Dasam Granth

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An early 19th-century Dasam Granth manuscript frontispiece (British Library MS Or.6298)

The name Dasam Granth is given to a collection of various manuscripts in Sikhi containing compositions attributed to Guru Gobind Singh.[1][2][3][4] Guru Gobind Singh ordained the sacred text Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, eternally ending the line of human Gurus. It is the only holy scripture of the Sikhs and regarded by Sikhs as the living embodiment of Ten Gurus.[5][6] Bachiter Natak is a part of ("Dasam Granth") composition[7][8]

The standard edition of the text contains 1,428 pages with 17,293 verses in 18 sections.[3][1] These are set in the form of hymns and poems mostly in the Braj language (Old western Hindi),[3] with some parts in Avadhi, Punjabi, Hindi and Persian.[1] The script is written almost entirely in Gurmukhi, except for the Guru Gobind Singh's letters to AurangzebZafarnama and the Hikaaitaan—written in the Persian alphabet.[1]

The Dasam Granth contains hymns, from mythological Hindu texts,[2] which are a retelling of the feminine in the form of goddess Durga,[9][2] an autobiography, letters to others such as the Mughal emperor, as well as reverential discussion of warriors and theology.[3] The scripture was recited in full within Nirmala Sikhs in the contemporary era.[4][10] Parts of it are popularly retold from Hindu Purans, for the benefit of the common man, who had no access to Hindu texts of the time.[4] Compositions of the Dasam Granth include Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye and Benti Chaupai which are part of the Nitnem or daily prayers and also part of the Amrit Sanchar or initiation ceremony of Khalsa Sikhs.[11]

Zafarnama and Hikayats in a different style and format appended to it in the mid 18th century.[10] Other manuscripts are said to include the Patna bir and the Mani Singh Vali bir all originated in mid to late 18th century. These manuscripts include the Indian mythologies that are questioned by most Sikhs in the contemporary era, as well as sections such as the Ugradanti and Sri Bhagauti Astotra.[10]

Authorship[edit]

Although the compositions of the Dasam Granth are traditionally accepted to be penned by Guru Gobind Singh, there have been questions of the authenticity of the entirety of Dasam Granth from time of compilation. There are three major views on the authorship of the Dasam Granth:[12]

  1. The traditional view is that the entire work was composed by Guru Gobind Singh himself.
  2. The entire collection was compiled by the poets in the Guru's entourage.
  3. Only a part of the work was composed by the Guru, while the rest was composed by the other poets.

In his religious court at Anandpur Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh had employed 52 poets, who translated several classical texts into Braj Bhasha. Most of the writing compiled at Anandpur Sahib was lost while the Guru's camp was crossing the Sirsa river before the Battle of Chamkaur in 1704. There were copiers available at the Guru's place who made several copies of the writings, and other writings may have been included too which may have led to authenticity issues. Later, Bhai Mani Singh compiled all the available works under the title Dasam Granth.

The traditional scholars claim that all the works in Dasam Granth were composed by the Guru himself, on the basis of Bhai Mani Singh's letter. But the veracity of the letter has been examined by scholars and found to be unreliable. An example of varying style can be seen in the sections 'Chandi Charitar' and 'Bhagauti ki War'[citation needed]. Some others dispute the claim of the authorship, saying that some of the compositions included in Dasam Granth such as Charitropakhyan are "out of tune" with other Sikh scriptures, and must have been composed by other poets.[13] The names of poets Raam, Shyam and Kaal appear repeatedly in the granth. References to Kavi Shyam can be seen in Mahan Kosh of Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha, under the entry 'Bawanja Kavi' and also in Kavi Santokh Singh's magnum opus Suraj Prakash Granth.

Historical writings[edit]

The following are historical books after the demise of Guru Gobind Singh which mention that the compositions in the present Dasam Granth was written by Guru Gobind Singh:

  • Rehitnama Bhai Nand Lal mentioned Jaap Sahib is an important Bani for a Sikh.[14]
  • Rehitnama Chaupa Singh Chibber quotes various lines from Bachitar Natak, 33 Swiayey, Chopai Sahib, Jaap Sahib.[15]
  • In 1711, Sri Gur Sobha was written by the poet Senapat and mentioned a conversation of Guru Gobind Singh and Akal Purakh, and written three of its Adhyay on base of Bachitar Natak.[16]
  • In 1741, Parchian Srvadas Kian quoted lines from Rama Avtar, 33 Swaiyey and mentioned Zafarnama with Hikayats.[17]
  • in 1751, Gurbilas Patshahi 10 – Koyar Singh Kalal, mentioned Guru Gobind Singh composed Bachitar Natak, Krisna Avtar, Bisan Avtar, Akal Ustat, Jaap Sahib, Zafarnama, Hikayats etc. This is first Granth mentioned Guruship of Guru Granth Shahib.[18]
  • In 1766, Kesar Singh Chibber mentioned history of compilation of Dasam Granth by Bhai Mani Singh Khalsa on directions of Mata Sundri, as he was first who wrote history after death of Guru Gobind Singh.
  • In 1766, Sri Guru Mahima Parkash – Sarup Chand Bhalla, mentioned about various Banis of Guru Gobind Singh and compilation of Dasam Granth
  • In 1790, Guru Kian Sakhian – Svarup Singh Kashish, mentioned Guru Gobind Singh composed, bachitar Natak, Krishna Avtar, Shastarnaam Mala, 33 Swaiyey etc.
  • In 1797, Gurbilas Patshahi 10 – Sukkha Singh, mentioned compositions of Guru Gobind Singh.
  • In 1812, J. B. Malcolm, in SKetch of Sikhs mentioned about Dasam Granth as Bani of Guru Gobind Singh.

Structure[edit]

The standard print edition of the Dasam Granth, since 1902, has 1,428 pages.[3][1] However, many printed versions of the text in the contemporary era skip a major section (40%) because it is controversial.[19]

The standard official edition contains 17,293 verses in 18 sections.[3][1] These are set in the form of hymns and poems mostly in the Braj Bhasha (Old western Hindi),[3] with some parts in Avadhi, Punjabi, Hindi and Persian language.[1] The script is almost entirely the Gurmukhi script except for the letter of the Sikh Guru to AurangzebZafarnama, and the Hikayat in the Persian script.[1]

Contents[edit]

The Dasam Granth has many sections covering a wide range of topics:

Compositions in Dasam Granth
No. Bani Title Alternate Name Description
1 Mahalla Dasven This is a composition of two letters, one by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and one by Guru Gobind Singh ji.


Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji writes-

My strength is exhausted, and I am in bondage; I cannot do anything at all.

Says Nanak, now, the Lord is my Support; He will help me, as He did the elephant.

My strength has been restored, and my bonds have been broken; now, I can do everything.

Nanak: everything is in Your hands, Lord; You are my Helper and Support.


Guru Gobind Singh Ji replies-

"O Father, who would be greater than you to defend the weak and helpless? Only you can save these people and their religion. My mother may become a widow from your great sacrifice, but you will save thousands of women from becoming widows; I may become fatherless from your great sacrifice, but you will save thousands of children from becoming orphans."

2 Jaap Sahib Gobind Jaapji a prayer of 199 verses dedicated to formless, timeless, all-pervading god.[20]
3 Akal Ustat A praise of the timeless primal being Akal Purakh (god), explaining that this primal being takes numerous forms of gods and goddesses, listing most frequently Hindu names of these, but also includes a few Muslim epithets.[20] Criticizes overemphasis on rituals related to the devotional worship of god.[20]
4 Bachittar Natak Bachitra Natak Partly an autobiography that states he was born in Sodhi lineage, tracing it to the lineage of Rama and Sita of Ramayana;[21] mentions Guru Nanak was born in the Bedi clan and how the next eight Gurus came to lead the Sikhs; describes the persecution and execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur calling him the defender of dharma who protected the sacred threads and the tilaks (forehead mark of devout Hindus);[21] he mentions his own rebirth in Patna after God explained to him that he had sent religious leaders to earth, in forms such as Muhammad but these clung to their own self-interest rather than promote devotion to the true God;[21] He took birth to defend and spread the dharma, and was blessed by god to remember his past births;[21] the Bachitra Natak criticizes those who take pride in their religious rituals, mentions his own hunting expeditions, battles and journeys in Punjab and the Himalayan foothills.[21]
5 Chandi Charitar Ukti Bilas Chandi Charitar 1 a discussion of the Hindu goddess, Durga in the form of Chandi; this section of the Dasam Granth declares that it is based on the Sanskrit text Markandeya Purana; it glorifies the feminine with her fighting the mythical war between good and evil, after the gods have admitted their confusion and weakness, she anticipating and thus defeating evil that misleads and morphs into different shapes.[21]
6 Chandi Charitar II Chandi Charitar 2 a retelling of the story of the Hindu goddess, Durga again in the form of Chandi; it again glorifies the feminine with her fighting the war between good and evil, and in this section she slays the buffalo-demon Mahisha, all his associates and supporters thus bringing an end to the demonic violence and war.[21]
7 Chandi di Var Var Durga Ki the ballad of Hindu goddess, Durga, in Punjabi; this section of the Dasam Granth states that it is based on the Sanskrit text Durga Saptasati;[22] The opening verses from this composition, states Robin Rinehart, have been a frequently recited ardas petition or prayer in Sikh history;[22] it is also a source of controversy within Sikhism, as the opening verse states "First I remember Bhagauti, then I turn my attention to Guru Nanak"; the dispute has been whether one should interpret of the word "Bhagauti" as "goddess" or a metaphor for "sword".[22]
8 Gyan Prabodh Gyan Prabodh, Parbodh Chandra Natak The section title means "the Awakening of Knowledge", and it begins with praise of God; it includes a conversation between soul and God, weaves in many references to Hindu mythology and texts such as the Mahabharata;[23] the section summarizes those parva of the Hindu epic which discuss kingship and dharma; the role of Brahmins and Kshatriya varnas.[23]
9 Sansahar Sukhmana The Sansahar Sukhmana is a short poem that refers to many Hindu gods including Hari, Vishnu, Shiva, Durga etc. It declares the Khalsa Panth to be separate and Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh Ji to be one and the same. The Masands deleted this from the Dasam Granth as it made Sikhism a separate faith.
10 Brahma Avtar Avatars of Brahma Narrative on the seven incarnations of Brahma, who is already mentioned in the Chaubis Avatar section[23]
11 Rudra Avtar Avatars of Rudra a poem that narrates Rudra and his avatars, also already mentioned in the Chaubis Avatar section[23]
12 Kalki Avatar The Kalki avatar appears in the historic Sikh texts, most notably in Dasam Granth as Nihakalanki, a text that is traditionally attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. The Chaubis Avatar (24 avatars) section mentions sage Matsyendra describing the appearance of Vishnu avatars to fight evil, greed, violence and ignorance. It includes Kalki as the twenty-fourth incarnation to lead the war between the forces of righteousness and unrighteousness, states Dhawan.
13 Ram Avatar Ath Beesvan Ram Avtar Kathan or Ram Avtar is a Composition in second sacred granth of Sikhs i.e Dasam Granth, which was written by Guru Gobind Singh, at Anandpur Sahib. Guru Gobind Singh was not worshiper of Ramchandra, as after describing whole Avtar he cleared this fact that ਰਾਮ ਰਹੀਮ ਪ੝ਰਾਨ ਕ੝ਰਾਨ ਅਨੇਕ ਕਹੈਂ ਮਤਿ ਝਕ ਨ ਮਾਨਿਯੋ ॥ . Ram Avtar is based on Ramayana, but a Sikh study the spiritual aspects of this whole composition.
14 Mach Avatar Ath Pratham Mach Avtar Kathan (pa: ਅਥ ਪ੝ਰਥਮ ਮੱਛ ਅਵਤਾਰ ਕਥਨੰ) is part of composition, well known as Chobis Avtaar which was written by Guru Gobind Singh. In Sanskrit, Macch is called Matsya(Fish). This composition contains war of Macch and King Shankhasura, as Shakhasura stole Vedas and Macch retrieved them back. It is common belief that 10th guru worship Vishnu thats why he wrote whole narrative in praise of Vishnu but Guru Gobind Singh declared his worshiper in first 22 lines of Chobis avtar quite clearly.
15 Kach Avatar Kach Avatar is a story about how Indra was a very powerful and rich king and how Vishnu turned into a tortoise to carry an ocean of milk to give it.
16 Maha Mohini This story is about a battle between Vishnu and demons. Vishnu turned into a woman who the demons fell in love with. This lead them to try and please her but the other gods killed the demons while they were distracted by Maha Mohini.
17 Bariah Avatar This story is of how there was peace between the gods and demons when the demons entered the land of Vishnu. Vishnu turned himself into a boar and attacked them. This was meant to inspire the Khalsa saying that the Sikhs should be fearless and attack the enemy if they are unjust.
18 Narsingh Avatar This is fight between Gurmat and Manmatt. Narsingh is a person who have Gurmat and Hrinyakashyap is manmatt. He think that there is no god, when a person called Narsingh had Discussion of Wisdom then he able to know the presence of god.
19 Bavan Avatar This story is after the death of Narsingh and the world was in Manmatt. This story is based in Bali and how the Khalsa should not follow the rituals of demons.
20 Parasram Avatar Bhai Gurdas ji Vaar 23 Pauri 7 refers to the same sakhi as described by Dhan Guru Gobind singh Sahib ji Maharaj. This is about how demons manifested themselves into castes and turned themselves into the Brahmins and Kshatriyas.
21 Jalandhar Avatar This is a story about how Jalandhar loves the daughter of Shiva and Shiva does not allow it. Later Jalandhar asks Shiva for her hand in marriage.
22 Bisan Avatar This is about a story about the Bisan Avatar of the Aditi Clan
23 Killing of Madhu and Kaitabh This is about the Bisan Avatar killing the demons practicing rituals. The demon kings are called Madhu and Kaitabh.
24 Arihant Dev Avtar The word Arihanta is made up of two words: 1) Ari, meaning enemies, and 2) hanta, meaning destroyer. Therefore, Arihanta means a destroyer of the enemies. These enemies are not people, but rather inner desires known as passions. These includes anger, ego, deception, and greed. These are the internal enemies within us.

It is the same Jain religion which is also refereed in first Line of "Taav Praasad Swaiyiye" which is part of the Sikh Nitnem.

25 Manu Raja Avatar This is a poem about the Avatar of Lord Vishnu who was a servant of Akaal Purakh. Many people were stopping following god (Jains) so he send his avatar Manu Raja to preach the ways of the lord.
26 Dhanantar Vayd This poem is about how the world had started to get diseases due to eating various foods and Akaal Purakh seeing this sent a medicne, Dhanantar Vayd. This is the first time Guru Gobind Singh Ji described Akaal Purakh as Sarbloh.
27 Suraj Avatar This is a poem about how the Sun is the greatest king of all. It rules all the land and makes the life there prosper, the plants ad animals are its citizens and the moon its enemy. The Moon and sun are in a constant power struggle/
28 Chandra Avatar This is the story of the Moon who helps its citizens (All life in the world) get rest.
29 Krishna Avatar The Hinduism view of krishna is totally rejected in Gurmat. In Krishna Avtar, Guru Gobind SIngh is exposing Krishna life as described by hindus.
30 Nara Avatar It is a short poem about Vishnu's Nara incarnation-

The Lord is one and He can be attained through the Grace of the True Guru. Now beings the description of Nara incarnation. Now I enumerate the twenty-second incarnation as to how he assumed this form. Arjuna became the Nara incarnation, who conquered the warriors of all the world. In the first place, he by killing all the warriors, weaing unfailing coat of mail, removed the anxiety of his father Indra; then he fought a battle with Rudra (Shiva), the king of ghosts, who bestowed a boon on him. Then he redeemed Duryodhana and burnt the king of Gandharavas in the fire of the Khandav forest; all these could not comprehend his secret. He conquered all the places, where several proud Kauravas lived; he pleased Krishna and obtained the certificate of victory from him. He killed Bhishma, the son of Ganga and Karan, the son of Surya after fighting a dreadful war with them; he conquered the mighty warrior Duryodhana and obtained the eternal kingdom.

31 Gautama Buddha Avatar In this is the famous line-

I do not adore Ganesha in the beginning and also do not meditate on Krishna and Vishnu; I have only heard about them with my ears and I do not recognize them; my consciousness is absorbed at the feet of the Supreme Kal .


Ath Baudh Avtar Teiysvo Kathan(ਅਥ ਬਉਧ ਅਵਤਾਰ ਤੇਈਸਵੌ ਕਥਨੰ ),also called Baudh Avtar, which is generally belief about Gautam Siddarth the 23rd Incarnation of Vishnu in many hindu scriptures like Harivamsha

32 Nehkalank Avatar This is the story about the all powerful Nehkalank Avatar who would rule the world and destroy all sins.
33 Raja Kharag Singh Di Vaar King Kharag Singh was a great king warrior who destroyed Lord Shiva and his sons, in a Battle with Lord Krishna. Lord Shiva joined battle on request of Lord Krishna. The battle is narrated in Dasam Granth written by Guru Gobind Singh.

Kharag Singh was ally of King Jarasandha and was deceptively won by Lord Krishna.

34 Gobind Gita Sri Bhagwat Gita Bhakha Sri Gobind Singh Kirt This is a composition in the historical Patna Sahib Bir of Dasam Granth. This composition was deleted by the Sodhak Comittee (1895-1897). This composition is a translation and commentary of the Bhagavad Gita and how "Guru Gobind Singh", supposedly, saw the composition. It talks about the Khalsa warriors and the warriors in Krishna's army and other things. There is however doubt regarding the author. It starts with "Ik Oankaar Sri Waheguru ji ki fateh pahshahi 10" but the writing style seems more similiar to one of the court poets than that of Akal Ustat or Bachitar Natak, etc.
35 Shabad Hazare Thousand hymns actually contains nine hymns, each set to a raga (melody), with content similar to Chaubis Avatar section; the sixth is filled with grief and generally understood to have been composed by Guru Gobind Singh after the loss of all four sons in the wars with the Mughal Empire;[23] this section is missing in some early manuscripts of Dasam Granth.[23]
36 Malkauns Ki Vaar This is a very poetic song devoted to Akal Purakh. There is not much information about this chapter in Sikh History of literature. 11 pauris, Nanak Jo Prabh Bhawangey, Harji Harmandar Awangey.
37 Savaiye Swayyee thirty-three verses that praise a god; asserts the mystery of god who is beyond what is in the Vedas and Puranas (Hindu), beyond the one in Quran (Muslim) and famously the Bible (Christian).[24]
38 Sharda Pooran Granth This Granth is uttered by Guru Gobind Singh Ji at Heera Ghat and talks about the job of a Khalsa and his duties to the faith. This Granth has lots of sub-chapters in it.
39 Sabad Patshahi 10 Shabads of the tenth master Sabad Patshahi 10, under the title Shabad (Punjabi: ਸਬਦ), are ten religious hymns composed by Guru Gobind Singh that are present in Dasam Granth. These hymns have comments on ritualistic practices in Sanyas, Jogis and Bairagis, and also against any form of idolatry, human or deity worship.
40 Sudham Marg Granth This was written by Guru Gobind Singh ji before he received Jot Jot in Nanded Sahib. It has relations to Shaster Naam Mala. It also has lots of sub-chapters within it.
41 Tav-Prasad Savaiye Tavprasad means with thy grace. This composition strongly rejects idolatry, pilgrimages, grave worshiping, samadhis of yogis and other ritualistic beliefs of Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Islam as being of no use in attaining God if performed without the love of God and all her creation . It is included in Nitnem, the daily morning prayers of Sikhs, and recited after completing Jaap Sahib.
42 Khalsa Mahima Praise of Khalsa a short passage that explains why offerings to goddess Naina Devi by the general public are distributed to the Khalsa soldiers rather than Brahmin priests.[24]
43 Ath Sri Shastar Naam Mala Purana Likhyate Shastar nam mala The section title means a "garland of weapon names", and it has 1,300 verses;[24] it lists and exalts various weapons of violence, declaring them to be symbols of God's power, states Rinehart;[24] it includes the names of Hindu deities and the weapon they carry in one or more of their hands, and praises their use and virtues; the list includes weapons introduced in the 17th-century such as a rifle; some of the verses are riddles about weapons.[24]
44 Sri Charitropakhyan Charitropakhian, Pakhyan Charitra, Tria Charitra the largest part of the Dasam Granth, it is a controversial section; it includes material which is not in tune with Guru Gobind Singh's writings, authenticity being put in to question';[25] it includes over 400 character features and behavioral sketches;[25] these are largely characters of lustful women seeking extramarital sex and seducing men for love affairs without their husbands knowing; the characters delight in gambling, opium and liquor;[25] these stories either end in illustrating human weaknesses with graphic description of sexual behavior, or illustrate a noble behavior where the seduction target refuses and asserts that "he cannot be a dharmaraja if he is unfaithful to his wife";[25] the section is controversial, sometimes interpreted as a didactic discussion of virtues and vices; the charitras 21 through 23 have been interpreted by some commentators as possibly relating to Guru Gobind Singh's own life where he refused a seduction attempt;[25] the final charitra (number 404) describes the Mughals and Pathans as offsprings of demons, details many battles between gods and demons, ending with the victory of gods; the Benti Chaupai found in this last charitra is sometimes separated from its context by Sikhs and used or interpreted in other ways;[25] Many modern popular print editions of Dasam Granth omit this section possibly because of the graphic nature; a few Sikh commentators have questioned the authorship of Dasam Granth in significant part because of this section, while others state that the text must be viewed in the perspective of the traumatic period of Sikh history when Guru Gobind Singh and his soldier disciples were fighting the Mughal Empire and this section could have been useful for the moral edification of soldiers at the war front against the vice.[25][note 1]
45 Bhagauti Astoar Bhagauti Astotar (PA:ਭਗਉਤੀ ਅਸਤੋਤ੍ਰ), also called Sri Bhagauti ji astotar, is a poem which is believed to be written by Guru Gobind Singh. This hymn is not available in SGPC published Dasam Granths but present in Patna Sahib Bir of Dasam Granth. Bhagauti Astotar is present in Gutka published by Buddha Dal and Hazoor Sahib and Gurmat Martand. The poem covers qualitative aspects of Bhagauti which is known as Adi Shakti or Hukam in Sikh philosophy.
46 Majh Padshahi Dasven This is a short Punjabi poem about the Sikhs in the Majh area of Punjab and how faithful and religious they are.
47 Chakka Bhagauti Ji Ka Chakka is a throwing weapon in the form of a disc with spikes. In Sikh chronicles the Chakka was used by Bhagauti to fight off evil forces. It is in this poem that the Guruji says that he does not believe in Bhagauti. Some scholars interpret this so that Guruji only wrote these poems to give the Khalsa moral esteem.
48 Benti Chaupai Benti Chaupai or Chaupai sahib is a prayer or Bani composed by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh Ji. This Bani is present in Charitar 404 of the Sri Dasam Granth Saahib Ji in Bani Ath Pakhyan Chairtar Likhyatey. This Bani is one of the five Banis recited by the initiated Sikh every morning. It is also a part of the evening prayer of the Sikhs called Rehras sahib. The Benti Chaupee can be read at any time during the day to provide protection, positive focus, and energy.
49 Fateh Jang Dasven Padshah It is a short poem describing an unnamed battle in which Guru Gobind Singh emerged a victor. The poem consists of eight stanzas only. It begins with a dohra, followed by six savaiyyas, and ends with another dohra. It panegyrizes Bhagauti (sword) as the source of power, and as the defender of faith and honour. It also pays tribute to the fearless warriors who wield the sword and never turn their back on the enemy.

In capturing the battle scene, the Guruji has recourse to the usual devices of medieval warpoetry.In the traditional style, the mythological Kal and Narad are introduced with bloodthirsty Kaljogans swallowing bowlfuls of blood and jackals and vultures gorging themselves on the corpses of slain warriors. In the last line of the sixth savaiyya appears the name of The Khals, with the epithet of Fatehjang, i.e. victor of wars. In the final dohra, the poet advises the Guru`s disciples, never to have faith in any one god or goddess except God. The language of the Var, written in Gurmukhi characters, is a mixture of Punjabi, Persian and Sant Bhasha.

50 Salok Dummala Da Dummala De Salok When the other Sahibzaade were sword fighting during Hola Mohalla Baba Fateh Singh was not allowed as he was too young. He came out of the tent dressed in Navy blue clothing with a long pharla coming out on top. The turban was very tall and came to be known as a fortress turban or Dastar Bunga. Afterwards the Guruji said that it would be the uniform of the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh ji did not write this poem and it was written by Baba Fateh Singh ji. It is meant to be recited by all Sikhs while they tie their turban.re-tying.

legged,

bunga/keski,

kachera,

break,

51 Gur De Salok Sikhs are meant to sing Gur de salok the practice of smashing the Gur (jaggery) after prashad has been prepared. The smashing of the gur is symbolic of the smashing of the enemies head as they would do this just before entering a war.


Now some Nihangs wrongly sing this while crushing Nudga before the Shaheedi Degh is prepared, they call this Nadga De Salok instead of Gur De Salok.

52 Prashad De Salok This is sung while preparing prashad and some Nihangs have also altered this bani's meaning as some of them drink Shaheedi Degh.
53 Mata Jito ki Salok This is a small poem on how the Guru loved Mata Jito and how women and men are equal.
54 Salotar Mehima Here is a short poem on the club, Salotar-


ਫਲ ਫੁੱਲ ਝਾੜਨੇ ਕੋ ਤਸਕਰ ਕੇ ਤਾੜਨੇ ਕੋ ਸਪ ਮਾਰ ਡਾਰਨੇ ਕੋ ਸੋਟਾ ਸਾਵਧਾਨ ਹੈ ।

To knock down any fruit, or to punish a thief, and to kill a snake the Club is forever ready!

ਵਗ ਕੇ ਚਰਾਵਨੇ ਕੋ ਕੁੱਤੇ ਕੇ ਹਟਾਵਨੇ ਕੋ ਬਾਲਕ ਡਰਾਵਨੇ ਕੋ ਸੋਟਾ ਸਾਵਧਾਨ ਹੈ ।

To herd cattle or to prevent a dog attack and to scare a spoilt child, the Club is forever ready!

ਭੰਗ ਭੁੰਗ ਘੋਟਨੇ ਕੋ ਵੈਰੀ ਦਲ ਰੋਕਨੇ ਕੋ ਮੂਰਖ ਕੇ ਠੋਕਨੇ ਕੋ ਸੋਟਾ ਸਾਵਧਾਨ ਹੈ ।

To grind up medicine, to halt an enemies army, and to punish an idiot the Club is forever ready!

ਕਹਿਤ ਬਿਹਾਰੀ ਰਾਮ ਸੋਟੇ ਕਾ ਹੀ ਸਭ ਜਹਾਨ ਜਿਸ ਹੱਥ ਸੋਟਾ ਤਿਸਕਾ ਹੀ ਮਾਨ ਤਾਨ ਹੈ ।

Says Bihari Ram, the Club is for the whole world ! Whosoever has a club in their hand is granted great respect!

55 Hanuman Natak For those who have read the ancient Hindu text “Ramayana” detailing the battles between Ram Chandar and his nemesis Ravan, Hanuman’s loyalty cannot be called into doubt. He was faithful to his king up to such an extent, that he was even willing to burn himself alive for him. Such was the loyalty which the Guru wanted to view in his Sikhs.
56 Pooran Tam Avatar This is the highest Avtar. This was Guru Nanak Dev Ji. All avtars are made of satogun but according to Gurmat the early avtars were created out of maya, and hence caught up in it. Guru Nanak Dev Ji however was a 100% mirror reflection of God, and hence he was not hampered by the obstacles which hampered the earlier avtars.
57 Chaupai Sahib Kabyo Bach Benti A part of the last charitra of the Charitropakhian section above; it is sometimes separated and used independently.[25]
58 Muktinama Epistle of Enlightenment Muktinama is a composition that is said to have been recited by Guru Gobind Singh in his court. In this, Guru Gobind Singh describes how a Khalsa should live. It was apart of the Sudham Marg Granth but it has now been separated into a different chapter.
59 Ugardandi Fierce sword/tooth Guru Gobind Singh Ji invokes Adi Shakti in the form of the Fierce Toothed Ugardanti, writing various attributes of Ugardanti and asking for blessings and protection for the prosperity of the new Panth which is free from hypocrisy, ritualism, casteism, human worship and worships only One Non-Dual God. Ugardanti is a composition that is present only in Dasam Granth Bir Patna Sahib. There are six Chandds of this bani.
60 Lakhi Jungle Khalsa The Khalsa of the Lakhi Jungle The Lakhi Jungle Khalsa is a short poem of two paragraphs on the Khalsa longing to see the Guruji ;

The entire Lakhi Jungle Khalsa in english-

Lakhi Jungle was during Afghan Rule, on Esat of Dipalpur there was a big forest. This area was from Satluj-Beas river upto Sabo Talvandi.The South of it was Bikaner Kingdom and North of it meet with Taluka.

In the Lakkhee Jungle, the Khalsa heard of His coming and they longed to see Him. Just like when the water buffalo hear the call of the herdsman, they leave their food and water to rush to him. In their joy and excitement they ran to see their Beloved, each trying to pass the other to get there first. Their pain was gone when they met the Guru, their herdsman, and they gave their thanks.

61 Zafarnamah Epistle of victory A letter written in 1706 by Guru Gobind Singh to Emperor Aurangzeb in Persian language;[27] it chastises the Mughal emperor for promising a safe passage to his family but then reneging on that promise, attacking and killing his family members;[28] In this Dhan Guru Gobind Singh Ji talks about how if the Holy Prophet were at Chamkaur in person then Aurangzeb wouldn't have lied. He also talks about the Greek Gods of Olympus and Satan.
62 Tria Chartar The Chandi Charitra follows and in fact is a part of the Bachittar Natak. The aim of writing this piece was to inspire the common man to rise up against the tyrannical rulers of the time and to fight and sacrifice all they had for their freedom. He invokes the blessings of the Almighty God thus.

This composition is in the form savaiye-an Indian metre of one and a quarter line. The mood is essentially forceful and fierce. The descriptions of the battles have been brought out beautifully through the use of similes and metaphors. The battle scenes are a true portrayal of the strategies and maneuvers of warfare as practiced in the times. The style is lucid and clear leading to a vivid and true presentation of the theatre of war.

63 Fatehnamah Epistle of Victory Besides the Zafarnama, there is another work of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in Persian language known as "Fatehnama" also meaning a "letter of victory". Some opine that this letter was sent before the Zafarnama while according to some, this is in fact a part of Zafanama itself. The latter have started the Zafarnama with the 24 verses of Fatehnama; first verse of traditional Zafarnama becoming verse 25 in such compositions. In the Fatehnamah Guru Gobind Singh Ji famously mentions the Mahrattas and the Rajputs.
64 Hikayat Hikaitan Usually grouped with the Zafarnama section, these are twelve tales unrelated to Zafarnama but probably linked because some versions have these in Persian language; the content of this section is closer in form and focus to the Charitropakhian section above;[28]
65 Inhi ki kirpa kay saje hum hain Despite that fact that he was a marvellous soldier and highly intelligent person, he says that he has attained his status because of the Sikhs, “einehee kee kripaa kae sajae ham hai” – It is because of the kirpa (blessing) of them (‘einehee kee’ referring to the Khalsa) that I am established (‘sajae ham hai’)-


It is through the actions of the Khalsa that I have been victorious, and have been able to give charities to others.

It is through their help that I have overcome all sorrows and ailments and have been able to fill our homes with treasures.

It is through their grace that I have got education, and through their assistance I have conquered all my enemies.

It is through their aid that I have attained this status, otherwise there are millions of unknown men like me.

65 Prem Ambodh Pothi Book of knowledge about loving devotion This poem attributed to Guru Gobind Singh, and is included in the Dasam Granth. Written in AD 1693, the book has, besides the introductory chapter, sixteen sections, each devoted to a bhakta. In the first part of the book are described the lives of eleven bhaktas belonging to the period from 10th to 16th centuries: Bhagat Beni, Bhagat Dhanna,Bhagat Namdev, Bhagat Pipa, Bhagat Ramanand, Bhagat Ravidas, Bhagat Sadhna, Bhagat Sain, Bhagat Surdas, Bhagat Trilochan, Kabir, Sheikh Farid and Mata Meerabai. Bhaktas of earlier periods Prahlad, Dhru, Sukdev and Balmiki are dealt with in the second part. The language of the Pothi is a mixture of Hindi and Punjabi and the verse measures commonly used are Dohira and Chaupai.
66 Rajput Ghode The horses of Rajputs This poem was written when Guru Gobind Singh Ji was going through Rajputana and he gave many compliments to the courage, ferocity and chivalry of the Rajput clans and Kingdoms. Kahn Singh Nabha stated that Guru Gobind Singh Ji was very impressed when he saw the forces of Durgadas Rathore and Ajit Singh of Marwar when he was in Ranthambore and wrote a poem on their bravery in the battlefield.
67 Mangal Parkash Some Sikhs consider this to be the writing of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The most followed version of this is that the Khalsa would dwindle to a spark and then spread like wildfire, then there would be 960 Million Khalsa warriors and only then will the Guru be in his golden age.
68 Bija Mukta Sakhi Dasvi This predicts the rise of British power, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Anglo-Sikh Wars, Partition and the Kalki and Nehkalank Avatar. It also predicts Operation Blue Star and how many Sikhs would be slaughtered and a widow would attack and a saint would try to stop her. Then he also talks about today's Sikhs who cut their Kesh take drugs and alcohol and how they would lose their Sensibility, Pride and would fall to the five thieves.
69 Zindaginama Bandginama The author called it Bandginama (Book of Prayer) and composed it in Persian. Guru Gobind Singh Sahib changed its title to Zindginama (Book of Life). Its theme is the ‘love of God and devotion to Guru;’ God is described as Creator of Universe and as One who has imparted life to all creatures. It contains 510 verses and is believed to be his first piece of work, which he wrote after he shifted to Anandpur to join Guru Sahib Ji. At places the verses echo those in the Guru Granth Sahib. It was written by Bhai Nand Lal Goya.
70 52 Hukams of Guru Gobind Singh Ji 52 order of Dasam Padishah The 52 Hukams are a set of instruction in Sikhism set by Guru Gobind Singh in Nanded, Maharashtra, India in 1708. These edicts sum up the ideal way of life of the Khalsa and serve as a code of conduct for the Khalsa Panth. Members of the Khalsa (baptized Sikhs) aim to follow all the 52 edicts though the authenticity and origin of Hukams can be questioned and they seem to be made in more modern times as the style of Punjab is quite modern but many of them come from older writings such as Bhai Nand Lal's Tankanama.

There is some Bani that has been mentioned in letters and books but has not been found, such as letters to Bahadur Shah and the Rajput Revolt and a letter to Wazir Khan about the death of Pir Buddha Shah. Of the above 67 chapters only 18 are in the SGPC Dasam Granth while 65 are in the Budha Dal Dasam Granth (excludes Gobind Gita and Bitchak Natak).

Dasam Granth Composition[edit]

Number of hymns contributed to the Guru Granth Sahib[citation needed]

  Japji Sahib (3.2%)
  Akal Ustat (5.3%)
  Chandi Chartar (6.03%)
  Bachitar Natak (6.66%)
  Gian Prabodh (3.90%)
  Chaubis Avatar (6.04%)
  Ramkali Dasam Padishah (1.61%)
  Brahm Avatar (5.5%)
  Rudar Avatar (2.06%)
  Sansahar Sukhmana (0.7%)
  Shabad Hazare (1.51%)
  33 Saviye (1.43%)
  Tav Prasad Saviye (1%)
  Rajput Ghode (1.1%)
  Lakhi Jungle Khalsa (0.03%)
  Ugardandi (0.05%)
  Khalsa Mehima (1.66%)
  Shastar Naam Mala (10.8%)
  Kabyo Baach Bente (5.26%)
  Charitropakhyan (25.4%)
  Zafarnama (1.09%)
  Fatehnama (0.6%)
  Hikayats (10.0%)
  52 Hukams of Guru Gobind Singh Ji (0.03%)
  • Jaap Sahib
  • Akal Ustat
  • Chandi Charitar
  • Bachitar Natak
  • Chandi di Var
  • Gian Prabodh
  • Chaubis Avtar
  • Ramkali of the Tenth Master
  • Brahm Avtar
  • Rudar Avtar
  • Sansahar Sukhmana
  • Shabad Hazare
  • 33 Swayyae
  • Tav Prasad Saviye
  • Rajput Ghode
  • Lakhi Jungle Khalsa.
  • Ugardanti[10]
  • Khalsa Mehma
  • Shastar Nam Mala
  • Kabyo Baach Bentee
  • Charitropakhyan
  • Zafarnama
  • Fatehnama
  • Hikayats
  • 52 Hukams of Guru Gobind Singh ji

Role in Sikh liturgy, access[edit]

The compositions within Dasam Granth play a huge role in Sikh liturgy, which is prescribed by Sikh Rehat Maryada:

  • Jaap Sahib is part of Nitnem, which Sikh recites daily in morning.[29][30]
  • Tav-Prasad Savaiye, again a bani of Nitnem, is part of Akal Ustat composition, which is recited daily in morning along with above.[29]
  • Benti Chaupai, is part of Sri Charitropakhyan, which is recited in morning as well as evening prayers.[30]
  • Jaap, Tav Prasad Savaiye and Chaupai are read while preparing Khande Batey Ki Pahul for Khalsa initiation.[11]
  • The first stanza of the Sikh ardās is from Chandi di Var.[11]
  • As per Sikh Rehat Maryada, a stanza of Chaubis Avtar, "pae gahe jab te tumre", should be comprised in So Dar Rehras.[31]

In the Nihang tradition – considered heretical by the Khalsa Sikhs,[32] the Dasam Granth is given equal scriptural status as the Adi Granth (first volume).[33] Chandi di Var is also an important prayer among Nihang and Namdhari Sikhs.[citation needed]

Except for the liturgical portions and some cherrypicked verses of the Dasam Granth that are widely shared and used, few Sikhs have read the complete Dasam Granth or know its contents.[34] Most do not have access to it in its entirety, as the generic printed or translated versions do not include all its sections and verses.[25] In its history, the entire text was in the active possession of the Khalsa soldiers.[note 2]

Manuscripts[edit]

Letter of Bhai Mani Singh discussing the compilation of various banis of Dasam Granth

The oldest known manuscript of Dasam Granth is likely the Anandpuri bir. It is dated to the 1690s, but a few folio pages on Zafarnama and Hikayats were definitely added later, because they are composed after 1700, are in a different style and format, lacking the folio numbers present on all pages elsewhere. These letters of Guru Gobind Singh were likely appended to it in the early 18th century.[10] According to another view, the earliest surviving manuscript of the complete text is dated to 1713, and the early manuscript versions have minor variations.[34]

Other important manuscripts include the Patna bir (1698 CE) found in Bihar, and the Mani Singh Vali bir (1713) found in Punjab. The Mani Singh bir includes hymns of the Banno version of the Adi Granth. It is also unique in that it presents the Zafarnama and Hikayats in both Perso-Arabic Nastaliq script and the Gurmukhi script.[10] The Bhai Mani Singh manuscript of Dasam Granth has been dated to 1721, was produced with the support of Mata Sundari, states Gobind Mansukhani.[36]

The early Anandpuri, Patna and Mani Singh manuscripts include the Indian mythologies that are disputed in the contemporary era, as well as sections such as the Ugradanti and Sri Bhagauti Astotra that were, for some reason, removed from these manuscripts in the official versions of Dasam Granth in the 20th century by Singh Sabha Movement activists.[10]

According to the Indologist Wendy Doniger, many orthodox Sikhs credit the authorship and compilation of the earliest Dasam Granth manuscript to Guru Gobind Singh directly, while other Sikhs and some scholars consider the text to have been authored and compiled partly by him and partly by many poets in his court at Anandpur.[34]

Prior to 1902, there were numerous incomplete portions of manuscripts of Dasam Granth in circulation within the Sikh community along with the complete, but somewhat variant, major versions such as the Anandpuri and Patna birs.[37] In 1885, during the Singh Sabha Movement, an organization called the Gurmat Granth Pracharak Sabha was founded by Sikhs to study the Sikh literature. This organization, with a request from Amritsar Singh Sabha, established the Sodhak Committee in 1897.[37] The members of this committee studied 32 manuscripts of Dasam Granth from different parts of the Indian subcontinent. The committee deleted some hymns found in the different old manuscripts of the text, merged the others and thus created a 1,428-page version thereafter called the standard edition of the Dasam Granth. The standard edition was first published in 1902.[37] It is this version that has predominantly been distributed to scholars and studied in and outside India. However, the prestige of the Dasam Granth was well established in the Sikh community during the Sikh Empire, as noted in 1812 by colonial-era scholar Malcolm.[37] According to Robin Rinehart – a scholar of Sikhism and Sikh literature, modern copies of the Dasam Granth in Punjabi, and its English translations, often do not include the entire standard edition text and do not follow the same ordering either.[3]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This view is supported by a remark found in Bansavalinama. This remark states that scribes offered to Guru Gobind Singh to merge Adi Granth and his compositions into one scripture. He replied that they should not do so, keep the two separate because his compositions are mostly khed (entertainment).[26]
  2. ^ According to Giani Gian Singh, the full copy of the Dasam Granth was in possession of the Dal Khalsa (Sikh Army), an 18th-century Sikh army, at the Battle of Kup and was lost during the Vadda Ghallughara.[35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Singha, H. S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1., pp. 53–54
  2. ^ a b c Dasam Granth, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Robin Rinehart (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 136–138. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  4. ^ a b c McLeod, W. H. (1990). Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-56085-4., pages 2, 67
  5. ^ Singh, Kashmir (2004). "Sri Guru Granth Sahib - A Juristic Person".
  6. ^ Samachar, Asia (21 August 2020). "Reignition of Dasam Granth controversy". Asia Samachar.
  7. ^ Kaur, Jugraj (6 January 2013). "Bibi Jugraj Kaur - Dasam Granth Interview".
  8. ^ Singh Aulakh, Dr Ajith (1980). Bachitar Natak. India: B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh Amritsar.
  9. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 107–109. ISBN 978-0-19-106277-3.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 92–94. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  11. ^ a b c Knut A. Jacobsen; Kristina Myrvold (2012). Sikhs Across Borders: Transnational Practices of European Sikhs. A&C Black. pp. 233–234. ISBN 978-1-4411-1387-0.
  12. ^ McLeod, W. H. (2005). Historical dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8108-5088-0.
  13. ^ Amaresh Datta, ed. (2006). The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature (Volume One (A To Devo), Volume 1. Sahitya Akademi. p. 888. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
  14. ^ Rehitnama Bhai Nand Lal
  15. ^ Rehitnama Chaupa Singh Chibber
  16. ^ Sri Gur Sbha Granth, Poet Senapat, Piara Singh Padam
  17. ^ Parchi Sevadas Ki, Poet Sevada, Piara Singh Padam
  18. ^ Gurbilas, Patshahi 10, Koer Singh, Bhasha Vibagh, Punjabi University
  19. ^ Knut A. Jacobsen; Kristina Myrvold (2012). Sikhs Across Borders: Transnational Practices of European Sikhs. A&C Black. pp. 232–235. ISBN 978-1-4411-1387-0.
  20. ^ a b c Robin Rinehart (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Robin Rinehart (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  22. ^ a b c Robin Rinehart (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Robin Rinehart (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  24. ^ a b c d e Robin Rinehart (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i Robin Rinehart (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  26. ^ Robin Rinehart (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  27. ^ Britannica, Inc Encyclopaedia (2009). Encyclopedia of World Religions. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 279. ISBN 978-1-59339-491-2.
  28. ^ a b Robin Rinehart (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  29. ^ a b Page 133, Sikhs in the Diaspora, Surinder Singh bakhshi, Dr Surinder Bakhshi, 2009
  30. ^ a b The Japu, the Jaapu and the Ten Sawayyas (Quartets) – beginning "Sarwag sudh"-- in the morning.: Chapter III, Article IV, Sikh Rehat Maryada
  31. ^ iii) the Sawayya beginning with the words "pae gahe jab te tumre": Article IV, Chapter III, Sikh Rehat Maryada
  32. ^ Gerald Parsons (2012). The Growth of Religious Diversity - Vol 1: Britain from 1945 Volume 1: Traditions. Routledge. pp. 221–222. ISBN 978-1-135-08895-8.
  33. ^ Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (2019). "Namdhari (Sikh sect)". Encyclopædia Britannica.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  34. ^ a b c Wendy Doniger; Encyclopaedia Britannica staff (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 279. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0.
  35. ^ Giani Kirpal Singh (samp.), Sri Gur Panth Parkash, Vol. 3 (Amritsar: Manmohan Singh Brar, 1973), pp. 1678–80, verses 61-62
  36. ^ Mansukhani, Gobind Singh (1993). Hymns from the Dasam Granth. Hemkunt Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-7010-180-2.
  37. ^ a b c d Robin Rinehart (2011). Debating the Dasam Granth. Oxford University Press. pp. 43–46. ISBN 978-0-19-984247-6.

External links[edit]