Data publishing (also data publication) is the act of releasing research data in published form for use by others. It is a practice consisting in preparing certain data or data set(s) for public use thus to make them available to everyone to use as they wish. This practice is an integral part of the open science movement. There is a large and multidisciplinary consensus on the benefits resulting from this practice.  
There are several distinct ways to make research data available, including:
- publishing data as supplemental material associated with a research article, typically with the data files hosted by the publisher of the article
- hosting data on a publicly available website, with files available for download
- hosting data in a repository that has been developed to support data publication, e.g. figshare, Dryad, Dataverse, Zenodo. A large number of general and specialty (such as by research topic) data repositories exist. For example, the UK Data Service enables users to deposit data collections and re-share these for research purposes.
- publishing a data paper about the dataset, which may be published as a preprint, in a journal, or in a data journal that is dedicated to supporting data papers. The data may be hosted by the journal or hosted separately in a data repository.
Publishing data allows researchers to both make their data available to others to use, and enables datasets to be cited similarly to other research publication types (such as articles or books), thereby enabling producers of datasets to gain academic credit for their work.
The motivations for publishing data may range for a desire to make research more accessible, to enable citability of datasets, or research funder or publisher mandates that require open data publishing. The UK Data Service is one key organisation working with others to raise the importance of citing data correctly and helping researchers to do so.
Methods for publishing data
Data files as supplementary material
A large number of journals and publishers support supplementary material being attached to research articles, including datasets. Though historically such material might have been distributed only by request or on microform to libraries, journals today typically host such material online. Supplementary material is available to subscribers to the journal or, if the article or journal is open access, to everyone.
There are a large number of data repositories, on both general and specialized topics. Many repositories are disciplinary repositories, focused on a particular research discipline such as the UK Data Service which is a trusted digital repository of social, economic and humanities data. Repositories may be free for researchers to upload their data or may charge a one-time or ongoing fee for hosting the data. These repositories offer a publicly accessible web interface for searching and browsing hosted datasets, and may include additional features such as a digital object identifier, for permanent citation of the data, and linking to associated published papers and code.
Data papers are “scholarly publication of a searchable metadata document describing a particular on-line accessible dataset, or a group of datasets, published in accordance to the standard academic practices”. Their final aim being to provide “information on the what, where, why, how and who of the data”. The intent of a data paper is to offer descriptive information on the related dataset(s) focusing on data collection, distinguishing features, access and potential reuse rather than on data processing and analysis. Because data papers are considered academic publications no different than other types of papers they allow scientists sharing data to receive credit in currency recognizable within the academic system, thus "making data sharing count". This provides not only an additional incentive to share data, but also through the peer review process, increases the quality of metadata and thus reusability of the shared data.
Despite their potentiality, data papers are not the ultimate and complete solution for all the data sharing and reuse issues and, in some cases, they are considered to induce false expectations in the research community.
Data papers are supported by a rich array of journals, some of which are "pure", i.e. they are dedicated to publish data papers only, while others – the majority – are "mixed", i.e. they publish a number of articles types including data papers.
Data citation is the provision of accurate, consistent and standardised referencing for datasets just as bibliographic citations are provided for other published sources like research articles or monographs. Typically the well established Digital Object Identifier (DOI) approach is used with DOIs taking users to a website that contains the metadata on the dataset and the dataset itself.
- Costello MJ (2009). "Motivating online publication of data". BioScience. 59 (5): 418–427. doi:10.1525/bio.2009.59.5.9.
- Smith VS (2009). "Data publication: towards a database of everything". BMC Research Notes. 2 (113): 113. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-113. PMC 2702265. PMID 19552813.
- Lawrence, B; Jones, C.; Matthews, B.; Pepler, S.; Callaghan, S. (2011). "Citation and Peer Review of Data: Moving Towards Formal Data Publication". International Journal of Digital Curation. 6 (2): 4–37. doi:10.2218/ijdc.v6i2.205.
- Callaghan, S., Donegan, S., Pepler, S., Thorley, M., Cunningham, N., Kirsch, P., Ault, L., Bell, P., Bowie, R., Leadbetter, A., Lowry, R., Moncoiffé, G., Harrison, K., Smith-Haddon, B., Weatherby, A., & Wright, D. (2012). "Making data a first class scientific output: Data citation and publication by NERCs environmental data centres". International Journal of Digital Curation. 7 (1): 107–113. doi:10.2218/ijdc.v7i1.218.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Kratz J, Strasser C (2014). "Data publication consensus and controversies". F1000Research. 3 (94): 94. doi:10.12688/f1000research.4518. PMC 4097345. PMID 25075301.
- Assante, M.; Candela, L.; Castelli, D.; Tani, A. (2016). "Are Scientific Data Repositories Coping with Research Data Publishing?". Data Science Journal. 15. doi:10.5334/dsj-2016-006.
- Chavan, V. & Penev, L. (2011). "The data paper: a mechanism to incentivize data publishing in biodiversity science". BMC Bioinformatics. 12 (15): S2. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-12-S15-S2. PMC 3287445. PMID 22373175.
- Newman Paul; Corke Peter (2009). "Data papers — peer reviewed publication of high quality data sets". International Journal of Robotics Research. 28 (5): 587. doi:10.1177/0278364909104283.
- Gorgolewski KJ, Margulies DS, Milham MP (2013). "Making data sharing count: a publication-based solution". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 7: 9. doi:10.3389/fnins.2013.00009. PMC 3565154. PMID 23390412.
- Parsons, M.A.; Fox, P.A. (2013). "Is data publication the right metaphor?". Data Science Journal. 12: WDS31–WDS46. doi:10.2481/dsj.WDS-042.
- Candela, L., Castelli, D., Manghi, P. and Tani, A. (2015). "Data Journals: A Survey". Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66 (1): 1747–1762. doi:10.1002/asi.23358.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Australian National Data Service: Data Citation Awareness Archived 2012-03-07 at the Wayback Machine (Accessed 20 March 2012)
- Ball, A., Duke, M. (2011). ‘Data Citation and Linking’. DCC Briefing Papers. Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre. Available online: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/briefing-papers/