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Durga Mahisasuramardini.JPG
The goddess Durga
Observed by Hindus and Buddhists in Nepal
Observances Prayers, Religious rituals, animal sacrifices
Begins Ashwin shukla prathama
Ends Kojagarat purnima
Date September–October
2014 date Sep 25 to Oct 7
2015 date Oct 12 to 26

Dashain (Nepali: दशैँ Daśãi, also Baḍādaśãi बडादशैँ), or Bijayā Daśamī (Maithili: विजया दशमी), or Mwohni (Newar: मोह्नी, also Durga Puja (Newar: दुर्गा पुजा)[1] is a fifteen-day-long national festival of Nepal.[2]

Dashain is a very popular festival in Nepal. It is the longest and the most auspicious festival in the Nepalese annual calendar, celebrated by Nepalese people throughout the globe. It is also celebrated by many Hindus elsewhere. It is the longest and most anticipated festival in Nepal. People return from all parts of the world, as well as different parts of the country, to celebrate together.[2] All government offices, educational institutions and other offices remain closed during the festival period.The festival falls in September or October, starting from the shukla paksha (bright lunar fortnight) of the month of Ashvin and ending on purnima, the full moon. Among the fifteen days on which it is celebrated, the most important days are the first, seventh, eighth, ninth and the tenth.[3]

Among the Newars of the Kathmandu Valley, Dashain or traditionally called Mwohni (Newar: मोह्नी) or Durga Puja (Newar: दुर्गा पुजा) is celebrated as the most important Newar festival of the calendar year.[1] It is celebrated by both Hindu and Buddhist with only slight differences and interpretations, where each nine days Navaratri (Newar: नवरात्री) leading up to the 10th day called 'Dashami' carry special importance.[4] The goddess Durga and her various manifestations are especially worshiped by Hindu Newars throughout the Shaktipeeths of Kathmandu Valley. Among Newars, Mwohni is also important for its emphasis on family gatherings as well as on a renewal of community ties, highlighted by special family dinners called Nakhtyā (Newar: नख्त्या) and various community processions of deities (Newar: जात्रा) throughout the three royal cities of Kathmandu Valley.[2]


Dashain symbolizes the victory of good over evil.

For followers of Shaktism, it represents the victory of the goddess Parvati. In Hindu mythology, the demon Mahishasura had created terror in the devaloka (the world where gods live ) but Durga killed the demon.[5][6][7] The first nine days of Dashain symbolize the battle which took place between the different manifestations of Durga and Mahishasura. The tenth day is the day when Durga finally defeated him. For other Hindus, this festival symbolizes the victory of Rama over Ravana as recounted in the Ramayana.

Buddhists in Nepal celebrate Dashain to commemorate Ashoka's adoption of ahimsa and Buddhism.


Day 1: Ghatasthapana dashain[edit]

The tilaka (in red) and jamara (in green) used during Dashain.

Ghaṭasthāpanā (घटस्थापना "sowing Jamara") marks the beginning of Dashain.[8][9] Literally, it means placing a kalasha or a pot, which symbolizes Durga. Ghaṭasthāpanā falls on the first day of the festival. On this day the kalasha is filled with holy water which is then covered with cow dung and sewn with barley seeds. Then the kalasha is put in the center of a rectangular sand block. The remaining bed of sand is also seeded with grains. The priest then starts the puja by asking Durga to bless the vessel with her presence. This ritual is performed at a certain auspicious time which is determined by the astrologers.[10] The goddess is believed to reside in the vessel during navratri.

The room where all this is done is known as the Dasain Ghar. Traditionally, outsiders and women are not allowed to enter it. A male family member worships the kalasha twice every day, once in the morning and then in the evening. But the coming of time has brought about women empowerment and the woman now are equally responsible for doing these rituals. The kalasha is kept away from direct sunlight[11] and holy water is offered to it every day, so that by the tenth day of the festival the seed will have grown to five or six inches long yellow grass. This sacred grass is known as jamara. These rituals continue until the seventh day.

Day 7: Fulpati[edit]

Fulpati is a major celebration occurring on the seventh day of Dashain.

Traditionally, on this day, the royal kailasha, banana stalks, jamara and sugar cane tied with red cloth is brought by Brahmins from Gorkha, a three-day walk, about 169 kilometres (105 mi) away from the Kathmandu Valley. Hundreds of government officials gather together in the Tundikhel grounds in conventional formal dress to witness the event. The king used to observe the ceremony in Tudikhel while the fulpati parade was headed towards the Hanuman Dhoka royal palace.Then there is a majestic display of the Nepalese Army along with a celebratory firing of weapons that continues for ten to fifteen minutes honoring Fulpati. The Fulpati is taken to the Hanuman Dhoka Royal palace by the time the occasion ends in Tudikhel, where a parade is held.[12]

Since 2008, when the royal family was overthrown, the two-century old tradition is changed so that the holy offering of fulpati goes to the residence of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister has taken over the king's social and religious roles after the fall of the royal government.

Day 8: Maha Asthami[edit]

An eighth day is called the 'Maha Asthami'. This is the day when the most fierce of Goddess Durga’s manifestations, the blood-thirsty Kali, is appeased through the sacrifice of buffaloes, goats, pigeons and ducks in temples throughout the nation. Blood, symbolic for its fertility, is offered to the Goddesses. Appropriately enough, the night of this day is called Kal Ratri (Black Night). It is also the norm for buffaloes to be sacrificed in the courtyards of all the land revenue offices in the country on this day. The old palace in Basantapur Hanuman Dhoka, is active throughout the night with worships and sacrifices in almost every courtyard. On the midnight of the very day the Dasain Ghar, a total of 54 buffaloes and 54 goats are sacrificed in observance of the rites. After the offering of the blood, the meat is taken home and cooked as "prasad", or food blessed by divinity. This food is offered, in tiny leaf plates, to the household Gods, then distributed amongst the family. Eating this food is thought to be auspicious. While the puja is being carried out great feasts are held in the homes of common people.

Day 9: Maha Navami[edit]

People standing in queue to visit the Taleju Bhawani Mandir

The ninth day is called Mahanavami, "the great ninth day". This is the last day of Navarati. Ceremonies and rituals reach the peak on this day. On this day, official military ritual sacrifices are held in one of the Hanuman Dhoka royal palaces, the Kot courtyard. On this occasion, the state offers the sacrifices of buffaloes under the gunfire salutes. This day is also known as the demon-hunting day because members of the defeated demon army try to save themselves by hiding in the bodies of animals and fowls.

On Mahanavami, Vishvakarman, the god of creation, is worshiped as it believed that all the things which help is in making a living should be kept happy. Artisans, craftsmen, traders, and mechanics worship and offer animal and fowl blood to their tools, equipment, and vehicles. Moreover, since it is believed that worshipping the vehicles on this day avoids accidents for the year all the vehicles from bikes, cars to trucks are worshiped on this day.

The Taleju Temple gates are opened for the general public on only this day of the year. Thousands of devotees go and pay respect to the goddess this day. The temple is filled with devotees all day long.[13]

Day 10: Bijaya Dashami or Vijaya Dashami[edit]

An elder member of the family putting Tika to the younger one
Putting tika from father and mother during Dashain festival.

The tenth day of the festival is the 'Dashami'. On this day, a mixture of rice, yogurt and vermilion is prepared by the women. This preparation is known as "Tika". Elders put this tika and jamara which is sown in the Ghatasthapana on the forehead of younger relatives to bless them with abundance in the upcoming years. The red also symbolizes the blood that ties the family together. Elders give "Dakshina", or a small amount of money, to younger relatives at this time along with the blessings. This continues to be observed for five days till the full moon during which period families and relatives visit each other to exchange gifts and greetings. This ritual of taking tika from all the elder relatives (even the distant relatives)helps in the renewal of the community ties greatly. This is one reason why the festival is celebrated with so much of vigor and enthusiasm.

Before the collapse of the monarchy system in Nepal, thousands of people ranging from the ministers, diplomats and general public used to gather in the old royal palace to take the tika and blessing from the king who is considered to be the incarnation of Lord Vishnu. However, after the collapse of the monarchy system the president of the country who is considered the head of the state has been continuing the trend by offering the tika to the general public and ministers.[14]

The last day of the festival which lies on the full moon day is called 'Kojagrata' Purnima. The literal meaning of Kojagrata is 'who is awake'. On this day Goddess Laxmi who is believed to be the goddess of wealth is worshiped as it believed that goddess Laxmi descends on earth and showers whoever is awake all night with wealth and prosperity. People enjoy over the night by playing cards and many more.

Celebrating Dashain Festival by Putting Tikas from Elder

Animal sacrifices are often the norms during this time, as the festival commemorates the mythical bloody battles between the "divine" and "demonic" powers. The proponents of animal sacrifice interpret that this sacrificial act as the symbolic sacrifice of our animal qualities, but those who are compassionate to the sacrificed victims think otherwise stressing that the sacrificial act is nothing but an excuse to fulfill the appetite for food/meat.


Forms of celebration[edit]

As Dasain approaches, kite flying becomes more and more common. Flying kites have been a very important part of celebrating Dasain in the country, as it is considered to be one way of reminding god not to send rain anymore.[16] During the festival people of all ages fly kites from their roofs. Colorful kites and voices shouting out 'changa cheit' (this phrase is usually used when one cuts the other person's kite string) fill the days during the festival.

Playing cards is another way of celebrating Dasain.[16] While children be busy flying kites during Dasain, the older members of the family pass their time by getting together and playing cards with each other for money and fun.

Buying and wearing new clothes is an important part of the festival. As many people living in the villages are below the poverty line, for them it is often the case that new clothes come only with Dasain.[16] Almost all the shops have festival offers and discounts. This makes shopping more attractive. Clothes is the item which has the highest sales during the festival.[13]

Children playing on traditional bamboo swings

Bamboo swings are constructed in many parts of the country as a way of celebration. Dashian swings are called 'ping' in Nepali. They present the best of local culture, tradition, community spirit and fun.[17] These swings are constructed by community members with traditional methods which use ropes made from a tough grass, bamboo sticks and wood, etc. The swings are normally constructed a week before Ghatasthapana and dismantled only after the festival of Tihar which comes after Dasain. The height of some swings exceed twenty feet. People of all ages enjoy in the swings. They are especially famous with children.

Fairs and celebrations are organized during the festival. Usually small fairs are organized in the villages with Ferris wheels for children and other entertainment for the adults. However, in the city commercial fairs and celebrations are usually organized.

Thousands of animals including buffalo, ducks, and rams are slaughtered in Dasain every year. It has been considered an important ritual since it is believed that the goddesses are appeased by such sacrifices. Almost all the temples, especially the Durga and Kali temples, are offered with thousands of sacrifices. Asthami and Navami are the days when the sacrifices reach a peak. While thousands of animals are sacrificed to appease the goddesses, people also slaughter animals for feasts. Since many feasts and gatherings are organized throughout the fifteen days of the festival, the demand for meat goes up considerably. To meet the demand, the slaughtering of animals becomes considerably high and necessary.

However, for the past few years the animal rights activists in the country have been continuously opposing these acts of slaughter. They have been requesting people to stop such inhuman acts and instead have suggested them to offer fruits and vegetables to the goddesses since they believe that it is mentioned nowhere in the Hindu religious books that animal sacrifices appease the gods and goddesses.

Chaite Dashain[edit]

Chaite Dashain is known as the small or mini Dashain, unlike the Bada Dashain it is just celebrated for one day that is in the Chaitra Shukla Paksha Asthami thithi. Like in Bada Dashain, in some Brahmin families there will be puja and sacrifices as well. For the people living in the Western part of Nepal there will be a huge festival.


There has been huge debate over animal sacrifices in the festival. 28,000 goats were already sold in Kathmandu as of October 2015. Previous year 45,000 goats were sold for sacrifice by National Food Corporation.[18] Various petitions have been opened to stop animal cruelty in the festival. Some animal activists suggest to use pumpkin as replacement of animals.[19][20][21][22][23][20][24]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Toffin, Gerrard (2007). The Mwahni (Dasai) Festival and the Caste System. Social Science Baha. p. 316. ISBN 978 99933 43 95 0. 
  2. ^ a b c "Festivals of Nepal: Dashain". Nepal Home Page: Travel Guide. Retrieved June 28, 2008. 
  3. ^ [1][dead link]
  4. ^ Sadhana, Shakti. "Mahishasura Mardini". Shakti Sadhana. 
  5. ^ "Mahishasur Mardini". Shaktisadhana.50megs.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  6. ^ "The Slayer Of Mahishasura". Balagokulam.org. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  7. ^ "Major festivals of nepal". Asukagroup.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  8. ^ nmn (28 September 2011). "Dashain begins with Ghatasthapana Wednesday". Nepal Mountain News. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  9. ^ "Dashain 2072: When is dashain in 2015 (2072) : Dashain 2072". Sanjan Media. September 25, 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  10. ^ "Ghatasthapana". Riiti.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  11. ^ "Festivals of Nepal: Dashain". Nepalhomepage.com author=Karki, Avigya. Retrieved November 17, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Fulpati". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  13. ^ a b "Days of Dashain". Nepalvista.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  14. ^ "President offers tika". Nepalnews.com. 
  15. ^ "September Festivals". Explore Himalaya. September 27, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b c "ECS Dasain". ECS.com.np. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  17. ^ "To Swing On A Ping". ECS.com.np. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  18. ^ राजु चौधरी, काठमाडौं. "कान्तिपुर समाचार :: २८ हजार खसीबोका, च्यांग्रा बिक्री". Kantipur.ekantipur.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  19. ^ Criveller, Gianni. "NEPAL Buddhists and animal rights activists against animal slaughter for Durga - Asia News". Asianews.it. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  20. ^ a b "Debating Animal Cruelty During Nepal’s Dashain Festival · Global Voices". Globalvoices.org. 2010-10-21. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  21. ^ Haviland, Charles (2007-10-19). "South Asia | Revulsion over Nepal animal slaughter". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  22. ^ "Dashain festival, Nepal - Occupy for Animals!". Occupyforanimals.net. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  23. ^ Kukil Bora. "Horrific Pictures of Animal Sacrifice, the Dark Side of Religious Belief | International Business Times". Ibtimes.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  24. ^ Bibek Bhandari. "Animal rights activists want Nepal's sacrifice festival stopped | South China Morning Post". Scmp.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11.