|11th Chief of Staff to the Vice President of the United States|
November 1, 2005 – January 20, 2009
|Vice President||Dick Cheney|
|Preceded by||Scooter Libby|
|Succeeded by||Ron Klain|
|Born||David Spears Addington
January 22, 1957
|Alma mater||Georgetown University (B.S.)
Duke University (J.D.)
David Spears Addington (born January 22, 1957) is an American lawyer who was legal counsel (2001–2005) and Chief of Staff (2005–2009) to Vice President Dick Cheney. He is now vice president of domestic and economic policy studies at The Heritage Foundation.
During 21 years of federal service, Addington worked at the CIA, the Reagan White House, the Department of Defense, four congressional committees, and the Cheney Office of the Vice President. He was appointed to replace I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby Jr. as Cheney's chief of staff upon Libby's resignation when Libby was indicted on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice on October 28, 2005. Addington was described by U.S. News & World Report as "the most powerful man you've never heard of" in May 2006.
As is typical for many families of career military staff, the Addington family moved often and there were periods during which Jerry was posted overseas while his family remained stateside. After David's birth in 1957 in Washington, DC, his father was posted to Carlisle Barracks, PA; Camp St. Barbara, South Korea; Colorado Springs, CO; Oakdale, PA; and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Young David lived in Saudi Arabia during his father's 1967-1969 assignment as chief of the U.S. Military Training Mission, headquartered in Dhahran. In this role, the elder Addington (promoted to brigadier general in 1965), was responsible for U.S. training and security assistance programs for the Royal Saudi Army, Navy, Air Force and National Guard. During the family's two-year stay in Saudi Arabia, David Addington (then 10 and 11 years old) was a student at the Dhahran Academy on the grounds of the U.S. Consulate.
Addington is married to Cynthia Mary Addington; the couple have three children. Previously, Addington had been married to Linda Werling, whom he met while the two were both attending Duke University.
Education and career
Addington graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque, New Mexico in 1974. He was admitted to United States Naval Academy and attended beginning in Fall 1974, but dropped out during his freshman year. He is a graduate of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University (B.S.F.S., summa cum laude) and holds a J.D. (with honors) from Duke University School of Law. He was admitted to the bar in 1981.
Addington was an assistant general counsel for the Central Intelligence Agency from 1981 to 1984. From 1984 to 1987 he was counsel for the House committees on intelligence and foreign affairs. He served as a staff attorney on the joint U.S. House-Senate committee investigation of the Iran-Contra affair as an assistant to Congressman Bill Broomfield (R-MI). Books and news articles have said that he was one of the principal authors of a controversial minority report issued at the conclusion of the joint committee's investigation, which "defended President Reagan by claiming it was 'unconstitutional for Congress to pass laws intruding' on the 'commander in chief.'" but in his opening remarks as he testified under subpoena before the House Judiciary Committee, Addington said that he had left the committee's service before the minority report was written and had no role in it.
Addington was also a special assistant for legislative affairs to President Ronald Reagan for one year in 1987, before becoming Reagan's deputy assistant. From 1989 to 1992, Addington served as special assistant to Cheney who was then the Secretary of Defense, before being appointed by President George H. W. Bush and confirmed by the Senate as the Department of Defense's general counsel in 1992. In 1993 and 1994, Addington was the Republican staff director of the Senate Intelligence Committee. In 1994 and 1995, he headed a political action committee, the Alliance for American Leadership, set up to support Republican candidates for public office, with a principal focus on being a Presidential exploratory committee for Cheney, as the former Defense Secretary contemplated running for the 1996 Republican Presidential nomination.
From 1995 to 2001, he worked in private practice, for law firms Baker, Donelson, Bearman, Caldwell & Berkowitz and Holland & Knight, and the American Trucking Associations. He also provided extensive assistance to Dick Cheney when the latter was chief executive officer of Halliburton Corporation and was in charge of vetting potential Presidential running mates for Texas governor George W. Bush, before he was officially his party's nominee for the White House and surprised many political observers by choosing Cheney himself to be his running mate.
On April 13, 2013, Addington was on a list released by the Russian Federation of Americans banned from entering the country over their alleged human rights violations. The list was a direct response to the so-called Magnitsky list revealed by the United States the day before.
Vice President's office
As counsel to the Vice President, Addington's duties involved protecting the legal interests of the Office of the Vice President. Although limited duties have been given under the Constitution, each vice president has a role in association with the president.
As chief of staff, Addington supervised the Vice President's staff. In both roles, Addington also provided advice to the White House staff, as he had the additional role of Assistant to the President, as his predecessor Scooter Libby had likewise held. As vice presidential counsel, Addington is known for his focus on the constitutional independence of the Vice President. He tried to protect the inner workings of the Office of the Vice President from investigations by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and private organizations.
After he began working for Cheney, Addington was influential in numerous policy areas. He provided advice and drafted memoranda on many of the most controversial policies of the Bush administration. Addington's influence strongly reflects his hawkish views on U.S. foreign policy, a position he had apparently already committed to as a teenager during the late phase of the Vietnam War in the early 1970s. In his House Judiciary Committee testimony, Addington said that he applied three filters in formulating advice on the War on Terror: (i) comply with the Constitution, (ii) within the law, maximize the President's options, and (iii) ensure legal protection of military and intelligence personnel engaged in counterterrorism activities.
Addington has consistently advocated that under the Constitution, the President has substantial and expansive powers as commander-in-chief during wartime, if need be. He is the legal force behind over 750 signing statements that President George W. Bush issued when signing bills passed by Congress, expanding the practice relative to other Presidents.[self-published source?][self-published source?] Charlie Savage, the former national legal affairs writer for The Boston Globe who won a Pulitzer Prize for his reporting on signing statements, quotes former associate White House counsel Brad Berenson saying that Addington "would dive into a 200-page bill like it was a four-course meal" as he crafted the statements.
A declassified CIA congressional briefing memo of February 4, 2003 states "The (CIA) General Counsel described the process by which the (enhanced interrogation) techniques were approved by a bevy of lawyers from the NSC, the Vice President’s office and the Justice Department," which makes it likely that Addington was aware of the coercive methods if not one or more of the "torture memos" as well, although it is not clear exactly what the CIA memo meant by the word 'approved' as none of the lawyers mentioned was in the chain of command that approves CIA operations and the White House-level lawyers relied on Justice Department legal opinions rather than developing and issuing legal opinions of their own. Press reports have alleged that Addington helped to shape an August 2002 opinion from the Department of Justice's Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) that said torture might be justified in some cases, although John Yoo – who actually wrote those memos himself – avers in a book he later authored that the notion that Addington "had a hand in drafting Justice Department legal opinions in the war on terrorism" is "so erroneous as to be laughable."
U.S. Army Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, who served as Colin Powell's chief of staff when he was Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff – at the same time Addington was Cheney's personal counsel as Secretary of Defense – and then later when Powell was Secretary of State, stated in an in-depth interview regarding extraordinary measures taken post 9/11: "The man who, to me, brings all of this together more than Cheney himself, because he has one foot in the legal camp—and I must admit it's a fairly brilliant foot—and he has one foot in the operator camp, that's David Addington."
Press reports also state that Addington reportedly took a leading role in pressing for the use of coercive interrogation methods when a delegation of top Bush administration attorneys traveled to the Guantanamo Bay detention camp in September 2002 to observe operations there, although Addington said that he could not recall this in his sworn House Judiciary Committee testimony. In congressional testimony, Addington has emphasized that "people out in the field, particularly the folks at the CIA, would not have engaged in their conduct and the head of the CIA would not have ordered them to engage in that conduct without knowing that the Attorney General of the United States or his authorized designee, which is what OLC is, has said this is lawful and they relied on that."  The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence released a narrative concerning the Office of Legal Counsel opinions on interrogations on April 17, 2009.
Some press reports indicate that Addington advocated scaling back the authority of lawyers in the uniformed services; Addington in fact advocated merely[weasel words] that the civilian general counsels of the military departments be recognized as the chief legal officers of those departments.
Shortly after September 26, 2002, a Gulfstream jet carrying Addington, Alberto Gonzales, CIA attorney John A. Rizzo, William Haynes II, two Justice Department lawyers, Alice S. Fisher and Patrick F. Philbin, and the Office of Legal Counsel's Jack Goldsmith flew to Camp Delta to view the facility that held enemy combatants, including Mohammed al-Kahtani, then to Charleston, South Carolina to view the facility that held enemy combatants, including José Padilla, and finally to Norfolk, Virginia, where they briefly viewed an enemy combatant on a videoscreen display.
In November 2006, the German government received a complaint seeking the prosecution of Addington and 15 other current and former U.S. government officials for alleged war crimes. The German Prosecutor General at the Federal Supreme Court declined to initiate proceedings on the complaint.
According to Harvard Law School professor Jack Goldsmith, the head of the Office of Legal Counsel from 2003 to 2004, Addington once said that "we're one bomb away from getting rid of that obnoxious court," referring to the secret United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, which oversees clandestine wiretapping. Goldsmith also noted that Addington was speaking sarcastically at the time. Washington Post reporter Barton Gellman writes that Addington was the author of the controlling legal and technical documents for the Bush administration's warrantless surveillance program, typing the documents on a Tempest-shielded computer across from his desk in room 268 of the Eisenhower Executive Office Building and storing them in a vault in his office. That area of the building was the site of a fire in December, 2007.
Former Secretary of State Colin Powell is alleged to have remarked in private, regarding who was responsible for the NSA wiretapping of U.S. citizens without a warrant: "It's Addington," and further, that "he doesn't care about the Constitution." when speaking with friends at a Washington Redskins game. Jack Goldsmith has written that if Powell indeed made this remark, "he was wrong," as Addington and Cheney "seemed to care passionately about the Constitution as they understood it." Further, it is alleged, at least during Cheney's term as Secretary of Defense from 1989–93, that Addington and Cheney were deeply and eagerly interested in the U.S. Continuity of Operations Plan (CO-OP), to be used in the event of a nuclear attack on the U.S. (and first partially implemented after 9/11/01). This plan is alleged to provide "enduring Constitutional government" under a "paramount unitary executive" with "cooperation from" Congress and the several Courts. This deep and eager interest in the CO-OP was reported by the New Yorker to extend to drills where Cheney spent his nights in a bunker, perhaps that "secure undisclosed location" which he was said to occupy following 9/11. Apparently Addington has taken this interest to the point where "For years, Addington has carried a copy of the U.S. Constitution in his pocket; taped onto the back are photocopies of extra statutes that detail the legal procedures for Presidential succession in times of national emergency ..." perhaps, even a national emergency that involves the CO-OP.
Although press reports state that Addington consistently advocated the expansion of presidential powers and the unitary executive theory, a nearly absolute deference to the executive branch from Congress and the judiciary, Addington stated in his sworn House Judiciary Committee testimony that he intends the term "unitary executive" to refer to the provision of the Constitution that vests all "executive Power" in "a President" rather than in multiple officials or Congress. In a June 26, 2007 letter to Senator John Kerry, Addington asserted that by virtue of Executive Order 12958 as amended in 2003, the Office of the Vice President was exempt from oversight by the National Archives' Information Security Oversight Office for its handling of classified materials, which President George W. Bush confirmed to be the correct interpretation of his revised order. He had previously pushed for elimination of a presidentially-mandated position (as opposed to at the option of the Archivist) of director of the oversight office after a dispute over oversight of classified information. The story was broken after the Chicago Tribune noticed an asterisk in an ISOO report "that it contained no information from OVP." Although a federal district judge initially ordered Addington to submit to a deposition in a lawsuit filed to protect Cheney's vice-presidential records from potential destruction under the provisions of the Presidential Records Act of 1978, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit overruled the federal district judge and held that Addington did not have to submit to the deposition.
Addington, along with other officials, was mentioned by title in I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby Jr.'s indictment for five felony charges related to the Plame affair, regarding the leak of the identity of a CIA officer, and he testified at the Libby trial. A PBS Frontline documentary "Cheney's Law" broadcast on October 16, 2007 detailed Addington's key role in Bush administration policy making, and noted that he declined to be interviewed regarding his thoughts on the limits of executive privilege. On June 26, 2008, Addington appeared to testify under subpoena from the House Judiciary Committee along with former Justice Department attorney John Yoo in a contentious hearing on detainee treatment, interrogation methods and the extent of executive branch authority. This testimony was Addington's only public statement during his eight years as Cheney's vice presidential counsel and chief of staff.
Spanish charges considered
In March 2009 Baltasar Garzón, a Spanish judge who has considered international war crimes charges against other high-profile figures, considered whether to allow charges made by Gonzalo Boye to be laid against Addington and five other former officials of the George W. Bush Presidency. Judge Garzon did not dismiss the complaint, but instead ordered the complaint assigned by lottery to another judge, who will then decide whether to pursue the complaint or not. Spanish Attorney General Cándido Conde-Pumpido "strongly criticized" the proceedings, labeling them a legal "artifice." Conde-Pumpido recommended against prosecution due to lack of material responsibility on the part of the American officials.
The Vice Presidential records created or obtained by David S. Addington during his service as Counsel to the Vice President and Chief of Staff to the Vice President from 2001 to 2009 are preserved and maintained by the Archivist of the United States at the National Archives under the law.
- Dreyfuss, Robert (2006-04-17). "Vice Squad". The American Prospect. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
- Heilbrunn, Jacob (2010-08-30). "David Addington's Return to Power". The National Interest. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
- Friedersdorf, Conor (2010-08-31). "Making a Mockery of Advocating Limited Government". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
- Goldsmith, Jack (2010-09-06). "Addington to Heritage". Lawfare. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
- Victor, Kirk (May 2011). "David S. Addington: A Second Act". Washingtonian. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- Statement by the Vice President, Office of the Vice President (October 31, 2005) (announcement of Addington's appointment to be Chief of Staff to the Vice President).
- Keith Olbermann (November 4, 2005). "Cheney's new chief of staff controversial". MSNBC.
- Chitra Ragavan (May 29, 2006). "Cheney's Guy". U.S. News and World Report.
- Letter from Washington: The Hidden Power: The New Yorker
- Letter from Washington: The Hidden Power: The New Yorker
- Statement by President Reagan, April 18, 1988 (announcement of Addington's appointment as Deputy Assistant to the President for Legislative Affairs).
- Blumenthal, Sidney (2007). "The sad decline of Michael Mukasey". Salon.com. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
- Mr. Cheney's Minority Report by Sean Wilentz, July 9, 2007, New York Times.
- Khanna, Satyam (2007-10-09) Charlie Savage: Cheney Plotted Bush’s Imperial Presidency ‘Thirty Years Ago’, ThinkProgress
- Greenwald, Glenn (2011-03-31) Obama's new view of his own war powers, Salon.com
- U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties, Hearing on "From the Department of Justice to Guantanamo Bay: Administration Lawyers and Administration Interrogation Rules (Part III)," Serial No. 110-189, 110th Cong., 2d Sess., (June 26, 2008), p. 7.
- Charlie Savage (2006-11-26). "Hail to the chief: Dick Cheney's mission to expand – or 'restore' – the powers of the presidency". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
- Hagan, Joe (March 7, 2010), The Cheney Government in Exile, New York Magazine
- Murray Waas; Paul Singer (October 30, 2005). "Addington's Role In Cheney's Office Draws Fresh Attention". National Journal.
- Horton, Scott (September 18, 2008). "Six Questions for Bart Gellman, Author of Angler". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- "Russia strikes back with Magnitsky list response". rt.com. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- Walker v. Cheney, 230 F. Supp. 2d 51 (D.D.C. 2002) (GAO); Cheney v. U.S. District Court, 542 U.S. 367 (2004) and In re Cheney, 406 F.3d 723 (D.C. Cir. 2005) (Judicial Watch); In re Richard B. Cheney, Vice President, No. 08-5412 (D.C. Cir. 2008) (Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington).
- Jane Mayer, "The Hidden Power", The New Yorker, July 3, 2006. Archived 4 January 2007 at WebCite
- U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties, Hearing on "From the Department of Justice to Guantanamo Bay: Administration Lawyers and Administration Interrogation Rules (Part III)," Serial No. 110-189, 110th Cong., 2d Sess., (June 26, 2008), p. 47.
- Dana Milbank (2004-10-11). "In Cheney's Shadow, Counsel Pushes the Conservative Cause". The Washington Post.
- Statement of Deputy Assistant Attorney General Michelle Boardman before the Senate Judiciary Committee on Presidential Signing Statements, (June 27, 2006)[self-published source?]
- Presidential Memorandum to Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies on Presidential Signing Statements, (March 9, 2009).[self-published source?]
- Emily Brazelon (2007-11-18). "All the President's Powers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-18.
- Robin Lindley (2008-01-07). "The Return of the Imperial Presidency: An Interview with Charlie Savage". History News Network. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
- "David Addington did approve of cruel CIA interrogation techniques". Unbossed.com. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
- Douglas Jehl; Tim Golden (November 2, 2005). "In Cheney's New Chief, a Bureaucratic Master". New York Times.
- Yoo, J., War by Other Means (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006), pp. 33, 169.
- Andy Worthington (August 24, 2009). "An Interview with Col. Lawrence Wilkerson, Part 2". The Future of Freedom Foundation. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
- Phillipe Sands (May 2008). "The Green Light". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties, Hearing on "From the Department of Justice to Guantanamo Bay: Administration Lawyers and Administration Interrogation Rules (Part III)," Serial No. 110-189, 110th Cong., 2d Sess., (June 26, 2008), pp. 56–57.
- U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties, Hearing on "From the Department of Justice to Guantanamo Bay: Administration Lawyers and Administration Interrogation Rules (Part III)," Serial No. 110-189, 110th Cong., 2d Sess., (June 26, 2008), p. 79.
- Letter from Attorney General Eric Holder, Jr. to Senator John. D. Rockefeller IV of the SSCI forwarding declassified narrative, (April 17, 2009).
- Nominations Before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 102d Congress, Committee on Armed Services (Hearing on nomination of David S. Addington to be General Counsel of the Department of Defense), (July 1, 1992), pp. 322–29.
- Mayer, Jane, The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned Into a War on American Ideals", 2008. p. 199.
- Jack Goldsmith, The Terror Presidency: Law and Judgment Inside the Bush Administration, pp. 100–01.
- "German War Crimes Complaint Against Donald Rumsfeld, et al.". Center for Constitutional Rights. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Prosecutor General at the Federal Supreme Court, Re: Criminal Complaint against Donald Rumsfeld et al., 3 ARP 156/06-2, (April 5, 2007).
- Jeffrey Rosen (2007-09-07). "Conscience of a Conservative". The New York Times.
- Goldsmith, Jack. The Terror Presidency. New York: W.W. Norton (2007), p. 181.
- Barton Gelman (2008-09-14). "Conflict Over Spying Led White House to Brink". The Washington Post.
- "To What Extent Did the Government Monitor Phone, Internet Activity After 9/11?". Newshour. PBS. June 28, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- "NSA inspector general report on email and internet data collection under Stellar Wind – full document". The Guardian. June 27, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- Lyons, Patrick (December 19, 2007). "Fire In a White House Office Building". New York Times. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- Jane Mayer (2006-06-03). "The Hidden Power". The New Yorker. p. 1. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- Goldsmith, Jack. The Terror Presidency. New York: W.W. Norton (2007), p. 88.
- Jane Mayer (2006-06-03). "The Hidden Power". The New Yorker. p. 5. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- (ibid, p.5)
- (ibid, p. 1)
- U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties, Hearing on "From the Department of Justice to Guantanamo Bay: Administration Lawyers and Administration Interrogation Rules (Part III)," Serial No. 110-189, 110th Cong., 2d Sess., (June 26, 2008), pp. 44–45.
- Addington and the Question of Intent, in Secrecy News, published by the Federation of American Scientists, June 28, 2007.
- Letter from Fred F. Fielding, Counsel to the President, to Senator Sam Brownback, (July 12, 2007).
- Michael Isikoff (2007-12-24). "Challenging Cheney". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
- "Emergency Petition for a Writ of Mandamus" (PDF). United States District Court for the District of Columbia. 2008-09-30.
- "Plaintiff's Opposition to Emergency Petition for a Writ of Mandamus" (PDF). United States District Court for the District of Columbia. 2008-10-01.
- In re Richard B. Cheney, Vice President, No. 08-5412 (D.C. Cir. 2008).
- "Indictment" in United States of America vs. I. Lewis Libby, also known as "Scooter Libby", United States Department of Justice, October 28, 2005; accessed February 13, 2011
- Daniel Klaidman; Stuart Taylor, Jr.; Evan Thomas (February 6, 2006). "Palace Revolt". Newsweek.
- Waas, M., ed., The United States v. I. Lewis Libby, New York: Union Square Press (2007), pp. 174–95.
- "Cheney's Law". Public Broadcasting System. 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Dan Eggen (2008-06-27). "Bush Policy Authors Defend Their Actions". The Washington Post.
- Scott Shane (2008-06-27). "Two Testify on Memo Spelling Out Interrogation". The New York Times.
- Dana Milbank (2008-06-27). "When Anonymity Fails, Be Nasty, Brutish and Short". The Washington Post.
- GPO text of hearing
- U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties, Hearing on "From the Department of Justice to Guantanamo Bay: Administration Lawyers and Administration Interrogation Rules (Part III)," Serial No. 110-189, 110th Cong., 2d Sess., (June 26, 2008)[dead link]
- "Spain may decide Guantanamo probe this week". Reuters. 2009-03-28. Retrieved 2009-03-29. mirror
- Spanish Judge Keeps Guantanamo Probe Alive, (April 7, 2009).
- Spain's Attorney General Opposes Prosecutions of 6 Bush Officials on Allowing Torture, April 16, 2009
- Spain Attorney General Against Guantanamo Probe, (April 16, 2009).
- 44 U.S.C. 2207
- "Pushing the Limit on Presidential Powers," by Barton Gellman and Jo Becker, The Washington Post, Monday, June 25, 2007
- "The Hidden Power," by Jane Mayer, profile of David Addington in the July 3, 2006, issue of The New Yorker magazine.
- The New Yorker magazine Q&A with Jane Mayer about her David Addington article
- Fresh Air with Terry Gross interview of Jane Mayer about her David Addington article July 5, 2006
- David Addington's campaign contributions
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- 'Democracy Now!' coverage of Addington's appointment as chief of staff for Vice-President Dick Cheney and his role in the expansion of presidential power
- Meet David Addington: Cheney's Guy
- "50 Most Powerful People in D.C.", GQ Magazine, August, 2007
- December 12, 2002 letter from Addington as OVP general counsel to operator of parody website
- The Man Behind the Torture, New York Review of Books, Volume 54, Number 19, December 6, 2007.
- Madness and Shame, New York Times, July 22, 2008.
- Reports and commentaries by David Addington, The Heritage Foundation
I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby Jr.
|Chief of Staff to the Vice President of the United States