Davāzdah Rokh (Persian: دَوازدَه رُخ) (Twelve combats) is a story in Shahnameh. This relatively long story (almost 2,500 verses) is described as one of the finest stories of Shahnameh in terms of "plot, dramatic description, and insight into human nature".
It takes place in the border of Iran and Turan, where a number of Iranian heroes fight with a number of Turanian heroes. In all cases, Iranian heroes defeat their Turanian competitors. Goudarz is the chief of Iranian heroes and Piran Viseh is the chief of Turanian heroes. The battle begins when Piran's brother, Houman, challenges the Iranians and is killed by Bizhan in a single combat. The two armies then fight together but the war has no winner. Finally they agree on pitched battles (mard o mard) between the heroes of the two army:
heroes of the two army
- Fariburz vs Golbad Viseh
- Giv vs Goruye Zereh
- Gorazeh vs Siamak the Turanian
- Foruhal vs Zangolah
- Rohham vs Barman
- Bizhan vs Rooyin
- Hojir vs Sepahram
- Zange-ye Shavaran vs Akhvast
- Gorgin vs Andariman
- Bartah vs Kohram
- Goudarz vs Piran
- Gostaham vs Lahhak and Farshad
In all battles, the winner is the Iranian hero. At the end, Goudarz kills Piran and the war ends. However, Gostaham, who has not been chosen by Kay Khosrow to fight with Turanians, chases Lahhāk and Faršēd, brothers of Piran, and kills them. However he himself was severely injured and Bizhan takes him to Kay Khosrow and the latter saves his life by tying a panacean bead around his arm. The war ends with the death of Afrasiab, Turan's king. In some manuscripts of Shahnameh the story is entitled az Yazdah Rokh (Eleven combats), not counting the last fight between Gostaham and Piran's brothers.
Location of Davazdah Rokh
- Khaleghi-Motlagh, Djalal. "DAVĀZDAH ROḴ". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20090805015115/http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID%3D22385%26URL_DO%3DDO_TOPIC%26URL_SECTION%3D201.html. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2009. Missing or empty
- Shahnameh (The Epic of Kings): Bijan and Manijeh