Dartmoor Preservation Association

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Friends of Dartmoor: DPA - Dartmoor Preservation Association
Conservation charity
Founded 1883 (1883)
Headquarters Old Duchy Hotel, Princetown, Yelverton, Devon, PL20 6QF
Area served
Dartmoor National Park
Key people
  • Norman Cowling (Chairman)
  • Colin Turner (President)
  • Phil Hutt (Director)
Slogan Campaign, Conserve, Connect
Website www.dartmoorpreservation.com

Dartmoor Preservation Association (DPA) is one of the oldest environmental or amenity bodies in the UK, founded in 1883.[1]:p.3 It concerns itself with Dartmoor, a National Park in Devon, south-west England. Originally there were two main areas of concern. Firstly, commoners’ rights were being eroded through army use, including the firing of live artillery shells, and piecemeal enclosure of land around the margins.[2]:p.100 Secondly, there was increasing public interest in Dartmoor’s scenery, archaeology, history and wildlife[3]:p.7

The DPA has opposed what it considered to be unsuitable developments on Dartmoor throughout its history. In its founding year, the secretary, Robert Burnard persuaded the War Department not to fire on the Okehampton Firing Range on Saturdays to allow access to the public. Many battles have been fought since, particularly against the military presence and the proposed building of reservoirs on the moor, notably under the Chairmanship of Lady Sayer, granddaughter of Robert Burnard.

The DPA continues to follow the same objectives as when it was founded. For example, in June 2015, it supported the inhabitants of Widecombe-in-the-Moor against the erecting of a telecommunications mast in an area of pristine countryside against the wishes of the local population.

Dartmoor Preservation Association is a registered charity, Number 215665.[4]

Background[edit]

Dartmoor is said to be one of the last remaining areas of wilderness in Britain,[5] but it has been a managed landscape since the late Neolithic (3,000-2,500 BCE). The Bronze Age inhabitants (from 2,500 to 750 BCE) cleared ancient forest and developed farming. They made extensive use of surface moorstone in the construction of roundhouses (their remains now seen as "hut circles"), enclosures, land-dividing reaves, stone rows, stone circles, menhirs and kistvaens.[6]

Farming has continued through the Medieval period to the present day,[7] but a more disruptive activity to the landscape was the appearance of tin-mining, firstly by stream-working, then by lode-working and finally by underground mining.[8]:p.11 [8]:p.20 [9] Many valleys have been dug over and scarred, leaving a rich industrial archaeology.[10]:p.13 Other activities such as newtake wall building,[11] peat cutting, rabbit warrening, quarrying, clay extraction and the building of a prominent prison have all left marks on the moor.[12] Recent undertakings have left more obvious changes: the building of reservoirs and the planting of conifer forests.[13]:p.267

History of the Association[edit]

The use of moorstone continued up to recent times with the extensive building of dry stone walls around farm newtakes.[14] Later, stone was cut and dressed.[15] The use of moorstone continued to such an extent that in 1847 boundary markers were cut around Pew Tor to protect it. Marker stones were erected around Roos Tor.[16]:p.250–251 The taking of stone started to change the Dartmoor landscape: for example Eric Hemery (writing in 1983) stated that Swell Tor had been "decapitated and disembowelled by the quarrymen".[17]:p.1029

In August 1881, a public meeting was convened by the Portreeve of Tavistock in the Guildhall to discuss the continued taking of stone, particularly from landmark tors.[16]:p.249 The DPA was founded two years later, in 1883. The protected area around Pew Tor was extended in December 1896. In 1901, the DPA commissioned a report into damage to ancient monuments, caused by the taking of stone for building and road-mending, and into unlawful enclosures of common land.[18]

Frontispiece of DPA book about Commons and Commoners' Rights, published 1890

Commoners’ rights[edit]

The first publication of the DPA, in 1890, was a short history of commoners’ rights on Dartmoor and the commons of Devon.[2]:p.xi This notes a decrease in the numbers of animals even in medieval times: in 1296 – 5,000 cattle, 487 horses, 131 folds of sheep; in 1316 – 3,292 cattle, 368 horses, 100 folds of sheep.[2]:p.xix An important battle occurred in 1894 when the Corporation of London attempted to buy the whole of Dartmoor in order to pipe its water to Paddington alongside Brunel’s recently converted railway, when it went from broad gauge to standard gauge. The DPA led the revolt against this.[1]:p.212 In 1897, the DPA went to court to fight successfully the enclosure of a section of Peter Tavy Great Common, in support of a farmer.[3]:p.8 Commoners rights seem to have been a settled issue in recent years: except for where they are impinged upon by the military presence.

Military use[edit]

Dartmoor Training Area has been used regularly for military training since 1873, although it was used earlier during the Napoleonic and Crimean Wars.[13]:p.271 In 1906-07, seven miles of roads were built on the north moor to facilitate the movement of guns. There are three established firing ranges at Okehampton, Willsworthy and Merrivale. Currently, the area taken up with live firing ranges is 9,187 hectares (22,664 acres) and they are used on average 120 days each year.[19] They are used for small arms, mortars and artillery smoke and illuminating shells.[20]

The use of the moor by the military has been a major concern of the DPA since its founding. In its first year, Robert Burnard (DPA Secretary) persuaded the War Department not to fire on the Okehampton Firing Range on Saturdays so that there may be some public access to the area.[3]:p.8 Lady Sylvia Sayer was very outspoken about it being totally at odds with the area being designated as a National Park.[21] The current leases run for many years, with Cramber Tor most recently being granted a further 40-year license.[22] There is much less military damage and litter lately as a result of the DPA persuading the Services to be more cautious over the last twenty years.[17]:p.854 The military have changed since the Victorian era, they now have 120 Conservation Groups across the MOD, including Dartmoor Military Conservation Group.[23]

Afforestation[edit]

Early afforestation occurred when Brimpts was planted with trees in 1862.[1]:p.245 The Forestry Commission was founded in 1919, following World War I and in that year the Duchy of Cornwall planted 800 acres of conifers at Fernworthy.[13]:p.269 In 1921, Plymouth Corporation planted conifers around Burrator Reservoir. The Forestry Commission planted Bellever and Laughter Tor farms in 1930-32 and in 1944-1945 Soussons Down was also planted. The DPA opposed these post-war plantings and R. Hansford Worth (1868-1950, a Plymouth engineer, scientist and antiquarian) delivered a lecture fiercely critical of the Duchy of Cornwall as the landowners at The Plymouth Athenaeum, using the argument of encroachment on the rights of common and loss of ancient monuments.[1]:p.249 DPA opposition to forestry on Dartmoor arose again in 1953 when it wrote a policy on woodlands in the then-new national park.[1]:p.252 Opposition was exercised when Hawn, Dendles and High House Wastes, all near Cornwood, were designated for tree planting in 1959. Argument continued while Hawns and Dendles Wastes were ploughed in 1960. High House Waste was eventually purchased by the DPA in 1964 and The Nature Conservancy bought neighbouring Dendles in 1965.[1]:p.259 The situation in 2015 is that some of the Dartmoor plantations have been affected by the fungal disease Phytophthora ramorum which results in widespread clear felling to prevent further spread of the disease. The policy now is to replant with more native hardwood trees although more resistant conifers are also being used.[24]

Reservoirs[edit]

There are eight Dartmoor reservoirs, with the earliest being Tottiford Reservoir, 1861. Three were built in the mid-20th century: Fernworthy, 1942; Avon, 1957 and Meldon, 1972, and the DPA fought many battles over these. It opposed plans for reservoirs on Brent Moor (1899) and Holne Moor (1901) where, later, the Avon Reservoir and Venford Reservoirs were respectively built.[1]:p.278 The DPA’s opposition received support in the House of Commons with argument made regarding the effects on the local water table.[25] The DPA was one of many local and national amenity bodies that fought the building of the Meldon dam.[1]:289 The preservation battle for the Meldon valley was recorded in a DPA publication.[26] The DPA offered a viable alternative site, Gorhuish Valley, for various reasons, including the fact that minerals such as arsenic would leach into the water supply if Meldon were selected.[27] The Meldon story was discussed many times in Parliament.[28] Another battle was fought against the flooding of the Swincombe valley to form another reservoir. This was rejected in parliament in 1970, revived in 1974 and finally resolved by the building of the Roadford Reservoir to the west of the moor. The DPA purchased the Swincombe site in 1985.[16]:p.253

National Park designation[edit]

The National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 led to Dartmoor being one of the first four parks to be designated, by an order made on 15 August 1951[29] and confirmed on 30 October 1951.[30] Shortly after this, the DPA joined battle to ensure that the new National Park was run by an independent committee and not by the Dartmoor Standing Committee that was a subcommittee of Devon County Council Planning Committee.[1]:p.231 The committee was reformed as Dartmoor National Park Committee under the Local Government Act 1972 but it was still a subcommittee of Devon County Council and as such it was not seen to be an independent guardian of the moor by the DPA. It was not until 1997 that an independent Dartmoor National Park Authority was enabled under the Environment Act 1995 as a free-standing local authority, forty-four years after the park was created, although it is still dominated by local authorities and government appointees[1]:p.231 The DPA would rather see more independent representatives of the national view.[31]

North Hessary Tor TV mast[edit]

The DPA learned in October 1951 that the BBC planned to build a 750-foot television mast on North Hessary Tor, near Princetown, that was eventually erected in 1955. This was to be a relay from a transmitting station at Wenvoe, South Wales. The DPA objected to this threat and sought expert opinion, offered alternative solutions, pressed for a public enquiry, engaged a lawyer, held public meetings, distributed pamphlets, wrote to the press and petitioned parliament.[1]:p.233 Eventually, a public enquiry was announced.[1]:p.238 When the decision was made to permit the mast, there were a number of conditions, included among them was that the development was built near the tor, leaving it still intact, and that its new approach road should not be fenced. During the process of obtaining land for the transmitter, one MP asked in the House of Commons: "Will the Assistant Postmaster-General bear in mind that we have no desire to hinder the provision of this station but that it is felt that ancient common rights such as these, that have existed for a thousand years, should be adequately protected or properly extinguished by due process of law?"[32] This means that common rights are older than Magna Carta.

DPA boundary stone at Sharpitor

Sharpitor[edit]

During World War 2, the RAF built a mast and buildings on Peek Hill, as RAF Sharpitor. In 1956, permission was granted to rebuild the station as part of the "Gee" radio navigation system, to be occupied for ten years. There followed delay in leaving and then a proposal by Devon & Cornwall Police to use the mast, also Plymouth Corporation wanting to use the exposed site for housing juvenile offenders. A concerted campaign was fought, with the National Park Authority urging Tavistock Rural District Council to refuse permission. A public enquiry in June, 1973, refused permission for development on the site. A few years later, DPA fought successfully in support of South West Water against renewed calls for a new reservoir at Swincombe. To mark the success, Lady Sylvia Sayer asked SWW if DPA could purchase the nearby magnificent rocky outcrop of Sharpitor to mark the victory. The DPA purchased 32 acres in February 1984.[16]:p.253[33]

Okehampton bypass[edit]

Okehampton lies on the A30 main road, the shortest route from London to west Devon and Cornwall. The need for a bypass was mooted in 1963.[34] In 1975, three routes were considered: a northern route through mainly farmland, a central route using a railway, and a southern route through Dartmoor National Park. In August 1976, the Department of the Environment announced the preferred route was through the National Park. A major event on the timeline of this project was a 96-day public enquiry from 1 May 1979 to 4 February 1980 held in Okehampton. In March 1984, the DPA with other organisations petitioned Parliament opposing compulsory purchase orders on public open spaces.[35] The Secretary of State announced in July 1985 that it was introducing a bill to reverse the decision of a Joint Parliamentary Committee and confirm a route through the National Park.[36] This was followed by a confirmation bill in Nov 1985 [37] that received final approval in the House of Lords on 5 Dec. 1985.[38] Construction started in Nov 1986 and the road was opened on 19 July 1988.

Since 2000[edit]

The DPA continues to follow the same objectives as when it was founded.[39] The activities have widened, involving local partners, it has an active calendar of events, walks and work days with its Conservation Team undertaking a variety of moorland projects,[40] it supports the supply of walking boots to children who need them for the Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme through the Moor Boots Scheme,[41] it collaborates with the Campaign for National Parks, it acts as a critical friend to Dartmoor National Park Authority who run the National Park. It objected to eight planning proposals (with success in seven cases), with many other achievements in the DPA Director’s Annual Report.[42] The DPA remains true to its original objectives and has also added many other activities in support of Dartmoor and its inhabitants.

China clay expansion[edit]

The china clay industry on Dartmoor was established long before the DPA was founded. The earliest record of a china clay pit refers to Hook Lake in 1502.[43]:p.7 The area was surveyed around 1827 by Cornishmen with thirty years experience in the clay industry and they obtained a twenty-one year lease in 1830, from the Earl of Morley who owned the land, to work the area between Lee Moor and Shaugh Moor. A rival pit was opened at Leftlake in about 1850 and at Hemerdon and Broomage in about 1855. Further pits were opened at Cholwichtown, Whitehill Yeo and Wigford Down/Brisworthy (circa 1860). Others followed at Smallhanger and Headon in the 1870s.[43]:p.9 Redlake started working in 1910.[10]:p.96 China clay pits are open cast mines that result in large holes in the ground accompanied by large waste tips. Over time, the pits become larger and more ground is needed for the waste, changing the landscape: the effect of this can be seen from space.[44]

The DPA argues that this is an activity that does not agree with the ethos of a National Park, whose purpose is to protect landscape from unsuitable development. In 1994, the National Park boundaries were changed to include common land at Shaugh Moor and exclude china clay worked land at Lee Moor.[45] The DPA revived its campaign with the publication of a booklet in 1999 when the Blackabrook Valley, Crownhill Down and Shaugh Moor, near the popular tourist area of Cadover Bridge, all came under threat from exploitation or dumping of waste.[46] The china clay companies relinquished planning permissions in 2001.[30] However, in November 2009, the clay companies, Sibelco and Imerys, produced a report reviewing old mineral permissions under the Environment Act 1995 with a view to joining up two pits.[47] A presumed Bronze Age barrow, known as Emmets Post, was to be removed and three other monuments may be affected. The DPA were recorded twice, with other bodies, in a Devon County Council Development Management Committee Report for their representations in securing the future of the three areas where planning permissions were relinquished in 2001.[48] Oxford Archaeology held an open day during their excavation of Emmets Post in 2014 prior to its removal.[49]

House of Lords Reception[edit]

The DPA and Exmoor Society held a joint reception at the House of Lords on 6 November 2008, hosted by Baroness Mallalieu, to lobby members of both Houses of Parliament and relevant Ministers. Both organisations funded an invited number of upland hill farmers to attend.[50][51]

Whitehorse Hill excavation[edit]

The excavation in August 2011 on the north moor of a Bronze Age burial kistvaen, or cist, that was originally uncovered in 2001 was part-funded by the DPA, along with other bodies.[52]

South West Uplands Federation Conference[edit]

A conference for the upland farmers of Bodmin Moor, Exmoor and Dartmoor was held as a joint venture between the South West Uplands Federation and the DPA. It was run by the DPA at Exeter Racecourse in October 2012, with 150 delegates. Speakers came from the Foundation for Common Land, the Forest of Dartmoor Commoners, the University of Gloucestershire, the National Farmers Union of England and Wales and the Open Spaces Society. The CEO raised sponsorship from Dartmoor National Park, Exmoor National Park, Natural England, Duchy of Cornwall amd the Exmoor Society - this reflecting the standing of the DPA with those bodies.[51][53]

Undergrounding power cables[edit]

Two major projects to underground overhead power cables and enhance the landscape of the Dartmoor National Park have been completed in a joint project between Western Power Distribution, the South West Protected Landscapes Forum (SWPLF) and Dartmoor National Park Authority. The two schemes on Holne Moor and Walkhampton Common between them remove nearly 6 km of overhead line from open moorland. At nearly 5 km, the Walkhampton scheme is the largest to be undertaken in the South West region by Western Power Distribution. The old overhead line was readily visible from the B3212 Princetown to Yelverton Road, strung across Walkhampton Common from Devil’s Elbow to just above Horseyeatt at Peek Hill. The works to provide the new underground supply were mainly undertaken on the highway to minimise the impact on the sensitive moorland landscape, its archaeology, wildlife and livestock. The DPA has supported the undergrounding of these visually intrusive power lines for many years. Their removal will be welcomed by all those who enjoy the natural beauty of this wonderful moorland landscape.[54]

Walkhampton Common pylons and power cables before undergrounding
Walkhampton Common pylons during undergrounding, posing with a cross-cut saw for the local press
Walkhampton Common after undergrounding of the power cables

The Dartmoor Conservation Garden[edit]

The Dartmoor Conservation Garden is a joint project between DPA and DNPA and is located in the Jack Wigmore Garden behind the High Moorland Centre in Princetown:[55] this is a memorial garden to a former Chair of the Authority. It is planted with a cross-section of typical native Dartmoor plants. It also houses some typical Dartmoor archaeological features, such as a 4,000-year-old Bronze Age burial kistvaen (or cist) and a Medieval granite cross from Ter Hill. This marked the Monk's Path but was constantly being pushed over by cattle. The Garden is a free, outdoor classroom and quiet place where children (and adults) can learn about the biodiversity on Dartmoor by means of signs and interpretation boards. The project came online in June 2015.[56]

DPA Director’s Annual Report 2015[edit]

Subjects included • National and Local Planning Policy meetings, objections and decisions. • Campaigns and Consultations with local, regional and national bodies such as the Campaign for National Parks, the Landscapes for Everyone campaign involving twenty-seven bodies, and the MoD Access Forum. • The Moor Than Meets The Eye project, this funds twenty-eight integrated projects using a Lottery award and other funding from thirteen public, private and voluntary sector organisations including DPA. The DPA is funding the Moor Boots project that provides walking boots to enable some children to take part in the Duke of Edinburgh’s Award Scheme. • The Dartmoor Conservation Garden, this is a collaborative project between the DPA and DNPA. • The Devon Birds Conference is under advanced planning for the autumn, to be held at Exeter Racecourse. • Events, Visits and Walks: a full programme of walks is provided for members and others throughout the year. • Conservation Projects – this describes the work done by the DPA Conservation Team of volunteers who work on several projects that involve clearing scrub in the winter and bracken in the summer to keep archaeological features from becoming overgrown as well as other work such as cairn restoration.[42]

DPA Conservation Team volunteers cutting bracken in Drake's Plymouth Leat, June 2015
DPA stand at Chagford Fair, with 2nd Place Rosette in the Trade Section for stand presentation, August 2014
Conservation Team volunteers clearing scrub on Devonport Leat, January 2015

Widecombe telecommunications mast[edit]

The DPA were involved in a campaign in June 2015 against four telecommunications masts planned for Dartmoor, with the first to be erected in the village of Widecombe. At short notice, the DPA banners were taken out, letters written, press interviews given and support given to the villagers when an inflatable mast was demonstrated – with the effect that the planning application was withdrawn.[57]

Friends of Dartmoor Car Sticker

Friends of Dartmoor[edit]

In common with other amenity bodies, such as those for the Lake District,[58] Peak District,[59] Pembrokeshire Coast,[60] Yorkshire Dales Three Peaks[61] and the New Forest Trust,[62] the image of Dartmoor Preservation Association is evolving from its Victorian origins, although the original name is being retained. Friends of Dartmoor projects a more modern image of preservation where several years of diplomacy have achieved good relations with the partner agencies that operate in the Dartmoor arena. This is due mainly to the efforts of the previous CEO, James Paxman[63] and his successor, Phil Hutt.[42]

Constitution, objectives and policies[edit]

The DPA Constitution, objectives and policies are published on the DPA web site.[64]

The Objectives enshrined in the Constitution are the protection, preservation and enhancement in the public interest of the landscape, antiquities, flora and fauna, natural beauty, cultural heritage and scientific interest of Dartmoor. Also the protection and preservation of public access to and on Dartmoor subject to the ancient rights of commoners. Co-operation with the commoners and any organisation in achieving DPA objectives, also the study of and the recording and publication of information upon the antiquities, history and natural history of Dartmoor. There is also an interest in the acquisition of land and rights to further DPA objectives, concomitant with being a charity.

The DPA has twenty-two policies listed on its web site: regarding access and rights of way, fencing, protecting monuments, diverse habitats, bracken, china clay quarrying, military training and live firing, hill farming and small scale traditional local industries, quarrying, television and telephone masts, wind farms, planning applications, housing developments, woodlands and forestry, ponies, swaling, and recreational activities.[65]

[edit]

The DPA logo incorporates a representation of a Dartmoor rock feature known as Bowerman's Nose. The logo that includes a representation of Nun’s Cross appeared on the DPA Dartmoor Newsletter No. 48, October 1966, with a comment that designs based on the initial letters DPA had been exhausted. The simpler logo appeared in November 1969, when Newsletter 52 carried the logo with "DPA" on it. This was replaced in 2004 with the multicoloured logo.[66]

DPA logo from 1966, with Nun's Cross incorporated
DPA logo from 1969
DPA logo from 2004

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kelly, M. "Quartz and Feldspar. Dartmoor: A British Landscape in Modern Times", Jonathan Cape, London, 2015, ISBN 9780224091138
  2. ^ a b c Moore, Stuart A. "A short history of the rights of common upon the Forest of Dartmoor and the commons of Devon". Dartmoor Preservation Association, Plymouth, 1890. ISBN 0950138649.
  3. ^ a b c Somers Cocks, J. "A Dartmoor Century 1883-1983: One hundred years of the Dartmoor Preservation Association". Dartmoor Preservation Association. Yelverton, Devon, 1983. ISBN 0950138649.
  4. ^ [1] "Charity Commission Register - Dartmoor Preservation Association"
  5. ^ Steen, Anthony. 2003, Hansard "Dartmoor National Park (Military Exercises)" HC Deb 15 October 2003 vol 411 cc129-36WH
  6. ^ Butler, Jeremy. "Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities: Vol.1 – The East". Devon Books, Kingkerswell, Devon. 1991. p.5. ISBN 0861148665.
  7. ^ "Medieval Dartmoor" - Dartmoor National Park Authority website
  8. ^ a b Newman, Phil. "The Dartmoor Tin Industry: A Field Guide". Newton Abbot, Devon. 1968. ISBN 0953270807.
  9. ^ Greeves, Tom. Tin Mines and Miners of Dartmoor: A Photographic Record. Devon Books, Kingkerswell, Devon, 1986. p.21. ISBN 9780861147663.
  10. ^ a b Harris, Helen. "Industrial Archaeology of Dartmoor". David & Charles, Newton Abbot, Devon. 1968. ISBN 0715343025.
  11. ^ "Dartmoor Newtakes" - Legendary Dartmoor website
  12. ^ Crossing, William. "Crossing’s Dartmoor Worker". 2nd Edn. Peninsula Press, Newton Abbot, Devon. 1992. p.48. ISBN 1872640206
  13. ^ a b c Somers Cocks, John. "Exploitation". In "Dartmoor: A New Study". Editor Crispin Gill. David & Charles, Newton Abbot Devon, 1970. ISBN 0715350412.
  14. ^ Stanbrook, Elisabeth. "Dartmoor Forest Farms". Devon Books, Kinkerswell, 1994. pp.6-7. ISBN 0861148878.
  15. ^ Worth, R. Hansford. "Worth’s Dartmoor". David & Charles, Newton Abbot. 1967. pp.355-391. ISBN 0715351486.
  16. ^ a b c d Brewer, Dave. "Dartmoor Boundary Markers". Halsgrove. Tiverton, Devon, 2002. ISBN 1841141720
  17. ^ a b Hemery, Eric. "High Dartmoor". Robert Hale Ltd, London. 1983. ISBN 0709188595
  18. ^ Crossing, William. "Being Mr. Crossing’s report as to damage to ancient monuments and encroachments on Dartmoor, 1901". Reprinted 1997. Dartmoor Preservation Association Publication No. 9. pp.3-24. ISBN 0950138665.
  19. ^ "The Armed Forces on Dartmoor: A Brief History"
  20. ^ "The 6th Dartmoor Society Debate: The Military on Dartmoor"
  21. ^ "Lady Sayer and Dartmoor" - Devon County Council Newsletter, May 2000
  22. ^ "MOD can use Dartmoor for Military Training until 2053" - Western Morning News website
  23. ^ "Around the Regions - with the Conservation Groups" - MOD web site upload
  24. ^ "Advice on replanting sites affected by Phytophthora ramorum - Forestry Commission website
  25. ^ Studholme, Sir Henry. 1959, Hansard "Torbay Corporation (Water) Bill (By Order)" HC Deb 17 March 1959 vol 602 cc291-319
  26. ^ "The Meldon Story"Dartmoor Preservation Association, 1972, pp.1-62.
  27. ^ Johnson, Carol, 1966. Hansard "North Devon (Meldon Reservoir) Water Order, 1966" HC Deb 24 October 1968 vol 770 cc361-2W
  28. ^ [2] "Hansard Search Results: Meldon Reservoir"
  29. ^ [3] "National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949"
  30. ^ a b "The History of Dartmoor" - Dartmoor National Park Authority website
  31. ^ [4] "Dartmoor National Park Authority: Who Appoints Members?" - Dartmoor National Park Authority website
  32. ^ Hayman, 1954. Hansard [5] "HC Deb 10 March 1954 vol 524 c2223"
  33. ^ [6] "The Sharpitor Story" - Dartmoor Preservation Association website"
  34. ^ [7] "Okehampton Bypass Fact Sheet" - Dartmoor National Park Authority website
  35. ^ Clark, David. 1984. Hansard [8] "Business of the House" HC Deb 22 November 1984 vol 68 cc406-14
  36. ^ The Secretary of State for Transport (Mr. Nicholas Ridley). 1985. Hansard [9] "Okehampton Bypass" HC Deb 26 July 1985 vol 83 cc1435-41
  37. ^ The Secretary of State for Transport (Mr. Nicholas Ridley). 1985. Hansard [10] "Okehampton Bypass (Confirmation of Orders) Bill" HC Deb 19 November 1985 vol 87 cc140-224
  38. ^ The Earl of Caithness. 1985. Hansard [11] "Okehampton Bypass (Confirmation of Orders) Bill" HL Deb 05 December 1985 vol 468 cc1412-33
  39. ^ "DPA Constitution" - Dartmoor Preservation Association website
  40. ^ "DPA Events" - Dartmoor Preservation Association website
  41. ^ "DPA sets up Moor Boots fund" - Outside Times website
  42. ^ a b c "Director's Report for the DPA Annual General Meeting 2015" - Dartmoor Preservation Association website
  43. ^ a b Wade, E.A. "The Redlake Tramway & China Clay Works". Twelveheads Press, Truro, 2004. ISBN 0906294096.
  44. ^ [12] "Google Satellite map of china clay sites on Dartmoor"
  45. ^ Lord Brougham and Vaux. 1994. Hansard "Dartmoor National Park Boundary Variation" HL Deb 14 April 1994 vol 553 c100WA
  46. ^ Greeves, 1999, p.9
  47. ^ "Lee Moor China Clay Quarry Complex" - Devon County Council website
  48. ^ "Devon County Council: Committee Report" - Devon County Council website
  49. ^ "Open day at Emmets Post" Oxford Archaeology website
  50. ^ Paxman, James. "DPA News". Dartmoor Matters, No. 168, Winter 2008. p.3. UIN BLL01008562670
  51. ^ a b "Dartmoor Matters - British Library Item details", UIN BLL01008562670
  52. ^ "Whitehorse Hill burial" - Dartmoor National Park Authority website
  53. ^ Cowling, Norman. "South West Uplands Federation Conference". Dartmoor Matters, No. 180, Winter 2012. p.4. UIN BLL01008562670.
  54. ^ [13] "'Eyesore' of poles and power cables removed from Walkhampton Common and Holne Moor on Dartmoor
  55. ^ "National Park Visitor Centre - Princetown"
  56. ^ Fleming, Pat. "The Dartmoor Conservation Garden". Dartmoor Magazine, Issue 119 Summer 2015. Moretonhampstead Devon. 2015. ISSN 02685027.
  57. ^ "Dartmoor mobile phone mast plan pulled after landscape opposition" - Western Morning News website
  58. ^ "Friends of the Lake District" website
  59. ^ "Friends of the Peak District" website
  60. ^ "Friends of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park" website
  61. ^ "Friends of the Three Peaks" website
  62. ^ "Become a Friend of the New Forest Trust" web page
  63. ^ http://www.dartmoorpreservation.com/news-a-publications/dpa-news-items1
  64. ^ "DPA Policies" - Dartmoor Preservation Association website
  65. ^ "Policies of the DPA" - Dartmoor Preservation website
  66. ^ "The DPA Emblem" - on the Dartmoor Preservation website

Further reading[edit]

  • Brewer, Dave. "Dartmoor Boundary Markers". Halsgrove. Tiverton, Devon, 2002. ISBN 1841141720
  • Crossing, William. "Crossing’s Dartmoor Worker". 2nd Edn. Peninsula Press, Newton Abbot, Devon, 1992. ISBN 1872640206
  • Dartmoor Preservation Association. "The Meldon Story". DPA Publication No. 7. Crapstone, Plymouth, 1972. UIN BLL01004145656.
  • Greeves, Tom. "Tin Mines and Miners of Dartmoor: A Photographic Record". Devon Books, Kingkerswell, Devon, 1986. ISBN 9780861147663.
  • Greeves, Tom. "Sacred Land – Working Land: the case for the preservation of the Blackabrook Valley, Crownhill Down and Shaugh Moor from the expansion of the china clay industry. " Dartmoor Preservation Association, Princetown, 1999. ISBN 095013869X.
  • Harris, Helen. "Industrial Archaeology of Dartmoor". David & Charles, Newton Abbot, Devon, 1968. ISBN 0715343025.
  • Hemery, Eric. "High Dartmoor". Robert Hale Ltd, London, 1983. ISBN 0709188595
  • Kelly, Matthew. "Quartz and Feldspar: Dartmoor - A British Landscape in Modern Times", Jonathan Cape, London, 2015. ISBN 9780224091138
  • Moore, Stuart A. "A short history of the rights of common upon the Forest of Dartmoor and the commons of Devon". Dartmoor Preservation Association, Plymouth, 1890. ISBN 0950138649
  • Newman, Phil. "The Dartmoor Tin Industry: A Field Guide". Newton Abbot, Devon, 1968. ISBN 0953270807.
  • Somers Cocks, John. "Exploitation". In "Dartmoor: A New Study". Editor Crispin Gill. David & Charles, Newton Abbot Devon, 1970. ISBN 0715350412.
  • Somers Cocks, J. "A Dartmoor Century 1883-1983: One hundred years of the Dartmoor Preservation Association". Dartmoor Preservation Association. Yelverton, Devon, 1983. ISBN 0950138649.
  • Stanbrook, Elisabeth. "Dartmoor Forest Farms". Devon Books, Kinkerswell, 1994. ISBN 0861148878
  • Wade, E.A. "The Redlake Tramway & China Clay Works". Twelveheads Press, Truro, 2004. ISBN 0906294096.
  • Worth, R. Hansford. "Worth’s Dartmoor". David & Charles, Newton Abbot, 1967. ISBN 0715351486.

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