Dating the Bible
|Part of a series on the|
The four tables give the most commonly accepted dates or ranges of dates for the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, the Deuterocanonical books (included in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox bibles but not in the Hebrew and Protestant bibles), and the New Testament, including, where possible, hypotheses about their formation-history.
Table I is a chronological overview. Table II treats the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible books, grouped according to the divisions of the Hebrew Bible with occasional reference to scholarly divisions. Table III gives the Deuterocanonical books. Table IV gives the books of the New Testament, including the earliest preserved fragments for each.
Table I: Chronological overview
This table summarises the chronology of the main tables and serves as a guide to the historical periods mentioned. Much of the Hebrew Bible or the Protocanonical Old Testament may have been assembled in the 5th century BCE. The New Testament books were composed largely in the second half of the 1st century CE. The Deuterocanon falls largely in between.
8th–7th centuries BCE
c. 745–586 BCE
|* Most of the individual psalms making up the first two-thirds of the Book of Psalms.
* 8th century: Amos (first half, immediately prior to Assyria's expansion c. 645 BCE); "First Isaiah" (Isaiah 1-39), Hosea, Micah (second half).
* 7th century: Nahum (based on its assumption of the fall of Thebes and call for the destruction of Nineveh), Zephaniah (in the reign of Josiah, c. 649–609 BCE), Habakkuk (possibly shortly before the battle of Carchemish, 605 BCE); first edition of the Deuteronomistic history (books of Joshua/Judges/Samuel/Kings) in the reign of Josiah; Deuteronomy 5-26 in the reign of Josiah.
6th century BCE
|* Core of Obadiah around the fall of Jerusalem, 586 BCE.
* Completion of Deuteronomistic history (Joshua/Judges/Samuel/Kings).
* Deuteronomy expanded with addition of chapters 1-4 and 29-30 to serve as an introduction to the Deuteronomistic history.
* Jeremiah active in the last decade of the 7th century and first decades of the 6th;
* Ezekiel active in Babylon 592-571 BCE;
* "Second Isaiah" (author of Isaiah 40-55) active in Babylon around mid-century.
* Expansion and reshaping of Hosea, Amos, Micah and Zephaniah.
* Possible early Psalms collection (psalms "of David") ending with psalm 89.
5th–4th centuries BCE
|* Torah (books of Genesis/Exodus/Leviticus/Numbers, using a variety of sources).
* Deuteronomy revised with expansions to chapters 19-25 and addition of chapter 27 and 31-34 to serve as conclusion to the Torah.
* "Third Isaiah" (Isaiah 56-66)
* Later version (the Masoretic Hebrew version) of Jeremiah
* Haggai (self-dated to the second year of the Persian king Darius 520 BCE),
* Zechariah (chapters 1-8 contemporary with Haggai, chapters 9-14 from the 5th century)
* Malachi (5th century BCE, contemporaneous or immediately prior to the missions of Nehemiah and Ezra)
* Chronicles (between 400–250 BC, probably in the period 350–300 BCE)
* Origins of Ezra-Nehemiah (may have reached its final form as late as the Ptolemaic period, c. 300–200 BCE).
3rd-2nd centuries BCE
|* Job, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs (Could have been written in the 4th or even 5th centuries, but seem to reflect contact with Greek culture).
* Book of Jonah (Persian or Hellenistic, no later than 2nd century BCE).
* Most of the individual psalms making up the final third of the Book of Psalms.
2nd-1st centuries BCE
|* Daniel (164 BCE, combining newly-written visions, chapters 7-12, with the Persian and Hellenistic tales of chapters 1-6).
* 1 Maccabees/2 Maccabees/3 Maccabees/possibly 4 Maccabees; Tobit, Judith, Additions to Daniel and Additions to Esther
* Wisdom of Solomon late 1st century BCE or early to mid 1st century CE.
1st century CE onward
after 4 BCE
|* 4 Maccabees (after 63 BCE, probably mid-1st century CE).
* Wisdom of Solomon (late 1st century BCE or early to mid 1st century CE).
* New Testament (between c. 50–110 CE – see Table IV).
Table II: Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
|Torah||Date or range of dates most widely held by scholars|
|Book of Genesis
Book of Exodus
Book of Leviticus
Book of Numbers
Book of Deuteronomy
|The majority of modern biblical scholars believe that the Torah – the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy – reached its present form in the post-Exilic period.
The five books are drawn from four "sources" (distinct schools of writers rather than individuals): the Priestly source, the Yahwist and the Elohist (these two are often referred to collectively as the "non-Priestly" source), and the Deuteronomist. There is general agreement that the Priestly source is post-exilic, but there is no agreement over the non-Priestly source(s).
|Prophets||Date or range of dates most widely held by scholars|
|Former Prophets:||This group of books, plus Deuteronomy, is called the "Deuteronomistic history" by scholars. The proposal that they made up a unified work was first advanced by Martin Noth in 1943, and has been widely accepted. Noth proposed that the entire history was the creation of a single individual working in the exilic period (6th century BCE); since then there has been wide recognition that the history appeared in two "editions", the first in the reign of Judah's King Josiah (late 7th century), the second during the exile (6th century). Noth's dating was based on the assumption that the history was completed very soon after its last recorded event, the release of King Jehoiachin in Babylon c. 560 BCE; but some scholars have termed his reasoning inadequate, and the history may have been further extended in the post-exilic period.|
|Three Major Prophets:||Scholars recognise three "sections" in the Book of Isaiah: Proto-Isaiah (the original 8th century Isaiah); Deutero-Isaiah (an anonymous prophet living in Babylon during the exile); and Trito-Isaiah (an anonymous author or authors in Jerusalem immediately after the exile).
The Book of Jeremiah exists in two versions, Greek (the version used in Orthodox Christian Bibles) and Hebrew (Jewish, Catholic and Protestant Bibles), with the Greek representing the earlier version. The Greek version was probably finalised in the early Persian period and translated into Greek in the 3rd century BCE, and the Hebrew version dates from some point between then and the 2nd century BCE.
The Book of Ezekiel describes itself as the words of the Ezekiel ben-Buzi, a priest living in exile in the city of Babylon, and internal evidence dates the visions to between 593 and 571 BCE. While the book probably reflects much of the historic Ezekiel, it is the product of a long and complex history, with significant additions by a "school" of later followers.
|Twelve Minor Prophets||In the Hebrew Bible the Twelve Minor Prophets are a single collection edited in the Second Temple period, but the collection is broken up in Christian Bibles. With the exception of Jonah, which is a fictional work, there exists an original core of prophetic tradition behind each book:
Book of Hosea: second half of the 8th century BCE
|Ketuvim||Date or range of dates most widely held by scholars|
Job, Ecclesiastes and Proverbs
|The books of Job, Ecclesiastes and Proverbs share a similar outlook which they themselves call "wisdom". It is generally agreed that Job comes from between the 7th and 4th centuries BCE, with the 6th century as the most likely. Ecclesiastes can be no earlier than about 450 BCE, due to the presence of Persian loan-words and Aramaic idioms, and no later than 180 BCE, when the Jewish writer Ben Sira quotes from it. Proverbs is a "collection of collections" relating to a pattern of life which lasted for more than a millennium, and impossible to date.|
|Poetic works: Psalms and Lamentations||The psalms making up the first two-thirds of the psalter are predominantly pre-exilic and the last third predominantly post-exilic. The collected book of Psalms was possibly given its modern shape and division into five parts in the post-exilic period, although it continued to be revised and expanded well into Hellenistic and even Roman times. It is generally accepted that the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon in 586 BCE forms the background to the Book of Lamentations.|
|Histories: Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah||Chronicles was composed between 400–250 BCE, probably in the period 350–300 BCE; Ezra-Nehemiah (two books in modern Bibles, but originally one) may have reached its final form as late as the Ptolemaic period, c. 300–200 BCE.|
|Miscellaneous works: Book of Ruth, Book of Esther, Book of Daniel, Song of Songs||The Book of Ruth is commonly dated to the Persian period; Esther to the 3rd or 4th centuries BCE; the Book of Daniel can be dated more precisely to 164 BCE thanks to its veiled prophecy of the death of a Greek king of Syria; and the Song of Songs could have been composed at any time after the 6th century BCE.|
Table III: Deuterocanonical Old Testament
|Book||Date or range of dates most widely held by scholars|
|Tobit||225–175 BCE, on the basis of apparent use of language and references common to the post-exilic period, but lack of knowledge of the 2nd century BCE persecution of Jews.|
|Judith||150–100 BCE, although estimates range from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE.|
|1 Maccabees||100 BCE|
|2 Maccabees||c. 100 BCE|
|3 Maccabees||100–75 BCE "very probable"|
|4 Maccabees||mid-1st century CE|
|Wisdom of Solomon||late 1st century BCE/early 1st century CE, on the basis of shared outlook with other works dating from this time.|
|Sirach||196–175 BCE, as the author implies that Simon the high priest had died (196 BCE), but shows no knowledge of the persecution of the Jews that began after 175 BCE.|
|Additions to Daniel||Prayer of Azariah (Song of the Three Holy Children); Bel and the Dragon: late 6th century; Susanna and the Elders: possibly 95-80 BCE|
|Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah||2nd century BCE, as Baruch uses Sirach (written c. 180 BCE) and is in turn used by the Psalms of Solomon (mid-1st century BCE). The Letter of Jeremiah, ch. 6:1-73 of the Book of Baruch, is sometimes considered a separate book.|
Table IV: New Testament
|Book||Date or range of dates most widely held by scholars||Earliest known fragment|
|Gospel of Matthew||80–90 CE. This is based on three strands of evidence: (a) the setting of Matthew reflects the final separation of Church and Synagogue, about 85 CE; (b) it reflects the capture of Jerusalem and destruction of the Temple by the Romans in 70 CE; (c) it uses Mark, usually dated around 70 CE, as a source.||104 (150–200 CE)|
|Gospel of Mark||68–70 CE. References to persecution and to war in Judea suggest that its context was either Nero's persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt.||45 (250 CE)|
|Gospel of Luke||80-90 CE, with some scholars suggesting 90-100. There is evidence, both textual (the conflicts between Western and Alexandrian manuscript families) and from the Marcionite controversy (Marcion was a 2nd-century heretic who produced his own version of Christian scripture based on Luke's gospel and Paul's epistles) that Luke-Acts was still being substantially revised well into the 2nd century.||4, 75 (175–250 CE)|
|Gospel of John||90-110 CE, the upper date based on textual evidence that the gospel was known in the early 2nd century, and the lower on an internal reference to the expulsion of Christians from the synagogues.||52 (125–160 CE)|
|Acts||95-100 CE. If Acts uses Josephus as a source, as has been proposed, then it must have been composed after 93 CE; it does not show any knowledge of Paul's letters, which also supports a late date; and the social situation is one in which the faithful need "shepherds" to protect them from heretical "wolves", which again reflects a late date.||29, 45, 48, 53, 91 (250 CE)|
|Romans||c. 57 CE. One of the genuine Pauline letters, written to the Romans as Paul was about to leave Asia Minor and Greece, and expressing his hopes to continue his work in Spain.||46 (late 2nd century or 3rd century CE)|
|Corinthians||c. 56 CE. Another of the Genuine Pauline letters. Paul expresses his intention to re-visit the church he founded in the city c. 50–52 CE.||46 (late 2nd century or 3rd century CE)|
|Galatians||c. 55 CE. Paul does not express any wish to revisit the church in Galatia, which he founded, and so some scholars believe the letter dates from the end of his missionary work. The letter concerns the question of whether Gentile converts are required to adopt full Jewish customs.||46 (late 2nd century or 3rd century CE)|
|Ephesians||c. 80–90 CE. The letter appears to have been written after Paul's death in Rome, by an author who uses his name.||46 (late 2nd century or 3rd century CE)|
|Philippians||c. 54–55 CE. A genuine Pauline letter, it mentions "Caesar's household," leading some scholars to believe that it is written from Rome, but some of the news in it could not have come from Rome. It seems rather to date from an earlier imprisonment, perhaps in Ephesus, from which Paul hopes to be released.||46 (late 2nd century or 3rd century CE)|
|Colossians||c. 62–70 CE. Some scholars believe Colossians dates from Paul's imprisonment in Ephesus around 55 CE, but differences in the theology suggest that it comes from much later in his career, around the time of his imprisonment in Rome.||46 (late 2nd century or 3rd century CE)|
|1 Thessalonians||c. 51 CE. One of the earliest of the genuine Pauline epistles.||46 (late 2nd century or 3rd century CE)|
|2 Thessalonians||c. 51 CE or post-70 CE. If this is a genuine Pauline epistle it follows closely on 1 Thessalonians. But some of the language and theology point to a much later date, from an unknown author using Paul's name.||92 (300 CE)|
|1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus||c. 100 CE. The two Timothy epistles and Titus reflect a much more developed Church organisation than that reflected in the genuine Pauline epistles.||Codex Sinaiticus (350 CE)32 (200 CE)|
|Philemon||c. 54–55 CE. A genuine Pauline epistle, written from an imprisonment (probably in Ephesus) that Paul expects will soon be over.||87 (3rd century CE)|
|Hebrews||c. 80–90 CE. The elegance of the Greek and the sophistication of the theology do not fit the genuine Pauline epistles, but the mention of Timothy in the conclusion led to its being included with the Pauline group from an early date.||46 (late 2nd century or 3rd century CE)|
|James||c. 65–85 CE. Like Hebrews, James is not so much a letter as an exhortation; the style of the Greek makes it unlikely that it was actually written by James the brother of Jesus.||20, 23 (early 3rd century CE)|
|First Peter||c. 75–90 CE||72 (3rd/4th century CE)|
|Second Peter||c. 110 CE. This is apparently the latest writing in the New Testament, quoting from Jude, assuming a knowledge of the Pauline letters, and including a reference to the gospel story of the Transfiguration of Christ.||72 (3rd/4th century CE)|
|Epistles of John||90–110 CE. The letters give no clear indication, but scholars tend to place them about a decade after the Gospel of John.||9, Uncial 0232, Codex Sinaiticus (3rd/4th century CE)|
|Jude||Uncertain. The references to "brother of James" and to "what the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ foretold" suggest that it was written after the apostolic letters were in circulation, but before 2 Peter, which uses it.||72 (3rd/4th century CE)|
|Revelation||c. 95 CE. The date is suggested by clues in the visions pointing to the reign of the emperor Domitian.||98 (150–200 CE)|
- Authorship of the Bible
- Biblical manuscripts
- Categories of New Testament manuscripts
- Development of the Hebrew Bible canon
- Historical criticism
- Historicity of the Bible
- Marcan priority
- Nag Hammadi library
- Synoptic problem
- Berquist 2007, p. 3-4.
- Perkins 2012, p. 19ff..
- Day 1990, p. 16.
- Sweeney 2010, p. 183.
- Brettler 2010, p. 161-162.
- Emmerson 2003, p. 676.
- Rogerson 2003a, p. 690.
- O'Brien 2002, p. 14.
- Gelston 2003, p. 715.
- Gelston 2003, p. 710.
- Campbell & O'Brien 2000, p. 2 and fn.6.
- Rogerson 2003b, p. 154.
- Gelston 2003, p. 696.
- Brettler 2007, p. 311.
- Biddle 2007, p. 1073.
- Goldingay 2003, p. 623.
- Blenkinsopp 2007, p. 974.
- Carr 2011, p. 342.
- Enns 2012, p. 5.
- Franz V. Greifenhagen, Egypt on the Pentateuch's Ideological Map: Constructing Biblical Israel's Identity, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2003 p.212:'Clearly, on the basis of the extant manuscript evidence alone, 250BCE represents the terminus ad quem for the production of the final text of the Pentateuch'.
- Allen 2008, p. 11.
- Nelson 2014, p. 214.
- Nelson 2014, p. 214-215.
- Carroll 2003, p. 730.
- McKenzie 2004, p. 32.
- Grabbe 2003, p. 00.
- Rogerson 2003c, p. 8.
- Nelson 2014, p. 217.
- Collins 2002, p. 2.
- deSilva 2003, p. 888.
- Carr 2000, p. 492.
- Carr 2007, p. 10.
- Dozeman 2000, p. 443.
- Houston 2003, p. 102.
- McDermott 2002, p. 21.
- Van Seters 2004, p. 93.
- Person 2010, p. 10-11.
- Sweeney 1998, p. 76-77.
- Allen 2008, p. 7-8.
- Sweeney 2010, p. 94.
- Blenkinsopp 1996, p. 8.
- Joyce 2009, p. 16.
- Redditt 2003, pp. 1–3, 9.
- Floyd 2000, p. 9.
- Dell 1996, pp. 86–89.
- Nelson 2014, p. 216.
- Carroll 2003, p. 690.
- Rogerson 2003, p. 690.
- Rogerson 2003, p. 708.
- Farmer 1998, p. 129.
- Kugler & Hartin 2008, p. 193.
- Seow 2007, p. 944.
- Fox 2004, p. xiv.
- Clements 2003, p. 438.
- Coogan, Brettler & Newsom 2007, p. xxiii.
- Hayes 1998, p. 168.
- Grabbe 2004, p. 105.
- Collins 1984, p. 101.
- Bloch 1995, p. 23.
- FitzMyer 2003, p. 51.
- West 2003, p. 748.
- Bartlett 2003, p. 807.
- Alexander 2003, p. 866.
- Hayman 2003, p. 763.
- Snaith 2003, p. 779.
- Harlow 2003, p. 805.
- Spencer 2002, p. 90.
- Schmitt 2003, p. 799,802.
- Duling 2010, p. 298-299.
- France 2007, p. 18.
- Perkins 2012, p. 19ff.
- Perkins 1998, p. 241.
- Charlesworth 2008, p. unpaginated.
- Perkins 2009, p. 250-253.
- Lincoln 2005, p. 18.
- Boring 2012, p. 587.
- Kim 2003, p. 250.
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- Alter, Dennis (2009). The Book of Psalms: A Translation with Commentary. W. W. Norton.
- Bartlett, John R. (2003). "1 Maccabees". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Bernstein, Alan E. (1996). The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Cornell University Press.
- Berquist, Jon L. (2007). Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period. SBL Press.
- Biddle, Mark E. (2007). "Jeremiah". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press.
- Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2007). "Isaiah". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press.
- Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1996). A history of prophecy in Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256395.
- Boring, M. Eugene (2012). An Introduction to the New Testament: History, Literature, Theology. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Brettler, Mark Zvi (2007). "Introduction to the Historical Books". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press.
- Brettler, Marc Zvi (2010). How to read the Bible. Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 978-0-8276-0775-0.
- Brueggemann, Walter (2003). An introduction to the Old Testament: the canon and Christian imagination. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 978-0-664-22412-7.
- Campbell, Antony F.; O'Brien, Mark A. (2000). Unfolding the Deuteronomistic History. Fortress Press.
- Carr, David (2011). The Formation of the Hebrew Bible: A New Reconstruction. Oxford University Press.
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- Carroll, M. Daniel (2003). "Malachi". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Charlesworth, James H. (2008). The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press.
- Collins, John J. (2002). "Current Issues in the Study of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
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- Day, John (1990). The Psalms. Old Testament guides. A&C Black. ISBN 1-85075-703-8.
- Dell, Katherine J (1996). "Reinventing the Wheel: the Shaping of the Book of Jonah". In Barton, John; Reimer, David James. After the exile: essays in honour of Rex Mason. Mercer University Press.
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- Dozeman, Thomas (2000). "Exodus, Book of". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Duling, Dennis C. (2010). "The Gospel of Matthew". In Aune, David E. The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0825-6.
- Emmerson, Grace I. (2003). "Hosea". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Enns, Peter (2012). The Evolution of Adam. Baker Books.
- Evans, Craig A. (2008). "Introduction". In Evans, Craig A.; Tov, Emanuel. Exploring the Origins of the Bible: Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective. Acadia Studies in Bible and Theology. Baker Academic.
- Fitzmyer, Joseph A. (2003). Tobit. Walter de Gruyter.
- Floyd, Michael H (2000). Minor prophets. 2. Eerdmans.
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- Lincoln, Andrew (2005). Gospel According to St John. Bloomsbury Publishing.
- McDermott, John J (2002). Reading the Pentateuch: a historical introduction. Pauline Press. ISBN 9780809140824.
- Miller, Patrick D. (1990). Deuteronomy. John Knox Press.
- McKenzie, Steven L. (2004). Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries: I & II Chronicles. Abingdon Press.
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- O'Brien, Julia M. (2002). Nahum. A&C Black.
- Perkins, Pheme (2012). Reading the New Testament: An Introduction. Paulist Press.
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