David Sulzer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Dave Soldier)
David Sulzer
David Sulzer with Jojo of the Thai Elephant Orchestra
Born (1956-11-06) November 6, 1956 (age 66)
Other namesDave Soldier
Alma mater
Known forneurotransmission, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, drug dependence, schizophrenia
AwardsNARSAD, McKnight Foundation, NIH
Scientific career
InstitutionsColumbia University
Doctoral advisorEric Holtzman
Musical career
OriginCarbondale, Illinois, U.S.
Occupation(s)Musician, composer
Years active1988–present

David Sulzer (born November 6, 1956) is an American neuroscientist and musician.[1] He is a professor at Columbia University Medical Center in the departments of psychiatry, neurology, and pharmacology. Sulzer's laboratory investigates the interaction between the synapses of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia, including the dopamine system, in habit formation, planning, decision making, and diseases of the system. His lab has developed the first means to optically measure neurotransmission, and has introduced new hypotheses of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease, and changes in synapses that produce autism [2] and habit learning.[3]

Under the stage name Dave Soldier, he is known as a composer and musician in a variety of genres including avant-garde, classical, and jazz.[4]

Scientific contributions[edit]

Studies on synapses[edit]

Sulzer works on basal ganglia and dopamine neurons, brain cells of central importance in translating will to action. His team have introduced new methods to study synapses, including the first means to measure the fundamental "quantal" unit of neurotransmitter release from central synapses. They reported the first direct recordings of quantal neurotransmitter release from brain synapses[5] using an electrochemistry technique known as amperometry, based on the method of Mark Wightman, a chemist at the University of North Carolina, to measure release of adrenaline from adrenal chromaffin cells. They showed that the quantal event at dopamine synapses consisted of the release of about 3,000 dopamine molecules in about 100 nanoseconds.[6] They further showed that the quantal events could "flicker" due to extremely rapid opening and closing of the a synaptic vesicle fusion pore (at rates as high as 4,000 times a second) with the plasma membrane.[7] This approach also demonstrated that the "size" of the quanta could be altered in numerous ways, for example by the drug L-DOPA, a drug so used to treat Parkinson's disease.[8]

Sulzer's lab, together with that of Dalibor Sames, a chemist at Columbia University, introduced "fluorescent false neurotransmitters", compounds that accumulated like genuine neurotransmitters into neurons and synaptic vesicles. This is used to observe neurotransmitter release and reuptake from individual synapses[9] in video. Sulzer, along with his mentor Stephen Rayport, showed that the neurotransmitter glutamate is released from dopamine neurons,[10][11] an important exception to the Dale's principle that a neuron releases the same transmitter from each of its synapses.

Addictive drugs[edit]

By introducing the "weak base hypothesis" of amphetamine action,[12] for measuring amphetamine's effects on the quantal size of dopamine release,[13] intracellular patch electrochemistry to measure dopamine levels in the cytosol,[14] and providing real-time measurement of dopamine release by reverse transport,[13] Sulzer's lab showed how amphetamine and methamphetamine release dopamine and other neurotransmitters[15][16] and exert their synaptic and clinical effects. They showed how methamphetamine neurotoxicity occurs due to dopamine-derived oxidative stress in the cytosol followed by induction of autophagy,[17] and with Nigel Bamford of the University of Washington, how these drugs activate long-term changes in the cortical synapses that project to the striatum.[18] They call these "chronic postsynaptic depression" and "paradoxical presynaptic potentiation", which may explain drug dependence and addiction.

Sulzer explains in an interview on NOVA[19] that his interest in understanding mechanisms of addiction stem from crashing a talk by William Burroughs at Naropa Institute in 1980, where Burroughs claimed that new synthetic opiates would be so powerful that users would become addicts with a single dose. In an interview in Nature Medicine on his lab's discovery of the mechanism by which nicotine filters synaptic noise and can focus attention to tasks, he recalls his father's early death due to smoking, saying "if some idiot or drug company is going to twist things around, the only thing that would come out of [this research] that I'd be horrified by is if people used it to advocate smoking. I think it would be a real travesty if that happened."[20]

Neurological and psychiatric disease[edit]

Sulzer and his lab also studied nerve impulses in Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and autism. They helped to establish the role of autophagy by lysosomes in neuronal disease.[21] They showed the role of neuromelanin, the pigment of the substantia nigra,[22] in methamphetamine neurotoxicity,[17] and Huntington's disease.[23][24] With Ana Maria Cuervo of Albert Einstein College of Medicine they showed that a cause of Parkinson's disease could be due to an interference with a chaperone-mediated autophagy caused by the protein alpha-synuclein.[25][26] His work indicates that a lack of normal pruning of synapses could underlie the development of autism, and that in turn may also my due to inhibited neuronal autophagy in patients, due to overactivation of the mTOR pathway during childhood and adolescence.[2]

In 2017, his lab introduced the role of autoimmune response in Parkinson's disease patients, which answers a century-old mystery on the role of immune system activation in that disorder.[27]

The Sulzer lab has published over 250 papers on this research. For his work, Sulzer has received awards from the McKnight Foundation, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and NARSAD. He ran the Basic Neuroscience NIH / NIDA (T32) training program for postdoctoral research in basic neuroscience at Columbia. He received a Ph.D. in biology from Columbia University in 1988. He founded the Gordon Conference on Parkinson's Disease, the Dopamine Society (with Louis-Eric Trudeau) and the journal Nature Parkinson's Disease (with Ray Chaudhuri).

Awards and honors[edit]

2020 - Youdim / Finberg Award, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

2020 - Raymond D. Adams Lecture, Harvard University, Mass General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

2019 - Distinguished Lecture in Medicinal Chemistry, University of Minnesota, USA

2017 - Presidential Lecture, Society of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

2013 - Helmsley Award for Scientific Research

2012 - Keynote Lecture in Cellular Neuroscience, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

2008 - McKnight Award in Neuroscience for Technical Innovation

1996 - James T. Shannon Award, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, USA

Art and Science projects[edit]

Sulzer wrote a book on scientific principles that underlie music and sound "Music Math and Mind" [Columbia University Press], 2021), and teaches a related course at Columbia University on the physics and neuroscience of music and sound.

He co-ran the original science cafe, "Entertaining Science" from 2012 to 2019, with its founder (2002), chemist and writer Roald Hoffmann in Greenwich Village at the Cornelia Street Cafe .[28]

With Brad Garton, he developed the "Brainwave Music Project", which allows users to create music from neural activity and enable teaching on brain function.


Sulzer uses the alias, Dave Soldier, for his alternate career in music.[29]

Music by animals[edit]

Many of Soldier's works are collaborative, such as with the Thai Elephant Orchestra which he co-founded with conservationist Richard Lair, based on the observation that elephants are said to enjoy listening to music.[30] This ensemble consists of up to 14 elephants at the Thai Elephant Conservation Center near Lampang, and is listed by Guinness as the world's largest animal orchestra, with a combined weight of approximately 23 tonnes (50,706 lb).[31] He built giant musical instruments on which he trained the elephants to improvise:[32] they eventually played on 22 instruments. The orchestra has released three CDs and play an abbreviated concert daily at the Conservation Center.

He also created specially designed instruments for music played by zebra finches and bonobos, the latter in collaborations with physicist Gordon Shaw, who researched classical music's effect on the brain and introduced the Mozart effect.[33]

Music by children[edit]

Soldier has made multiple recordings in which he coached child composers in different cultures. He and flutist Katie Down coached free improvisation with The Tangerine Awkestra featuring 2-10 year old Brooklyn schoolchildren. Da HipHop Raskalz featured rap and dub tracks performed (including the instrumental tracks) by 5-10 year old East Harlem children,[34] who had no previous experience playing instruments. Sulzer and the santur player Alan Kushan produced Yol K'u with Mayan Indian children from the Seeds of Knowledge School in the high mountains of San Mateo Ixtatan, Guatemala, a collaboration using giant marimbas. He produced two CDs by Les Enfants des Tyabala, with the jazz musician Sylvian Leroux who coached children in Conakry, Guinea to form an ensemble and create works with the traditional Fula flute, which Leroux has adapted to play chromatic scales.

The Soldier String Quartet[edit]

In 1985 he founded the Soldier String Quartet, a punk chamber group that plays with amplification and a percussionist. As a leader, composer and violinist for the group, Soldier wrote and performed traditional pieces influenced by music styles including serialism, Delta blues and hip-hop. With inspiration from Haydn and Beethoven quartets, he explored anachronisms stemming from a classical ensemble playing in contemporary popular idioms, particularly rhythm and blues and punk rock. With a drummer incorporated into the quartet, Soldier found that string instruments could play the blues in the hands of players who understood the contrasting styles, including violinists Regina Carter and Todd Reynolds. The Soldier String Quartet also premiered and recorded works by other composers such as Elliott Sharp, Iannis Xenakis, Alvin Curran, Nicolas Collins, Butch Morris, Zeena Parkins, Leroy Jenkins and Phill Niblock, as well as with jazz musicians including Tony Williams and Amina Claudine Myers. They recorded with the rock and pop musicians Guided by Voices, Lambchop, Bob Neuwirth, Ric Ocasek, Van Dyke Parks, and Jesse Harris and were the touring and recording group for the Velvet Underground's John Cale from 1992 to 1998.

Experimental music[edit]

With Komar & Melamid, and inspired by their art project, "The People's Choice", Soldier wrote "The People's Choice: Music", with lyrics by Nina Mankin. It was written according to answers from a survey of over 500 Americans, resulting in "The Most Wanted Song" and "The Most Unwanted Song". The latter is over 22 minutes in length and features an operatic soprano rapping cowboy songs, holiday songs with a children's choir screaming advertisements, and political rants backed by bagpipe, banjo, tuba, piccolo, and church organ.

Soldier collaborates with the computer musician Brad Garton for the Brainwave Music Project,[35][36] creating music played by performer's brainwaves using electroencephalograms.

Soldier realized the request by Johannes Kepler for a specific motet as related 400 years earlier in Harmonices Mundi, also known as The Music of the Spheres, a foundational book for modern physics. This microtonal piece for six acapella singers, each portraying a different planet in the solar system, had not been realized before according to Kepler's specific instructions, and is recorded in three dimensional virtual reality sound by Drazen Bosnjak with the vocal group Ekmeles so that the planets revolve around the head of the listener. The resulting composition, "Motet: Harmony of the World", is co-credited to Kepler and Soldier.

He has a body of compositions using math derivations such as fractal manipulations, including a notorious 20 minute version of Chopin's Minute Waltz.

Concert music[edit]

Soldier's compositions with classical musicians include a socialist-realist opera, "Naked Revolution", based on paintings by the Russian conceptual artists Komar and Melamid, commissioned for the 25th anniversary of "The Kitchen".

The opera "The Eighth Hour of Amduat" uses as its text Italian translations of the ancient Egyptian of the book of Amduat and features Marshall Allen of the Sun Ra Arkestra playing the part of Sun Ra.

Soldier wrote two chamber operas in collaboration with author Kurt Vonnegut, "The Soldier's Story" and "Ice-9 Ballads", both recorded with Vonnegut playing characters in the operas.

Many of his chamber and orchestra works were recorded by the Manhattan Chamber Orchestra under conductor Richard Auldon Clark and by the Composer's Concordance orchestra. These include a collection of early Latin homoerotic lyrics in "Smut", and settings of Frederick Douglass in "The Apotheosis of John Brown" and Mark Twain in "War Prayer". The orchestra fanfare, "Samul Nori Overture", was commissioned by Kristjan Järvi and the Absolute Ensemble.

Chamber works by Soldier have been recorded by violinists Regina Carter and Miranda Cuckson, cellist Erik Friedlander, pianists Steven Beck, Taka Kigawa and Christopher O'Riley, accordionist William Schimmel, the PubliQuartet, singer Eliza Carthy, the choir Ekemeles, and flutist Robert Dick.

Rock music[edit]

Soldier performed in the early 1980s with Bo Diddley and founded The Kropotkins in the 1990s, a punk/country blues band with the Memphis singer Lorette Velvette and the drummers drummer, Moe Tucker of The Velvet Underground, Charles Burnham of the James Blood Ulmer's Odyssey Band, and Jonathan Kane of Swans and La Monte Young's band; the Kropotkins recorded four albums and developed a cult following. He continued collaborations with Jonathan Kane in a symphonic minimalist blues duo known as Soldier Kane.

In the early 1980s, Soldier played guitar with Bo Diddley and various rock groups. He later worked as an arranger, violinist, or guitarist with John Cale, Guided by Voices, Van Dyke Parks, David Byrne, Ric Ocasek, Lee Ranaldo, Eliza Carthy, Maureen Tucker, Laurie Anderson, the Plastic People of the Universe, Jesse Harris, Pete Seeger, Richard Hell, and Bob Neuwirth.

Soldier led the touring group for John Cale, consisting of the Soldier String Quartet and B. J. Cole from 1992 to 1996, writing the groups arrangements for tours and several CDs and films including for Cale's scores for the Andy Warhol films "Eat" and "Kiss": his metal violin playing is featured on "Heartbreak Hotel" on Fragments of a Rainy Season. He led an flamenco/Middle Eastern rock group, The Spinozas, featuring lyrics from Arabic and Hebrew poetry from medieval Andalusia released on the album "Zajal".


Soldier recorded as a multi-instrumentalist with the William Hooker Trio with Sabir Mateen and Roy Campbell, and has performed and recorded with Leroy Jenkins, Henry Threadgill, drummer Tony Williams, Jonas Hellborg, Butch Morris, Jason Hwang, William Parker (musician), Billy Bang, Marshall Allen of the Sun Ra Arkestra, Karl Berger, Teo Macero, Myra Melford, Michael Wolff and Amina Claudine Myers.


Soldier co-founded the EEG Records (formerly Mulatta Records) label in 2000, for which he has produced a wide variety of recordings including contemporary flamenco music by Pedro Cortes, Texas singer/ songwriter Vince Bell with Bob Neuwirth, the 30 piece jazz string orchestra Spontaneous River by Jason Hwang, jazz drummer William Hooker, the traditional group Wofa from Guinea with American R&B musicians including Bernie Worrell; the jazz French horn virtuoso John Clark (musician), the New York-Iranian santur virtuoso Alan Kushan and released music by David First, two albums of Fula flute music by Sylvain Leroux with children in Conakry, Guinea, Memphis musician Alex Greene, Ursel Schlicht, and Twink.

Personal life[edit]

Sulzer grew up in Carbondale in southern Illinois where he was exposed to music common to the area, particularly country and R&B. His earliest influences included James Brown and Isaac Hayes. He played viola, violin, piano, and eventually banjo and guitar. He moved with his family to Storrs, CT, at the age of 16, where he became enamoured with salsa music. He credits Eddie Palmieri's music as his inspiration to be a composer.[37] He attended Michigan State University as an undergraduate and attempted a study of classical composition. He found that stultifying, however, and instead studied botany at the university and privately with the avant-garde jazz saxophonist/composer Roscoe Mitchell. He lived in Florida briefly, where he played guitar in Bo Diddley's band.

He relocated to New York in 1981, and played in various salsa, classical, and rock-oriented bands in the early '80s. In New York he engaged in many collaborations with producer Giorgio Gomelsky, including running "The House Band",[38] the Russian conceptual artists Komar and Melamid, and co-wrote two extended musical theater pieces with author Kurt Vonnegut. While attending graduate school in biology at Columbia University, he privately studied composition with the co-inventor of the synthesizer and "tape music" Otto Luening and formed his Soldier String Quartet in 1985. He co-founded Mulatta Records in 2000 to document his projects, including the Thai Elephant Orchestra and recordings with child improvisers, and to produce a broad range of unusual musical styles.

Soldier performed, recorded, composed, and arranged for television and film (Sesame Street, I Shot Andy Warhol), and pop and jazz acts ranging from Pete Seeger to David Byrne and Guided by Voices. In 2021, his book "Music, Math, and Mind" on the physics and neuroscience of music was published by Columbia University Press. Sulzer is married to biologist Francesca Bartolini.


Studio Albums as Leader


Recordings with the Soldier String Quartet


  • The Ordinaires The Ordinaires (1987, Dossier) violin
  • Lorette Velvette Lost Part of Me (1998, Veracity) banjo, violin
  • Elliott Sharp & Carbon Larynx (1987, SST) violin
  • Bob Neuwirth & John Cale "Last Day on Earth" arranger, performer
  • Le Nouvelles Polyponies Corses (Corsican Polyphony) Le Praiduisu (1999, Mercury) violin, arranger
  • Sussan Deyhim Madman of God (1999, Crammed Disc) violin, remixed by Bill Laswell as Shy Angels (2008)
  • While the Music Lasts, Jesse Harris
  • William Hooker TrioYearn For Certainty: performer, trio with Sabir Mateen 2010
  • William Hooker Trio Heart of the Sun: performer, trio with Roy Campbell Jr. 2013
  • William Hooker Aria: performer, arranger 2016
  • Mandeng Eletrik (2004, Mulatta) violin
  • Elliott Sharp & Carbon Abstract Repressionism, violin (1992, Victo) violin
  • Elliott Sharp & Carbon Syndakit, violin (1999, Zoar) violin

Film Scores

  • Arranger: John Cale film scores: "Paris S'Eveille", "Antarida", "Walking on Locusts", "Dance Music"
  • Arranger: films by Andy Warhol composed by John Cale "Eat/Kiss: Music for the Films by Andy Warhol"
  • Arranger, Conductor: Mary Harron director film score I Shot Andy Warhol
  • Arranger: Julian Schnabel director, film score Basquiat
  • Composer: Vanessa Ly, director, film score Mekong Interior
  • Composer: Nadia Roden, director, cartoon scores Sesame Street
  • Composer: Winsome Brown, director, film score The Violinist
  • Composer: Vicki Bennett, director, film score (partial) Gesture Piece
  • Composer: Dave Soldier, director, animation The Eighth Hour of Amduat
  • Composer: Deborah Kampmeier, director, film score (partial), "Hounddog"
  • Composer: Kate Taverna, Alan Adleson, directors, film score, "In Bed with Ulysses"
  • Performer: Phill Niblock, director, "China"


  • Jason Kao Hwang and Spontaneous River Orchestra Symphony of Souls CD, Mulatta Records, 2013
  • Pedro Cortes Los Viejos Non Mueren CD, Mulatta Records, 2014
  • Sylvain Leroux with children from Conakry, Guinea Les Enfants de Tyabala and Tyabla CDs, Mulatta Records, 2015, 2019
  • Archer Spade Orbital Harmony CD, Mulatta Records, 2015
  • William Hooker Aria: performer, producer, 2016
  • John Clark Sonus Inenarrabilis (Mulatta Records), works for 9 piece chamber group, CD, Mulatta Records, 2016
  • Robert Dick and Ulrike Lentz Are There? (Mulatta Records), flute duos CD, Mulatta Records, 2017
  • Vince Bell Ojo (Mulatta Records), co-production with Bob Neuwirth, Mulatta Records, 2018
  • William Hooker Pillars ... at the Portal, Multatta Records, 2018
  • Alan Kushan Santur, EEG Records, 2023

Compositions for Classical Musicians[edit]

Opus Composition Year Instrumentation
1 Sequence Girls 1985 String quartet and drums
2 Three Delta Blues (arrangements of Robert Johnson, Skip James, Charlie Patton) 1986 String quartet
3 String Quartet #1, “The Impossible” 1987 String quartet and drums
4 Duo Sonata 1988 Violin and cello
5 To Spike Jones in Heaven 1988 Accordion and tape
6 Hockets and Inventions 1990 Organ or piano
7 Utah Dances 1990 Solo saxophone, clarinet, or flute
8 The Apotheosis of John Brown (settings of Frederick Douglass) 1990 Oratorio for vocal soloists, solo violin, string orchestra
9 Ultraviolet Railroad 1991 Concerto for violin, cello and piano trio, or trio with orchestra
10 Smut, a.k.a. "Chorea Lascivia" (text from medieval Latin homoerotic poetry) 1991 Song cycle for vocal soloists with chamber group
11 String Quartet #2, “Bambaataa Variations” 1992 Prepared string quartet or quartet with string orchestra
12 Mark Twain's War Prayer 1993 Oratorio for vocal soloists, gospel choir, orchestra / alternate version with organ
13 Sontag in Sarajevo 1994 Accordion, melody instrument, guitar
14 Ice-9 Ballads (text and narration by Kurt Vonnegut) 1995 Song cycle for vocals and chamber group
15 The People's Choice Music: the Most Wanted and The Most Unwanted Song (with Komar and Melamid, lyrics Nina Mankin) 1997 Singers and chamber group
16 Naked Revolution, with Komar and Melamid, libretto Maita di Niscemi 1997 A socialist realist opera soloists, chorus, and orchestra
17 East St. Louis 1968 1999 Viola solo or string quartet with tape
18 A Soldier's Story (written with Kurt Vonnegut) 1992 Radio opera for vocal soloists and chamber group
19 Clever Hans 2005 Violin, cello, harpsichord
20 The Complete Victrola Sessions 2010 Collection for violin and piano
20b Four Nocturnes 2010 Piano
21 Five Little Monsters 2010 Piano
22 Variations on Chopin's Minute Waltz 2010 Piano and electronics
23 String Quartet #3, "The Essential” 2011 Quartet and electroencephalograms (with Brad Garton)
24 Dean Swift's Satyrs for the Very Very Young (settings of Jonathan Swift) 2011 Song cycle for vocal soloist, flute, viola, harp
25 Organum 2011 Five pieces for organ
26 Fractals on the Names of Bach & Haydn 2011 Piano
27 Letter to Gil Evans 2012 Piano
28 girl with hat in a car 2012 Piano
29 Letter to Skip James 2012 Piano
30 Thung Kwian Sunrise (arranged from the Thai Elephant Orchestra) 2012 Orchestra
31 Phong's Solo (arranged from the Thai Elephant Orchestra) 2012 Piano
32 SamulNori Overture 2013 Orchestra
33 The Eighth Hour of Amduat (libretto from ancient Egypt) 2015 Opera for vocal soloists, choir, improvisers, and orchestra
34 Lewitt Etudes, Architectural designs for musicians (after Sol Lewitt) 2015 Group compositions for any instruments
35 Stuff Smith's Unfinished Concerto (from a private recording by Stuff Smith) 2017 Violin, piano, string orchestra
36 Jaleo, rhapsody for piano and strings 2017 Piano solo or piano and string orchestra
37 Vienna Over the Hills / Wien Über den Hügeln 2017 Six or more violins, optional drums and electric guitars
38 Calo' 2018 Six etudes for solo violin in Gyspy flamenco palos
39 Motet: Harmonies of the World 2022 Four part motet for 6 voices in just intonation according to Harmonices Mundi by Johannes Kepler


  1. ^ "The Wild World of Music". The New Yorker. 2023-03-27. Archived from the original on 2023-07-14.
  2. ^ a b "Study Finds That Brains With Autism Fail to Trim Synapses as They Develop". The New York Times.
  3. ^ "David Sulzer, PhD". Parkinson's Researcher Profile. Michael J. Fox Foundation. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  4. ^ "David Sulzer, Ph.D." Columbia Neuroscience. Columbia CNI. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  5. ^ Pothos, Emmanuel N.; Davila, Viviana; Sulzer, David (1998). "Presynaptic recording of quanta from midbrain dopamine neurons and modulation of the quantal size". The Journal of Neuroscience. 18 (11): 4106–18. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-11-04106.1998. PMC 6792796. PMID 9592091.
  6. ^ Pothos, E.; Davila, V.; Sulzer, D. (1998). "Presynaptic recording of quanta from midbrain dopamine neurons and modulation of the quantal size". The Journal of Neuroscience. 18 (11): 4106–4118. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-11-04106.1998. PMC 6792796. PMID 9592091.
  7. ^ Staal, R. G. W.; Mosharov, E. V.; Sulzer, D. (2004). "Dopamine neurons release transmitter via a flickering fusion pore". Nature Neuroscience. 7 (4): 341–346. doi:10.1038/nn1205. PMID 14990933. S2CID 640445.
  8. ^ Pothos, E; Desmond, M; Sulzer, D (1996). "L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine increases the quantal size of exocytotic dopamine release in vitro". Journal of Neurochemistry. 66 (2): 629–36. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020629.x. PMID 8592133. S2CID 26971949.
  9. ^ Gubernator, N. G.; Zhang, H.; Staal, R. G. W.; Mosharov, E. V.; Pereira, D. B.; Yue, M.; Balsanek, V.; Vadola, P. A.; Mukherjee, B.; et al. (2009). "Fluorescent False Neurotransmitters Visualize Dopamine Release from Individual Presynaptic Terminals". Science. 324 (5933): 1441–4. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1441G. CiteSeerX doi:10.1126/science.1172278. PMC 6696931. PMID 19423778.
  10. ^ Sulzer, D.; Joyce, M.; Lin, L.; Geldwert, D.; Haber, S.; Hattori, T.; Rayport, S. (1998). "Dopamine neurons make glutamatergic synapses in vitro". The Journal of Neuroscience. 18 (12): 4588–4602. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-12-04588.1998. PMC 6792695. PMID 9614234.
  11. ^ Sulzer, D.; Rayport, S. (2000). "Dale's principle and glutamate corelease from ventral midbrain dopamine neurons". Amino Acids. 19 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1007/s007260070032. PMID 11026472. S2CID 23822594.
  12. ^ Sulzer, D.; Maidment, N.; Rayport, S. (1993). "Amphetamine and other weak bases act to promote reverse transport of dopamine in ventral midbrain neurons". Journal of Neurochemistry. 60 (2): 527–535. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1993.tb03181.x. PMID 8419534. S2CID 3048678.
  13. ^ a b Sulzer, D.; Chen, T.; Lau, Y.; Kristensen, H.; Rayport, S.; Ewing, A. (1995). "Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport". The Journal of Neuroscience. 15 (5 Pt 2): 4102–4108. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.15-05-04102.1995. PMC 6578196. PMID 7751968.
  14. ^ Mosharov, E.; Gong, L.; Khanna, B.; Sulzer, D.; Lindau, M. (2003). "Intracellular patch electrochemistry: Regulation of cytosolic catecholamines in chromaffin cells". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (13): 5835–5845. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-13-05835.2003. PMC 6741260. PMID 12843288.
  15. ^ Sulzer, David (2011). "How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission". Neuron. 69 (4): 628–49. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.010. PMC 3065181. PMID 21338876.
  16. ^ Sulzer, David; Sonders, Mark S.; Poulsen, Nathan W.; Galli, Aurelio (2005). "Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: A review". Progress in Neurobiology. 75 (6): 406–33. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003. PMID 15955613. S2CID 2359509.
  17. ^ a b Larsen, K.; Fon, E.; Hastings, T.; Edwards, R.; Sulzer, D. (2002). "Methamphetamine-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons involves autophagy and upregulation of dopamine synthesis". The Journal of Neuroscience. 22 (20): 8951–8960. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-20-08951.2002. PMC 6757693. PMID 12388602.
  18. ^ Bamford, N. S.; Zhang, H.; Joyce, J. A.; Scarlis, C. A.; Hanan, W.; Wu, N. P.; André, V. M.; Cohen, R.; Cepeda, C.; Levine, M. S.; Harleton, E.; Sulzer, D. (2008). "Repeated Exposure to Methamphetamine Causes Long-Lasting Presynaptic Corticostriatal Depression that is Renormalized with Drug Readministration". Neuron. 58 (1): 89–103. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.01.033. PMC 2394729. PMID 18400166.
  19. ^ "Dave Sulzer | Secret Life of Scientists & Engineers | PBS". Pbs.org. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  20. ^ Mandavilli, A. (2004). "Nicotine fix". Nature Medicine. 10 (7): 660–661. doi:10.1038/nm0704-660. PMID 15229501. S2CID 30653153.
  21. ^ Larsen, K.; Sulzer, D. (2002). "Autophagy in neurons: A review". Histology and Histopathology. 17 (3): 897–908. PMID 12168801.
  22. ^ Sulzer, D.; Bogulavsky, J.; Larsen, K. E.; Behr, G.; Karatekin, E.; Kleinman, M. H.; Turro, N.; Krantz, D.; Edwards, R. H. (2000). "Neuromelanin biosynthesis is driven by excess cytosolic catecholamines not accumulated by synaptic vesicles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (22): 11869–11874. Bibcode:2000PNAS...9711869S. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.22.11869. PMC 17261. PMID 11050221.
  23. ^ Petersén, A.; Larsen, K.; Behr, G.; Romero, N.; Przedborski, S.; Brundin, P.; Sulzer, D. (2001). "Expanded CAG repeats in exon 1 of the Huntington's disease gene stimulate dopamine-mediated striatal neuron autophagy and degeneration". Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (12): 1243–1254. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.12.1243. PMID 11406606.
  24. ^ Martinez-Vicente, M.; Talloczy, Z.; Wong, E.; Tang, G.; Koga, H.; Kaushik, S.; De Vries, R.; Arias, E.; Harris, S.; Sulzer, D.; Cuervo, A. M. (2010). "Cargo recognition failure is responsible for inefficient autophagy in Huntington's disease". Nature Neuroscience. 13 (5): 567–576. doi:10.1038/nn.2528. PMC 2860687. PMID 20383138.
  25. ^ Cuervo, A. M.; Stefanis, L.; Fredenburg, R.; Lansbury, P.; Sulzer, D. (2004). "Impaired Degradation of Mutant -Synuclein by Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy". Science. 305 (5688): 1292–1295. Bibcode:2004Sci...305.1292C. doi:10.1126/science.1101738. PMID 15333840. S2CID 84928456.
  26. ^ Martinez-Vicente, M.; Talloczy, Z.; Kaushik, S.; Massey, A. C.; Mazzulli, J.; Mosharov, E. V.; Hodara, R.; Fredenburg, R.; Wu, D. C.; Follenzi, A.; Dauer, W.; Przedborski, S.; Ischiropoulos, H.; Lansbury, P. T.; Sulzer, D.; Cuervo, A. M. (2008). "Dopamine-modified α-synuclein blocks chaperone-mediated autophagy". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 118 (2): 777–788. doi:10.1172/JCI32806. PMC 2157565. PMID 18172548.
  27. ^ Gallagher, James (2017-06-21). "Century-old Parkinson's question answered". BBC News.
  28. ^ "The Return of Entertaining Science". Cornelia Street Cafe. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  29. ^ "The Wild World of Music". The New Yorker. 2023-03-27. Archived from the original on 2023-07-14.
  30. ^ "The Biggest Thing Out Of Thailand: An Elephant Orchestra". Npr.org. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  31. ^ "Largest animal orchestra - most members". Guinness World Records. 1 Jan 2000. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  32. ^ Scigliano, Eric (16 December 2000). "Think Tank; A Band With a Lot More to Offer Than Talented Trumpeters (Published 2000)". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  33. ^ "Gordon Shaw Dies at 72; Tied I.Q. to Hearing Mozart". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 3, 2005. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  34. ^ Rose, Joel (September 2, 2006). "Da HipHop Raskalz, Kickin' It Grade School". NPR. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  35. ^ "EEG music". Columbia University.
  36. ^ "Neuroscientist David Sulzer turns brain waves into music". MedicalXpress.
  37. ^ Kozinn, Allan (1999-07-28). "One Life to Live? Composer Has More; One Life to Live? Composer Has More". The New York Times.
  38. ^ Grimes, William (2016-01-14). "Giorgio Gomelsky, Impresario Who Gave the Rolling Stones Their Start, Dies at 81". The New York Times.

Additional sources[edit]

  • Ratcliff, Carter. Komar and Melamid, New York: Abbeville Press, 1988. ISBN 0-89659-891-8
  • Wypijewski, JoAnn, ed. Painting by Numbers: Komar and Melamid's Scientific Guide to Art, New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1997. ISBN 9780520218611
  • Komar and Melamid. When Elephants Paint: The Quest of Two Russian Artists to Save the Elephants of Thailand, New York: HarperCollins, 2000. ISBN 0-06-095352-7
  • Weiss, Evelyn. Komar & Melamid: The Most Wanted and the Most Unwanted Painting, Museum Ludwig Koln, Ostfildern: Cantz, 1997.

External links[edit]