David A. Kolb
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|Experiential Learning Model (ELM)|
David A. Kolb (born 1939) is an American educational theorist whose interests and publications focus on experiential learning, the individual and social change, career development, and executive and professional education. He is the founder and chairman of Experience Based Learning Systems, Inc. (EBLS), and an Emeritus Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
- concrete experience,
- observation of and reflection on that experience,
- formation of abstract concepts based upon the reflection,
- testing the new concepts,
These four elements are the essence of a spiral of learning that can begin with any one of the four elements, but typically begins with a concrete experience.
Learning Style Inventory
Kolb is renowned in educational circles for his Learning Style Inventory (LSI). His model is built upon the idea that learning preferences can be described using two continuums:
- Active experimentation ↔ Reflective observation
- Abstract conceptualization ↔ Concrete experience.
The result is four types of learners: converger (Active experimentation - Abstract conceptualization), accommodator (Active experimentation - Concrete experience), assimilator (Reflective observation - Abstract conceptualization), and diverger (Reflective observation - Concrete experience). The LSI is designed to determine an individual's learning preference.
- Kolb, D.A., Rubin, I.M., McIntyre, J.M. (1974). Organizational Psychology: A Book of Readings, 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
- Kolb, D.A., Fry, R.E. (1974). Toward an Applied Theory of Experiential Learning
- Kolb, D. A., Kolb, A.Y. (2011). The Kolb Learning Style Inventory 4.0
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