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Hackworth in Zagreb, Croatia in December 1995
|Birth name||David Haskell Hackworth|
|Born||November 11, 1930|
Ocean Park, California, U.S.
(now Santa Monica, California, U.S.)
|Died||May 4, 2005 (aged 74)|
|Service/||United States Merchant Marine|
United States Army
|Years of service||1945 (U.S. Merchant Marine)|
1946–1954, 1956–1971 (U.S. Army)
|Unit||88th Infantry Division|
25th Infantry Division
40th Infantry Division
101st Airborne Division
9th Infantry Division
|Commands held||Tiger Force|
4th Battalion, 39th Infantry Regiment
|Battles/wars||World War II|
|Awards||Distinguished Service Cross (2)|
Silver Star (10)
Legion of Merit (4)
Distinguished Flying Cross
Bronze Star Medal (8) with "V"
Purple Heart (8)
Air Medal (34) with "V"
Army Commendation Medal (4) with "V"
|Other work||Author, journalist and restaurateur|
David Haskell Hackworth (November 11, 1930 – May 4, 2005) also known as Hack, was a prominent military journalist and a former United States Army colonel who was decorated in both the Korean War and Vietnam War. Hackworth is known for his role in the creation and command of Tiger Force, a military unit which was formed in South Vietnam to apply guerrilla warfare tactics against Viet Cong guerrilla fighters.
Hackworth is also known for his accusation in 1996 that Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Mike Boorda was wearing two unauthorized service ribbon devices on two of his uniform's awards denoting valor in combat. Although Admiral Boorda had served off the coast of Vietnam in the 1960s and believed he was authorized to wear the two wartime decorations for meritorious service, he did not meet the Navy's requirements. Boorda committed suicide during Hackworth's investigation.
Early life and education
Hackworth was born in Ocean Park, California (now part of Santa Monica), on November 11, 1930, the son of Leroy E. Hackworth and Lorette (Kensly) Hackworth. His parents both died before he was a year old, and his brother, sister, and he were raised by Ida Stedman, their paternal grandmother. The family had to rely on government aid during the Great Depression, and his grandmother, who had been married to a Colorado gold miner, brought them up on tales of her Old West experiences and her Revolutionary War ancestors. While attending school in Santa Monica, Hackworth and a friend earned money by shining the shoes of soldiers stationed at bases in the area. Imbued with a sense of adventure, at age 14, Hackworth lied about his age and paid a transient to pose as his father so he could claim to be old enough to join the United States Merchant Marine with parental consent.
Hackworth served aboard ship in the South Pacific Ocean as a member of the Merchant Marine in 1945, at the end of World War II. He returned home to California, but decided to join the United States Army, and in 1946, he used his false Merchant Marine documents to enlist for three years. After completing his initial training, he was assigned to postwar occupation duty as a rifleman in the 351st Infantry Regiment, 88th Infantry Division. Based in Trieste, his unit was part of Trieste United States Troops. While serving in Trieste, Hackworth earned his General Educational Development high-school equivalency diploma.
Hackworth fought in the Korean War with the 25th Reconnaissance Company and the 27th Infantry (Wolfhound) Regiment of the 25th Infantry Division. He gained a battlefield commission as a second lieutenant in 1951 and was awarded three Silver Stars for heroism and three Purple Hearts. After a successful raid on Hill 1062 and battlefield promotion to first lieutenant, the commander of the 27th Infantry Regiment offered Hackworth command of a new volunteer raider unit. Hackworth created the 27th Wolfhound Raiders and led them from August to November 1951. He subsequently volunteered for a second tour in Korea, this time with the 40th Infantry Division. Hackworth was promoted to the rank of captain.
|Booknotes interview with Hackworth on About Face, May 7, 1989, C-SPAN|
When Hackworth returned to active duty, the expanding Cold War substantially changed the structure of the army from what he had known. Initially posted to 77th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion in Manhattan Beach, California, Hackworth was eventually assigned to Germany, initially in staff roles, but returning to infantry in the early 1960s as a company commander under Colonel Glover S. Johns. He was involved in a number of fire drills around the Berlin Crisis of 1961. He recounted his experiences with the Soviet guard and his views on military history in his book About Face.
After completing an associate of arts degree at Los Angeles Harbor College, and completing additional courses at several other colleges, in 1964, Hackworth graduated from Austin Peay State University with a bachelor of science degree in history, after which he attended the Command and General Staff College.
When President John F. Kennedy announced that a large advisory team was being sent to South Vietnam, Hackworth immediately volunteered for service. His request was denied, on the grounds that he had too much frontline experience, and that others who had seen less fighting (or none) should have an opportunity to acquire experience in combat.
In 1965, he deployed to Vietnam as a major. He served as an operations officer and battalion commander in the 101st Airborne Division. In November 1965, he founded the platoon-sized unit Tiger Force to "outguerrilla the guerrillas". Initially, Tiger Force was a highly decorated small unit in Vietnam which suffered heavy casualties and was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation. However, after Hackworth was promoted out of Vietnam, the unit began a string of atrocities and war crimes, with U.S. Army investigative records and interviews by The Toledo Blade estimating the unit eventually killed hundreds of noncombatants. Hackworth has stated he did not know about the atrocities and does not know what caused the unit to spiral out of control.
Hackworth quickly developed a reputation as an eccentric but effective soldier, becoming a public figure in several books authored by General S. L. A. "Slam" Marshall. Following a stateside tour at the Pentagon and promotion to lieutenant colonel, Hackworth co-wrote The Vietnam Primer with Marshall after returning to Vietnam in the winter of 1966–67 on an Army-sponsored tour with the famous historian and commentator. The book advised counter-insurgency fighters to adopt some of the guerrilla tactics used by Mao Zedong, Che Guevara, and Ho Chi Minh. Hackworth described the strategy as "out-G-ing the G." His personal and professional relationship with Marshall soured as Hackworth became suspicious of his methods and motivation.
However, both his assignment with "Slam" Marshall and his time on staff duty at the Pentagon soured Hackworth on the Vietnam War. One aspect of the latter required him to publicly defend the U.S. position on the war in a speaking tour. Even with his reservations concerning the conflict, he refused to resign, feeling it was his duty as a field grade officer to wage the campaign as best he could.
Hackworth was assigned to a training battalion at Fort Lewis, Washington, and then returned to Vietnam to lead elements of the 9th Infantry Division, turning his theories about guerrilla warfare and how to counter it into practice with the 4-39 Infantry in the Mekong Delta, an underperforming unit made up largely of conscripts which Hackworth transformed into the counter-insurgent "Hardcore" Battalion (Recondo) from January to late May 1969.
Hackworth next served as a senior military adviser to the South Vietnamese. His view that the U.S. Army was not learning from its mistakes, and that South Vietnamese ARVN officers were essentially corrupt and ineffective, created friction with Army leadership.
In early 1971, Hackworth was promoted to the rank of colonel, and received orders to attend the Army War College, an indication that he was being groomed for the general officer ranks. He had declined a previous opportunity to go to the War College, and turned down this one, as well, indicating his lack of interest in becoming a general and demonstrating his discontent with the war and the Army's leaders.
Hackworth's dissatisfaction ultimately culminated in a television interview with ABC. On June 27, 1971, he appeared on the program Issues and Answers and strongly criticized U.S. commanders in Vietnam, said the war could not be won, and called for U.S. withdrawal. The interview enraged senior U.S. Army officers at the Pentagon.
He subsequently retired as a colonel. Senior Army leaders investigated Hackworth, who avoided them for several weeks. He was nearly court-martialed for various allegations during his Vietnam service, such as running a brothel, running gambling houses, and exploiting his position for personal profit by manipulating the scrip in which soldiers were paid and the limited U.S. currency available in the war zone. Ultimately, Secretary of the Army Robert Froehlke opted not to press charges, deciding that Hackworth's career accomplishments outweighed his supposed misdeeds, and that prosecuting an outspoken war hero would result in unneeded bad publicity for the Army.
Distinguished Service Cross Citations
David Haskell Hackworth
Battalion: 1st Battalion
Division: 101st Airborne Division
Headquarters, U.S. Army, Vietnam, General Orders No. 121 (1966)
The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918 (amended by act of July 25, 1963), takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Major (Infantry) David Haskell Hackworth (ASN: OF-103837), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed hostile force in the Republic of Vietnam, while serving with 1st Battalion, 327th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. On 7 February 1966, Major Hackworth's unit was assigned the mission of relieving elements of a friendly rifle company which had been pinned down for four hours. Upon arriving at the beleaguered unit's position, Major Hackworth moved forward, by himself, to conduct a reconnaissance of the area. With complete disregard for his own personal safety, he moved across an open field through small arms fire, crossed a bridge which was raked by intense hostile machine gun fire, and ran across another open field through heavy fire to the embattled company's position. Major Hackworth then crawled to within twenty meters of the insurgent positions in the face of heavy machine gun fire. Upon completion of his reconnaissance mission, he returned to his command post and again, with complete disregard for his own personal safety, led the attacking force across the bullet swept fields to the insurgent positions. He then led a group through intense fire to a position only forty meters from the opposing force's battle positions. From this point, under fire for approximately six hours, Major Hackworth calmly and effectively maneuvered his units to close in on the entrenched and determined Viet Cong. Continuously, with complete disregard for his own personal safety, he exposed himself to intense fire to personally inspire and direct the attack. As one of the attacking units began to falter, without hesitation, Major Hackworth left his position to rally the attackers and lead them into the Viet Cong positions. During the final phase of the attack, Major Hackworth again exposed himself to heavy fire in order to direct an air strike on the Viet Cong. Major Hackworth's extraordinary heroism and gallantry in action were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the military service.
David Haskell Hackworth
Battalion: 4th Battalion
Division: 9th Infantry Division
Headquarters, U.S. Army, Vietnam, General Orders No. 2422 (1969)
The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918 (amended by act of July 25, 1963), takes pleasure in presenting a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Second Award of the Distinguished Service Cross to Lieutenant Colonel (Infantry) David Haskell Hackworth (ASN: OF-103837), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations involving conflict with an armed hostile force in the Republic of Vietnam, while serving with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 4th Battalion, 39th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Lieutenant Colonel Hackworth distinguished himself by exceptionally valorous actions during the period of 23 to 25 March 1969 as battalion commander while his unit was engaged with elements of two Viet Cong battalions. After one of his companies came under attack from a numerically superior hostile force, Colonel Hackworth landed his command and control helicopter amid heavy enemy fire to resupply the unit with ammunition and to evacuate casualties. Remaining with his forces on the ground, he led a patrol in pursuit of the withdrawing enemy and, after learning the enemy's withdrawal plan from a captured soldier, directed the insertion of other elements of his battalion into blocking positions. As the conflict developed into a large scale battle, he again took to the air and flew through intense anti-aircraft fire to adjust artillery fire and direct the movement of his men. He repeatedly landed to coordinate with his ground commanders, lead assaults against hostile positions, and evacuate casualties. When a friendly scout element sustained several casualties and became pinned down near the communist emplacements, he disembarked from his helicopter to maneuver through the hostile fusillade and assist the wounded men to his aircraft. When he had insured that the injured were being evacuated, he adjusted supporting fire on the enemy fortifications until the enemy was soundly defeated and their weapons and supplied confiscated. Lieutenant Colonel Hackworth's extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
Settling on the Australian Gold Coast near Brisbane, Hackworth soon made a fortune through profitable real estate investing, a lucrative duck farm, and a popular restaurant called Scaramouche. He was also active in the Australian antinuclear movement.
Hackworth returned to the U.S. in the mid-1980s and began working as a contributing editor on defense issues for Newsweek. He also made regular television appearances to discuss various military-related topics, and the shortcomings of the military. His commentary on the psychological effects of post-traumatic stress disorder, based on his own experiences in overcoming it, resonated with disabled veterans.
In the mid-1990s, Hackworth investigated Admiral Jeremy Michael Boorda, then Chief of Naval Operations. Hackworth, through his Newsweek articles, questioned Boorda's longtime wearing of two bronze "valor pins" (in the Navy, the "V" device was worn on certain decorations to denote valor in combat or direct combat participation with the enemy) on his Navy Commendation Medal and Navy Achievement Medal service ribbons, generating much controversy. Boorda committed suicide before he could be interviewed by Hackworth, who had received at least one Army Commendation Medal and other decorations with the "V" device from the U.S. Army in the Vietnam War (in the Army, the "V" device denoted valor in combat only). The Navy reviewed the matter and determined afterwards that the two "Combat Distinguishing Devices" (Combat "V"'s) that Boorda had worn on two of his uniform service ribbons since the Vietnam War and until almost a year before Hackworth's and Newsweek's intervention, were both unauthorized despite the fact Boorda and some others serving on Boorda's destroyer had been given verbal authorization for the devices by Admiral Elmo Zumwalt during the war.
Hackworth's last assignment in a combat/conflict zone was with Newsweek during the initial deployment of US forces into Bosnia and Herzegovina in February 1996. Hackworth joined 3-5 CAV of the 1st Brigade, 1st Armored Division near the disputed village of Brcko. Hackworth interviewed a number of officers and enlisted soldiers, reinforcing his historical tenure as a seasoned combat veteran of previous wars and as a well-known and respected journalist.
Hackworth appeared on countless televisions and radio talk shows and formed his own website, Soldiers for the Truth, continuing to be the self-proclaimed voice of the "grunts" (ground troops) until his death.
King Features Syndicate distributed Hackworth's weekly column "Defending America". Many of his columns discussed the War on Terrorism and the Iraq War and were concerned with the policies of the American leadership in conducting the wars, as well as the conditions of the soldiers serving. Hackworth continued the column until his death from bladder cancer in May 2005. Associates believe that his cancer was caused by exposure to Agent Blue (a defoliant used in Vietnam), and are lobbying the United States government to have the substance labelled a known carcinogen like the more famous Agent Orange.
Hackworth died on May 4, 2005, at the age of 74 in Tijuana, Mexico, as he was searching for alternative treatments for his bladder cancer. He was survived by his wife, Eilhys England, four children from his two previous marriages, and a stepdaughter. His remains were interred at Arlington National Cemetery.
Military decorations and awards
His military awards include:
|U.S. Badges, Patches and Tabs|
|Combat Infantryman Badge w/ one silver star (2 awards)|
|US Master Parachutist Badge|
|Army Staff Identification Badge|
|101st Airborne Division Combat Service Identification Badge|
|327th Infantry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia|
|Vietnam Master Parachutist Badge|
Ranger tab issue
In response to Hackworth's investigation of Admiral Boorda, CNN and the CBS Evening News with Dan Rather questioned the accuracy of Hackworth's own military decorations. In particular, the reports accused Hackworth of claiming a Ranger Tab to which he was not entitled and an extra Distinguished Flying Cross listed on his website. Hackworth threatened to sue CBS and requested a formal audit of his military records. In response to the military audit, the executive producer of CBS News sent a letter to Hackworth that stated:
The Army's audit of its records has determined that the Army made an administrative error back in 1988, when it reissued your medals and awards. Along with numerous other decorations, the Army mistakenly issued you a Ranger Tab and two Oak Leaf Clusters for your Distinguished Flying Cross. The Army has thus verified what we reported as your explanation of the matter.
As far as we are concerned, the Army audit makes clear that you did not at any time wear or claim any military honor not actually issued by the U.S. Army, based on its official records, including the service record you signed and dated. At the same time, CBS continues to believe that our reports did not state or imply that you knowingly wore or claimed decorations not issued by the U.S. Army and that any such inference drawn from the reports would be mistaken.
Similarly, we do not believe our reports in any way equated your conduct with that of the late Admiral Boorda's. Indeed, as we believe we made clear in our reports, by all accounts you are a man who has shown extraordinary heroism in your service to our country, and has deservedly been awarded many of the nation's most coveted awards for valor.
In 2002, Hackworth was asked about the controversy in an interview with Proceedings. In the interview, he stated:
I had served in the 8th Ranger Company; later I served in the 27th Raiders of the 25th Infantry Division. On the Raiders' tenth mission, the regimental commander awarded every trooper the Ranger Tab. When all this fell out after the Boorda story, I immediately had my records audited. And they reflected that I was awarded the Ranger Tab. It was on my official records; it's not something I claimed falsely.
Let me tell you how the regulation reads now. To rate a Ranger Tab, you had to have been awarded the Combat Infantry Badge (CIB) while a member of the 8th Ranger Company. But I got my CIB with Company G, 27th Infantry Regiment. Thus, the 1951 award of the tab did not meet the 1980s criteria. I take all the blame.
All the guys in the 27th Raiders got the Ranger Tab, but they were not Rangers. When the Boorda story exploded, people were looking for chinks in my armor. So I'm a defrocked Ranger. As it turned out, though, in the Army's vetting of my record, they found I had ten Silver Stars, not nine.
Journalism – Hackworth wrote articles for:
Hackworth was also a founder of Soldiers for the Truth, an advocacy group focused on military reform, both in terms of capability and treatment of personnel.
- "Dave Haskell Hackworth in the U.S. Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936–2007". Ancestry.com. Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, LLC. September 29, 2004. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
- Lieberman, Joseph, Senator (May 26, 2005). Congressional Record: Remarks on the Death of Colonel David Hackworth. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 11535. ISBN 9780160889400.
- Hackworth, David, About Face: The Odyssey of an American Warrior, 1990, p. 217
- See David Hackworth, About Face.
- Hackworth, David, About Face: The Odyssey of an American Warrior, 1990, pp. 324–25
- Hackworth, David About Face: The Odyssey of an American Warrior, 1990, pp. 448–49
- Austin Peay State University, Author, columnist, commentator David Hackworth to speak June 5 Archived October 11, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, May 20, 2002
- David Hackworth, About Face: The Odyssey of an American Warrior, 1990, p. 416
- Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 13–14, 23, 224.
- Mahr, "Unit's founder"
- "Unit's founder says he didn't know of atrocities," The Toledo Blade, March 28, 2004, accessed October 25, 2015. Part of The Blade's coverage of Tiger Force which won the 2004 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting.
- Sherman, Julie (April 15, 1990). About Face: The Odyssey of an American Warrior. California: Touchstone. ISBN 0671695347.
- Mahr, Joe (October 31, 2003). "Army brass let Hackworth retire despite host of alleged misdeeds". Toledo Blade. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
- "Beneath The Waves". Newsweek. May 26, 1996.
- Hackworth, Ellis England. "Bells for a Fallen Hero". Soldiers for the Truth website.
- Carlson, Michael (May 8, 2005). "Obituary, David Hackworth: Unorthodox Vietnam commander immortalised in Apocalypse Now". The Guardian. London, United Kingdom.
- "Military Awards". Hackworth.com. Archived from the original on October 5, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- McIntyre, Jamie (May 16, 1997). "Hackworth says error doesn't compare to Boorda suicide case". CNN. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- Shenon, Philip (May 16, 1997). "Accuser on Admiral's Medals Faces Scrutiny About His Own". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- "Hack's Medal Flap with CBS". Hackworth.com. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- Hackworth, Col David H. (December 2002). "Look Truth Right in the Eye". Proceedings (Interview). Interviewed by Fred L. Schultz and Gordon Keiser. Military.com. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- Holley, Joe (May 6, 2005). "David Hackworth Dies; Esteemed Army Colonel Defied Military Brass". The Washington Post. p. B07. Retrieved February 1, 2009.
- Smith, W. Thomas, Jr. (May 12, 2005). "David Hackworth: Unforgettable Soldier". Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to David Hackworth.|
- Stand for the Troops
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Review of 'About Face' in US Army War College Parameters magazine, December, 1989
- Slate article, Newsweek's Major Embarrassment: He's called Col. Hackworth, November, 1996
- Inspector General Military Assistance Command Vietnam – Report of Investigation of Colonel David Hackworth, 16 January 1971