David Cope (born May 17, 1941, San Francisco, California) is an American author, composer, scientist, and former professor of music at the University of California, Santa Cruz. His primary area of research involves artificial intelligence and music; he writes programs and algorithms that can analyze existing music and create new compositions in the style of the original input music. He teaches a summer Workshop in Algorithmic Computer Music that is open to the public (but not free) as well as a general education course entitled Artificial Intelligence and Music for enrolled UCSC students. Cope is also cofounder and CTO Emeritus of Recombinant Inc, a music technology company.
Cope is the inventor of US Patent #7696426 Recombinant Music Composition Algorithm and Method of Using the Same.
His EMI (Experiments in Musical Intelligence) software has produced works in the style of various composers, some of which have been commercially recorded (Cockrell 2001)—ranging from short pieces to full length operas.
As a composer, Cope's own work has encompassed a variety of styles—from the traditional to the avant-garde—and techniques, such as unconventional manners of playing, experimental musical instrument, and microtonal scales, including a 33-note system of just intonation he developed himself (Cockrell 2001). Most recently, all of his original compositions have been written in collaboration with the computer—based on an input of his earlier works. He seeks a synergy between composer creativity and computer algorithm as his principal creative direction.
- In twenty years of working in artificial intelligence, I have run across nothing more thought-provoking than David Cope's Experiments in Musical Intelligence. What is the essence of musical style, indeed of music itself? Can great new music emerge from the extraction and recombination of patterns in earlier music? Are the deepest of human emotions triggerable by computer patterns of notes? -- Douglas Hofstadter (Deliège 2006, 354)
He has published a wide range of books, which are often used as textbooks. New Directions in Music is currently in its 7th Edition and is the standard text for contemporary music. In 2009 David Cope was interviewed by the media in anticipation of the release of a CD containing music composed collaboratively by Mr. Cope and Emily Howell, a computer program.
Cope has also published a series of detective novels under a pseudonym (Cope n.d.).
- Cope, David (1991). Computers and Musical Style. Madison, WI: A-R Editions.
- Cope, David (1996). Experiments in Musical Intelligence. Madison, WI: A-R Editions.
- Cope, David (1997). Techniques of the Contemporary Composer. New York City: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-864737-8.
- Cope, David (2000). New Directions in Music, 7th ed. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press. ISBN 1-57766-108-7.
- Cope, David (2000). The Algorithmic Composer. Madison, WI: A-R Editions.
- Cope, David (2001). Virtual Music: Computer Synthesis of Musical Style. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-53261-1.
- Cope, David (2006). Computer Models of Musical Creativity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Cope, David (2008). Hidden Structure: Music Analysis Using Computers. Madison, WI: A-R Editions. ISBN 978-0-89579-640-0.
- Cope, David (2012). A Musicianship Primer San Francisco. Epoc Books. ISBN 978-1477687864.
Articles and chapters
- 1992. "A Computer Model of Music Composition." In Machine Models of Music, Stephan Schwanauer and David Levitt, eds.: MIT Press.
- 1992. "On the Algorithmic Representation of Musical Style." In Musical Intelligence, M. Balaban, K. Ebcioglu, and O. Laske, eds. : AAAI Press.
- 1998. "Signatures and Earmarks: Computer Recognition of Patterns in Music.." In Melodic Similarity, Concepts, Procedures, and Applications. Walter B. Hewlett and Eleanor Selfridge-Field (eds.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- 1987. "Experiments in Music Intelligence." In Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference, San Francisco: Computer Music Assn.
- 1987. "An Expert System for Computer-Assisted Music Composition." Computer Music Journal 11,4 (Winter): 30–46.
- 1988. "Music and LISP." AI Expert 3,3 (March): 26–34.
- 1988. "Music: The Universal Language." In Proceedings of the First Workshop on AI and Music. Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN: AAAI: 87–98.
- 1989. "Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI): Non-Linear Linguistic-based Composition." Interface Vol. 18: 117–139.
- 1990. "Pattern Matching as an Engine for the Computer Simulation of Musical Style." In Proceedings of the 1990 ICMC. San Fran Computer Music Assn
- 1991. "Recombinant Music." COMPUTER. (July).
- 1991. "Computer Simulations of Musical Style." Computers in Music Research, The Queens University of Belfast, 7–10 (April): 15–17.
- 1992. "Computer Modeling of Musical Intelligence in Experiments in Musical Intelligence." Computer Music Journal 16,2 (Summer): 69–83.
- 1993. "Virtual Music." Electronic Musician, 9:5 (May): 80–85.
- 1996. "Mimesis du style et de la structure musicale." Symposium on Composition, Modelisation et Ordinateur. IRCAM, Paris: 21-3.
- 1997. "Composer's Underscoring Environment." In Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference. San Fran: Computer Music Assn.
- 1997. "The Composer's Underscoring Environment: CUE." Computer Music Journal 21/3 (Fall).
- 1999. "One Approach to Musical Intelligence." Intelligent Systems. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society (14/3, May/June).
- 2000. "Facing the Music: Perspectives on Machine Composed Music." Leonardo Music Journal 9: 79–87.
- 2002. "Computer Analysis and Composition Using Atonal Voice-Leading Techniques." Perspectives of New Music 40/1 (Winter): 121–146.
- 2003. "Computer Analysis of Musical Allusions." Computer Music Journal 27/1: 11–28.
- 2004. " A Musical Learning Algorithm." Computer Music Journal 28/3: 12–27.
- 2006. "The Vivaldi Code" Wired, Issue 14. September 9, 2006
- 1993. Bach by Design. Centaur Records. CRC 2184
- 1997. Classical Music Composed by Computer. Centaur Records. CRC 2329
- 1997. Virtual Mozart. Centaur Records. CRC 2452
- 1999. Towers. Vienna Modern Masters. VMM 2024
- 2003. Virtual Bach. Centaur Records. CRC 2619
- 2009. From Darkness, Light (Emily Howell). Centaur Records. CRC 3023
- 2011. Symphony No. 4. Epoc. B008J5IK78
- 2012. Symphony No. 5. Epoc. B008J5IFD2
- 2012. Symphony No. 9 (Martin Luther King, Jr.) Epoc. B008J5IGCW
- 2012. String Quartets 5 and 6. Epoc. B008O9RZTS
- 2012. Violin Concerto/Viola Concerto. Epoc. B008J5IGRC
- 2012. Cello Concerto/Octet for Strings. Epoc. B008K8VJM2
- 2012. Piano Concerto/Re-Birth/Transcendence. Epoc. B008PYPDUK
- Ball, Philip. 2012. "Iamus, Classical Music's Computer Composer, Live from Malaga", The Guardian (July 1, 2014); accessed August 5, 2014.
- Cockrell, Dale. 2001. "Cope, David (Howell)". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- Cope, David. n.d. "Bibliography: Books, Articles, and CDs". David Cope’s USC webpage; accessed March 26, 2015
- Deliège, Irene (2006). Musical Creativity: Multidisciplinary Research in Theory and Practice. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1841695082.
- Arts.UCSC.edu – Faculty: David Cope
- David Cope profile
- Recombinant Inc website
- Ryan Blitstein. Triumph of the Cyborg Composer, miller-mccune.com
- "Musical DNA" segment from NPR Radio Lab program