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Daughter is the term used for the female offspring in relation to her parents. It is the feminine version of the word son, which is the term used for male offspring. The word daughter also has several other connotations attached to it. One of these being that the term daughter can also be used in reference to female descendancy or consanguinity. It can also be used as a term of endearment coming from an elder.
A daughter is a female offspring; a girl, woman, or female animal in relation to her parents. Daughterhood is the state of being someone's daughter. The male counterpart is a son. Analogously the name is used in several areas to show relations between groups or elements.
In patriarchal societies, daughters often have different or lesser familial rights than sons. A family may prefer to have sons rather than daughters because the daughters are subjected to female infanticide. In some societies it is the custom for a daughter to be 'sold' to her husband, who must pay a bride price. The reverse of this custom, where the parents pay the husband a sum of money to compensate for the financial burden of the woman, is found in societies where women do not labour outside the home, and is referred to as dowry.
In the United States, the birth rate is 105 sons to 100 daughters which has been the natural birth rate since the 18th century. About 80 percent of prospective adoptive parents from the US will choose a girl over a boy. In clinics that enable sex preferences, daughters are usually preferred over sons.
Daughters in Business
When viewing how daughters are being treated in the family-role, most are held at high expectations because they have more responsibility. Daughters have the role of daddy’s little girl which means that the daughter has to do whatever possible to fulfill the expectation that a father has for the daughter. Which is more difficult for the daughter because of her gender. Being a woman gives the abilities to have to work for something ten times more than a man. Especially in a family business, there are more pressures to a girl. “The roles assigned to the daughters by their fathers and by the daughters themselves ranged from the role of daddy's little girl, which stressed her fragile and defenseless position within the family and the necessity of "pleasing daddy," to that of a tough and independent manager in the business.” (pg. 37,Dumas). This explains how much more work a daughter has to put in order to have a higher stand in the business. Additionally, it stated by Rosenblatt, de Mik, Anderson, and Johnson, “However, it is possible that the tensions resulting from role carryover are even stronger for daughters than they are for sons, since sons have been socialized to join the business and are seen as the eventual successor ( 1985).”
“Research on daughters in family-owned business is imperative today, considering the roles that daughters can play as increasing numbers of women enter the workforce and assume managerial responsibilities (Salganicoff, 1985).” “The number of women in managerial roles has also increased from 14 percent in 1964 to 33 percent in 1984 (Sutton and Moore, 1985).” As you can see in these two quotes, the role of a daughter in a family business has increased because the daughter’s role has shown how hard they had to work in order to show that they are as good as the son. Even if they have had to work twice as hard as the son’s role.
Notable people who come from families of many only daughters
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- Jill Biden, one of five daughters
- Gisele Bündchen, one of six daughters
- Patricia Clarkson, one of five daughters of Jackie Clarkson
- Clotilde Courau, one of four daughters
- Nancy Dow, one of six daughters
- Mamie Eisenhower, one of four daughters
- Jerry Hall, one of five daughters
- Anne Hearst, one of five daughters
- Tricia Helfer, one of four daughters
- Tara Hitchcock, one of four daughters
- Natalie Imbruglia, one of four daughters
- Eva Longoria, of one of four daughters
- Jenny McCarthy and Joanne McCarthy, two of four daughters
- Mary Pawlenty, one of five daughters
- Winifred Robinson, one of six daughters
- Emily VanCamp, one of four daughters
- Carin Göring and Mary von Rosen, two of four daughters
- Patricia Wettig, one of four daughters
Notable people who are parents of many only daughters
- Ray Bradbury, father of four daughters
- Marshall Criser III, father of four daughters
- Giancarlo Esposito, father of four daughters
- Larry Guidi, father of four daughters
- Eddie Joe Williams, father of four daughters
- David Johnston and Sharon Johnston, parents of five daughters
- Mary Lou Retton and Shannon Kelley, parents of four daughters
- Ana Lovrin, mother of four daughters
- Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, parents of four daughters:Beatrix of the Netherlands, Princess Irene of the Netherlands, Princess Margriet of the Netherlands and Princess Christina of the Netherlands
- Kathleen Kennedy Townsend, mother of four daughters
- Mark Mullet, father of four daughters
- Caroline Nilsson Troy, mother of four daughters
- Tom Monaghan, four of four daughters
- Andrew Murrison, father of five daughters
- John O'Mahony, father of five daughters
- Cec Purves, father of four daughters
- Michael I of Romania and Queen Anne of Romania, parents of five daughters:Crown Princess Margareta, Princess Elena, Princess Irina, Princess Sophie, Princess Maria
- Robin Dundas, Earl of Ronaldshay, father of four daughters
- Richard Whitmore, father of four daughters
- Stein, Dorothy: Burning widows, burning brides: The perils of daughterhood in India. Pacific Affairs, Vol 61, No. 3, p. 465. University of British Columbia.
- “Daughter.” Merriam-Webster.com, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/daughter. "daughter, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2016. Web. 9 December 2016.
- Dumas, Colette. "Understanding of father‐daughter and father‐son dyads in family‐owned businesses." Family Business Review 2.1 (1989): 31-46. Web. 9 December 2016.