Luke's father, to avoid the revelation being leaked to the public.[citation needed]

After deciding to create the prequel trilogy, Lucas indicated that the story arc would be a tragic one depicting Anakin's fall to the dark side. He also saw that the prequels could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death, in what he has termed "the tragedy of Darth Vader".[31] For the first prequel, The Phantom Menace, Lucas made Anakin nine years old[32][aa] to make the character's separation from his mother more poignant.[34] The film introduced the concept that he is the Chosen One of an ancient Jedi prophecy, destined to bring balance to the Force.[35] Lucas stated in an interview recorded around the time of the third prequel, Revenge of the Sith, that "Anakin is the Chosen One. Even when Anakin turns into Darth Vader, he is still the Chosen One."[36][37] Christensen spoke about Vader's role in the six-film saga: "He believes that he's the Chosen One. He's not doing wrong things knowing that it's having a negative impact. So there's that sort of naivety to him now that wasn't there before, and it makes him more human in a lot of ways."[37]

A wax sculpture of Anakin Skywalker
A wax sculpture of Anakin Skywalker at the Madame Tussauds museum in London

Michael Kaminski offers evidence that issues in Anakin's fall to the dark side prompted Lucas to make fundamental story changes, first revising the opening sequence of Revenge of the Sith to have Palpatine kidnapped and his apprentice, Count Dooku, killed by Anakin in cold blood as the first act in the latter's turn towards the dark side.[38] After principal photography was complete in 2003, Lucas re-wrote Anakin's transition to the dark side; his fall would now be motivated by a desire to save his wife, Padmé, rather than the previous version in which that reason was one of several, including that he genuinely believed that the Jedi were plotting to take over the Republic. This fundamental re-write was accomplished both through editing the principal footage, and new and revised scenes filmed during pick-ups in 2004.[39]

During production of the animated series The Clone Wars, the character Ahsoka Tano was developed to illustrate how Anakin develops from the brash, undisciplined apprentice in Attack of the Clones to the more reserved Jedi Knight in Revenge of the Sith.[40] Clone Wars supervising director and Star Wars Rebels co-creator Dave Filoni said that giving Anakin responsibility for an apprentice was meant to place the character in a role that forced him to become more cautious and responsible. It would also give him insight into his relationship with Obi-Wan and depict how their relationship matured. Ahsoka and Anakin's relationship was seen as an essential story arc spanning both the animated film and the Clone Wars television series.[41] Filoni began thinking about the final confrontation between Ahsoka and Vader ever since he created the former;[42] different iterations had different endings,[43] including one in which Vader kills Ahsoka just as she slashes open his helmet to reveal his scarred face.[44] A similar scene is included in an episode of Rebels, in which Ahsoka slashes Vader's helmet open, and the Sith Lord recognizes her.[45] According to Filoni, Ahsoka's presence in the series allows Vader to encounter the show's lead characters without the latter being "destroyed", as Ahsoka can "stand toe-to-toe" with her former master.[46]

Portrayals[edit]

As Darth Vader[edit]

David Prowse, a 6-foot-6-inch (1.98 m) bodybuilder and actor, portrayed Vader in the original trilogy. Prowse was originally offered the role of Chewbacca, but turned it down, as he wanted to play the villain.[47] Bob Anderson, a former Olympic fencer, portrayed Vader during lightsaber fight scenes in The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi.[48] Lucas chose to have a different actor provide Vader's voice, because he felt Prowse's West Country English accent was innappropriate for the character.[49] The director originally considered Orson Welles for Vader's voice, but selected James Earl Jones instead after deciding that Welles's voice would be too recognizable to audiences.[50][51] Jones initially felt his role was too small to warrant recognition, and he chose to be uncredited in A New Hope and The Empire Strikes Back. He was finally credited in Return of the Jedi in 1983.[52][53]

Hayden Christensen portrayed Vader in Revenge of the Sith, while Brock Peters provided his voice in the Star Wars radio series.[54][55] Matt Sloan and Scott Lawrence have portrayed Vader in video games, and Sloan has also voiced the character in short films. Both Spencer Wilding and Daniel Naprous played Vader in Rogue One, with Jones providing the voice.[56] Jones also voiced Vader in the animated series Star Wars Rebels.[57][58] In September 2022, it was confirmed that Jones would retire from voicing Vader. Jones's voice was digitally recreated by the company Respeecher for use in the series Obi-Wan Kenobi, and he later signed over the rights to his voice for future Star Wars productions.[59][60]

As Anakin Skywalker[edit]

For Return of the Jedi, the casting crew sought an experienced actor for the role of Anakin Skywalker, since his death was unquestionably the emotional climax of the film. Sebastian Shaw was selected for the role.[61][62] His presence on set was kept secret from all but the minimum cast and crew, and Shaw was contractually obligated not to discuss any film secrets with anyone, even his family.[61] Lucas personally directed Shaw for his appearance in the final scene of the film, in which he plays Anakin's Force spirit. Shaw's likeness in this scene was replaced with that of Christensen in the 2004 DVD release. This attempt to tie the prequel and original trilogies together was one of the most controversial changes in a Star Wars re-release.[63] Shaw received more fan mail and autograph requests related to Return of the Jedi than he had for any other role in his career.[61]

When The Phantom Menace was being developed, hundreds of actors were tested for the role of young Anakin before Jake Lloyd was cast.[64] Producer Rick McCallum said that Lloyd was "smart, mischievous and love[d] anything mechanical—just like Anakin."[65][66] For Attack of the Clones, casting director Robin Gurland reviewed about 1,500 candidates for the role of young-adult Anakin. Lucas eventually selected Christensen, reportedly because he and Natalie Portman (who plays Padmé) "looked good together".[67][68] Anakin was voiced by Mat Lucas in the 2003 animated micro-series Star Wars: Clone Wars. He was voiced by Matt Lanter in the animated series The Clone Wars, Star Wars Rebels and Star Wars Forces of Destiny.[69] Lanter also voiced the character in the film version of The Clone Wars. During the second-season finale of Rebels, Lanter's voice is sometimes blended with the voice of Jones.[70]

Appearances in the official canon[edit]

Films[edit]

Title Year Persona Actor Voice
Star Wars: Episode IVA New Hope [71] 1977 Vader David Prowse James Earl Jones
Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back 1980 Vader David Prowse James Earl Jones
Star Wars: Episode VI – Return of the Jedi 1983 Vader David Prowse James Earl Jones
Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace 1999 Anakin Jake Lloyd Jake Lloyd
Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones 2002 Anakin Hayden Christensen Hayden Christensen
Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith 2005 Anakin, Vader Hayden Christensen Christensen, Jones
Star Wars: The Clone Wars 2008 Anakin Matt Lanter
Rogue One: A Star Wars Story 2016 Vader Spencer Wilding, Daniel Naprous James Earl Jones

Live-action series[edit]

Title Type Year Persona Actor Voice
Obi-Wan Kenobi [71] Television miniseries 2022 Anakin, Vader Hayden Christensen James Earl Jones
Ahsoka Television series 2023 Anakin Hayden Christensen Hayden Christensen

Animated series[edit]

Title Type Year Persona Voice
Star Wars: Clone Wars [71] Television series 2003 [ab] Anakin Mat Lucas,[ac] Frankie Ryan Mariquez [ad]
Star Wars: The Clone Wars Television series 2008 [ae] Anakin, Vader [af] Matt Lanter
Star Wars Rebels Television series 2014 [ag] Anakin, Vader Matt Lanter,[ah] James Earl Jones [ai]
Star Wars Forces of Destiny Web series 2017 [aj] Anakin Matt Lanter

Novels[edit]

Title Year Author Persona References
Star Wars: Tarkin 2014 James Luceno Vader [71][72]
Star Wars: Lords of the Sith 2015 Paul S. Kemp Vader [73][74]
Thrawn: Alliances 2018 Timothy Zahn Anakin, Vader [75]

Comics[edit]

Title Year Writer Persona References
Star Wars 2015 Jason Aaron, Kieron Gillen, Greg Pak, Charles Soule Vader [71][76]
Darth Vader 2015–2016 Kieron Gillen Vader [77][78][79]
Vader Down 2016 Jason Aaron, Kieron Gillen Vader [80]
Obi-Wan & Anakin 2016 Charles Soule Anakin [81]
Darth Vader [ak] 2017–2018 Charles Soule Vader [82]
Vader: Dark Visions 2019 Dennis Hopeless Vader [83]
Star Wars: Darth Vader 2020 Greg Pak Vader [84]
Darth Vader: Black, White & Red 2023 Peach Momoko, Torunn Gronbekk, Jason Aaron Vader [85]

Video games[edit]

Title Year Persona Voice References
Vader Immortal: A Star Wars VR Series 2019 Vader Scott Lawrence [86][87]
Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order 2019 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars: Squadrons 2020 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars Jedi: Survivor 2023 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]

Appearances outside the official canon[edit]

Books[edit]

Title Type Year Author Persona
Splinter of the Mind's Eye Novel 1978 Alan Dean Foster Vader
The Glove of Darth Vader Novel 1992 Paul Davids, Hollace Davids Vader
The Truce at Bakura Novel 1993 Kathy Tyers Anakin
Shadows of the Empire Novel 1996 Steve Perry Vader
Rogue Planet Novel 2000 Greg Bear Anakin
Jedi Quest (series) Novel 2001–2004 Jude Watson Anakin
The Unifying Force Novel 2003 James Luceno Anakin
Labyrinth of Evil Novel 2005 James Luceno Anakin
Dark Lord: The Rise of Darth Vader Novel 2005 James Luceno Vader
Darth Vader and Son Children's book 2012 Jeffrey Brown Vader
Vader’s Little Princess Children's book 2013 Jeffrey Brown Vader
Goodnight Darth Vader Children's book 2014 Jeffrey Brown Vader

Comics[edit]

Title Year Persona
Star Wars 1977–1986 Vader
Star Wars: Republic 1998–2006 Anakin
Boba Fett: Enemy of the Empire 1999 Vader
Vader's Quest 1999 Vader
Star Wars Tales 1999–2005 Anakin, Vader
Resurrection 2001 Vader
Star Wars: Empire 2002–2005 Vader
Star Wars: Dark Times 2006–2013 Vader
Darth Vader and the Lost Command 2011 Vader
Darth Vader and the Ghost Prison 2012 Vader
Darth Vader and the Cry of Shadows 2013–14 Vader

Video games[edit]

LEGO Star Wars[edit]

Title Year Persona
Lego Star Wars: The Video Game 2005 Anakin, Vader
Lego Star Wars II: The Original Trilogy 2006 Anakin, Vader
Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga 2007 Anakin, Vader
Lego Star Wars III: The Clone Wars 2011 Anakin, Vader
Lego Star Wars: The Force Awakens 2016 Anakin, Vader
Lego Star Wars: The Skywalker Saga [88] 2022 Anakin, Vader

Other video games[edit]

Title Year Persona Voice References
Star Wars: Dark Forces 1995 Vader
Rebel Assault II: The Hidden Empire 1995 Vader
Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds 2001 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars: Rogue Squadron II: Rogue Leader 2001 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars: Super Bombad Racing 2001 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars Racer Revenge 2002 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars Rogue Squadron III: Rebel Strike 2003 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars: Battlefront II 2005 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith: The Video Game 2005 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars: Empire at War 2006 Vader Scott Lawrence [86]
Star Wars: The Force Unleashed 2008 Vader Matt Sloan [89]
Star Wars: The Force Unleashed II 2010 Vader
Disney Infinity 3.0 2015 Vader [90]
Disney Magic Kingdoms 2016 Vader [91]

Other appearances[edit]

Title Type Year Persona Voice
Star Wars Holiday Special [92] Television special 1978 Vader James Earl Jones
Star Wars [93][94] Radio series 1981 Vader Brock Peters
Lego Star Wars short films (various) Short film 2005–2023 Anakin, Vader Kirby Morrow (Anakin), Matt Sloan (Vader)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Episodes IV–VI
  2. ^ Rogue One
  3. ^ Rogue One
  4. ^ Obi-Wan Kenobi
  5. ^ Shaw appeared as Anakin's Force spirit in the original release of Return of the Jedi (Episode VI). In the 2004 re-release, Shaw was replaced by Hayden Christensen.
  6. ^ Episode I
  7. ^ Episodes II–III, Obi-Wan Kenobi, Ahsoka. Christensen also replaced Shaw as Anakin's Force spirit in the 2004 re-release of Return of the Jedi (Episode VI).
  8. ^ Episodes III–VI, IX, Rogue One, Star Wars Rebels, Obi-Wan Kenobi
  9. ^ Radio drama
  10. ^ The Force Unleashed
  11. ^ Various video games
  12. ^ The Clone Wars film and series, Rebels, Forces of Destiny and various video games
  13. ^ Clone Wars series and various video games
  14. ^ Clone Wars
  15. ^ Episode IX
  16. ^ Lego Star Wars series
  17. ^ Radio drama
  18. ^ Episode I
  19. ^ Episode II
  20. ^ Episode III, The Clone Wars film and series
  21. ^ Episode III
  22. ^ The Clone Wars film
  23. ^ Episodes III–VI, Rogue One, Rebels, Obi-Wan Kenobi
  24. ^ Episodes III–VI, Rogue One, Rebels, Obi-Wan Kenobi
  25. ^ The name "Skywalker" first appeared as Luke's surname in Lucas's 1973 treatment of the film.[24]
  26. ^ Some of these ideas later resurfaced. The prequel trilogy introduces an Imperial city on the planet Coruscant, while Rogue One and Obi-Wan Kenobi depict Vader's castle on the volcanic planet Mustafar. In the sequel trilogy, Luke hides on an island on the ocean planet Ahch-To.
  27. ^ Making the character 14 years younger by the time of the original film than A Guide to the Star Wars Universe previously stated[33]
  28. ^ The series aired for three seasons between 2003 and 2005.
  29. ^ Voice of adult Anakin
  30. ^ Voice of child Anakin
  31. ^ The series aired for seven seasons between 2008 and 2020.
  32. ^ Vader appears in the series but has no dialogue.
  33. ^ The series aired for four seasons between 2014 and 2018.
  34. ^ Voice of Anakin
  35. ^ Voice of Vader
  36. ^ The series aired for two seasons between 2017 and 2018.
  37. ^ Sometimes subtitled Dark Lord of the Sith

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Anakin Skywalker". StarWars.com. Retrieved March 26, 2024.
  2. ^ "Darth Vader". StarWars.com. Retrieved March 26, 2024.
  3. ^ "Kylo Ren". StarWars.com. Retrieved March 26, 2024.
  4. ^ Diaz, Jesus (July 31, 2018). "How Darth Vader became the most iconic evil figure in film history". Fast Company. Retrieved April 2, 2024.
  5. ^ "Darth Vader – #1 Top 100 Villain". IGN. Archived from the original on November 9, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  6. ^ Shea, Andrea (February 18, 2008). "Darth Vader: The Tragic Man Behind the Mask". NPR. Retrieved April 1, 2024.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Anakin Skywalker". StarWars.com. Retrieved April 11, 2024.
  8. ^ "Luke Skywalker". StarWars.com. Retrieved April 12, 2024.
  9. ^ "Darth Vader". StarWars.com. Retrieved April 12, 2024.
  10. ^ Kaminski 2008, p. 184.
  11. ^ a b "The Old Master: Ralph McQuarrie on Designing Star Wars". Star Wars Insider (76). June 2004.
  12. ^ Casey, Dan (2015). "64. Ralph McQuarrie, the Conceptual Mastermind". 100 Things Star Wars Fans Should Know & Do Before They Die. Triumph Books. ISBN 978-1-63319-345-1. Archived from the original on January 15, 2023. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
  13. ^ "Ralph McQuarrie's Most Memorable Masterpieces". StarWars.com. August 16, 2016. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
  14. ^ Gilbey, Ryan (November 1, 2017). "John Mollo obituary: Star Wars costume designer who dressed Darth Vader". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  15. ^ "Insider Excerpt: Vader Sculptor Brian Muir". StarWars.com. March 24, 2010. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011.
  16. ^ Rinzler, J.W. (2010). The Sounds of Star Wars. Foreword by Ben Burtt. London: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-85720-076-1.
  17. ^ O'Reilly, Terry (January 5, 2017). "The Crazy World of Trademarks". Under the Influence. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  18. ^ Edwards, Gavin (June 2, 2005). "George Lucas and the Cult of Darth Vader". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 27, 2024.
  19. ^ Rinzler 2007, Chapter Eight: Faster than a Speeding Freight Train (April 1976 to May 1976).
  20. ^ Jones, Brian Jay (2016). George Lucas: A Life. New York City: Little, Brown and Company. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-316-25744-2.
  21. ^ Young, Bryan (January 21, 2014). "The Cinema Behind Star Wars: Battle of the Bulge". StarWars.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  22. ^ McLellan, Dennis (April 24, 2009). "Ken Annakin dies at 94; British director of 'Swiss Family Robinson' and others". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  23. ^ Rinzler 2008, p. 191.
  24. ^ Jones, Brian Jay (2016). George Lucas: A Life. New York City: Little, Brown and Company. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-316-25744-2.
  25. ^ Llana, Sara Miller (December 16, 2015). "Darth Vader or Dark Vador? France gives Star Wars a Gallic twist". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved March 28, 2024.
  26. ^ "Z6PO? How the French originally translated the names of Star Wars characters". The Local France. May 4, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2024.
  27. ^ Frati, Lorenzo. "La Guerra delle stelle: Il doppiaggio e l'adattamento italiano di Star Wars del '77". Star Wars Athenaeum (in Italian). Archived from the original on February 24, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  28. ^ Holdsworth, Nick (August 31, 2015). "Icelandic Capital to Rename Street After Darth Vader". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 28, 2024.
  29. ^ Rinzler, J. W. (2010). The Making of The Empire Strikes Back. London: Del Rey. pp. 24, 39–40. ISBN 978-1-84513-555-3. OCLC 506251987.
  30. ^ Kaminski 2008, pp. 164–165
  31. ^ Wakeman, Gregory (December 4, 2014). "George Lucas Was Terrible at Predicting The Future Of Star Wars". CinemaBlend. Archived from the original on January 14, 2020. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  32. ^ "Anakin Skywalker". Star Wars Databank. Los Angeles, California: Lucasfilm. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
  33. ^ Slavicsek, Bill (1994). A Guide to the Star Wars Universe (2nd ed.). London, England: Del Ray. p. xix. ISBN 0-345-38625-6.
  34. ^ Houghton, David (May 4, 2016). "George Lucas nearly wrote a perfect prequel trilogy. He just didn't notice". Gamesradar. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  35. ^ Kaminski 2008, pp. 299–300
  36. ^ Greenberg, Glenn (2019). Star Wars: Age of Republic – Heroes. New York City: Marvel Comics. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-302-91710-4. OCLC 1090434485.
  37. ^ a b "El Elegido | Documental de Star Wars: Episodio III (Subtitulado)" – via www.youtube.com.
  38. ^ Kaminski 2008, pp. 380–384
  39. ^ Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith documentary "Within a Minute" (DVD documentary). 2005.
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