Daughters of Jacob Bridge

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The Daughters of Jacob Bridge in 1799, seen from the north, with the Mamluk Khan to the left hand side

The Daughters of Jacob Bridge (Hebrew: גשר בנות יעקב‎, Gesher Bnot Ya'akov, or Arabic: Jisr Benat Ya'kub) (Arabic: جسر بنات يعقوب‎),[1] is a site on the upper Jordan River. It has the last good ford at the southern end of the Hula Basin before the Jordan gets squeezed between the Korazim Plateau and the Golan Heights, and has thus been a crossing point for thousands of years. The name Jacob's Ford arose during the Crusades and is still in use, mostly in English. The bridge was the best-known medieval bridge in Palestine, and was destroyed during the draining of Lake Hula by the PLDC.[2][3][4]

Located south−west of the bridge is the destroyed Crusader castle Chastellet (de), and just east of the bridge are the remains of a Mamluk Khan.

The modern bridge is part of Highway 91 and straddles the border between Israel and Syria (presently the Israeli-occupied portion of the Golan Heights). It is of strategic military significance as it is one of the few fixed crossing points over the upper Jordan River which enable access from the Golan Heights to the Upper Galilee.

The caravan route from China to Morocco via Mesopotamia and Egypt used this crossing as part of the ancient Via Maris, which has been strategically important to Egyptian, Assyrian, Hittite, Jew, Saracen Arab, Crusader knight, and Ottoman Janissary, who had all crossed the river at this place.[5][6] The Crusaders built a castle overlooking the ford which threatened Damascus and was promptly attacked and destroyed by Saladin in 1179. The old arched stone bridge had marked the northern limit of Napoleon's advance in 1799.[5][6]

History and archaeology[edit]

Jacob's Ford battlefield, looking from the west bank to the east bank of the Jordan River.

Prehistory[edit]

Archaeological excavations at the prehistoric Gesher Benot Ya'aqov site (GBY) have revealed evidence of human habitation in the area, from as early as 750,000 years ago.[7] Archaeologists from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem claim that the site provides evidence of "advanced human behavior" half a million years earlier than has previously been estimated as possible. Their report describes a layer at the site belonging to the Acheulian (a culture dating to the Lower Palaeolithic, at the very beginning of the Stone Age), where numerous stone tools, animal bones and plant remains have been found.[8] According to the archaeologists Paul Pettitt and Mark White, the site has produced the earliest widely accepted evidence for the use of fire, dated approximately 790,000 years ago.[9][10][11]

Crusader and Ayyubid period[edit]

Jacob's Ford was a key river crossing point and major trade route between Acre and Damascus.[12] It was utilized by Christian Palestine and Seljuk Syria as a major intersection between the two civilizations, making it strategically important. When Humphrey II of Toron was besieged in the city of Banyas in 1157, King Baldwin III of Jerusalem was able to break the siege, only to be ambushed at Jacob's Ford in June of that year.[13]

Later in the twelfth century, Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Saladin continually contested the area around Jacob's Ford. Baldwin allowed the Templars to build a castle overlooking Jacob's Ford and thus commanding the road from Quneitra to Tiberias.[14] On 23 August 1179, Saladin besieged and destroyed the unfinished fortification, known as the castle of Vadum Iacob or Chastellet.[citation needed]

Mamluk and Ottoman Periods[edit]

Jisr Benat Yacob marked on the Jacotin 1799 map

In the late Mamluk period, Sefad became a principal town and Baibars' postal road was extended with a branch that went through the north of Palestine and to Damascus. To accomplish this the bridge was built over the Crusaders' Vadum Jacob (Jacob's ford). The bridge had the Mamluk characteristic dual-slope pathway like the Yibna Bridge.[citation needed]

Al-Dimashqi (1256–1327) noted that "the Jordan traverses the district of Al Khaitah and comes to the Jisr Ya'kub, under Kasr Ya'kub, and reaching the Sea of Tiberias, falls into it."[15]

Before 1444, a merchant constructed a Khan on the eastern side of the bridge, as part of the construction of a series of such Khans.[16]

Edward Robinson noted that travellers during the 14th century crossed the river Jordan below the Lake of Tiberias, while the first crossing in the area of Jisr Benat Yakob was noted in 1450 CE. The Khan, at the eastern end of the bridge, and the bridge itself, were both probably built before 1450, according to Robinson.[17]

For the year 1555−1556 CE (963 H) the toll post at the bridge collected 25,000 akçe,[16] and in 1577 (985 H) a firman commanded that the place had post horses ready.[16]

The bridge was maintained through the Ottoman period, with a caravanserai on one end of the bridge, as shown in the 1799 Jacotin map.[18]

In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) also noted about Jisr Benat Yakub: "The bridge itself appears to be of later date than the Crusader period."[19]

Modern era[edit]

The Daughters of Jacob Bridge in 1918

Another battle was fought there on 27 September 1918 during the Palestine Campaign of World War I, at the beginning of the pursuit by the British Army of the retreating remnants of the Ottoman Yildirim Army Group towards Damascus. The central arch of the bridge was destroyed by the Turkish forces. The bridge was shortly repaired by ANZAC sappers, flattening the original dual-slope pathway, making it a useful for modern vehicles.[citation needed]

In 1934 "the best−known medieval bridge in Palestine", Jisr Banat Yaqub, was destroyed by Jewish colonist as they were draining Lake Huleh.[2]

On the "Night of the Bridges" between 16 and 17 June 1946, the bridge was again destroyed by the Jewish Haganah. The Syrians captured the bridge on June 11, 1948, during the 1948 Palestine war, but later withdrew as a result of the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Syria. After the war, the bridge was in the central demilitarised zone established by the armistice agreement.[citation needed]

In 1953, the site was chosen as the original location for the water intake of Israel's National Water Carrier project, but after US pressure the intake was moved downstream to the Sea of Galilee at Eshed Kinrot,[20] which later became known as the Sapir Pumping Station at Tel Kinrot/Tell el-'Oreimeh.[citation needed]

During the Six-Day War, an Israeli paratrooper brigade captured the area and the Israeli Combat Engineering Corps constructed a Bailey bridge. In the Yom Kippur War, Syrian forces approached the vicinity of the bridge but did not cross it.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sharon, 1999, p. 41
  2. ^ a b Petersen, 2010, p. 295
  3. ^ El-Eini, 2004, pp. 276 ff
  4. ^ Sufian, 2008, pp. 165 ff
  5. ^ a b Preston, 1921, p. 261
  6. ^ a b Hamilton, Jill Duchess of Hamilton (2002). First to Damascus: the great ride and Lawrence of Arabia. Roseville: Kangaroo Press. p. 158. OCLC 248935397.
  7. ^ Evidence found of early modern humans (January 5, 2010) in Israel 21c Innovation News Service Retrieved 2010-01-05
  8. ^ Evidence of advanced human life half a million years earlier than previously thought (Dec 22, 2009) in The Jerusalem Post Retrieved 2010-01-05
  9. ^ Pettitt and White, 2012, p. 194
  10. ^ Dig site shows distinct living spaces in early Stone Age
  11. ^ http://archaeology.about.com/od/gterms/g/gesher_benot.htm
  12. ^ Murray, 2006, p. 649
  13. ^ Richard, 1999, pp. 175-176
  14. ^ Payne, 1998, p. 188
  15. ^ Le Strange, 1890, p. 53
  16. ^ a b c Petersen, 1991, pp. 182−183
  17. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, pp. 361−363
  18. ^ Karmon, 1960, pp. 250−252
  19. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, pp. 206−207, 217
  20. ^ Sosland, 2007, p. 70

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°0′37.02″N 35°37′41.83″E / 33.0102833°N 35.6282861°E / 33.0102833; 35.6282861