David K. E. Bruce
David K. E. Bruce
|10th United States Ambassador to NATO|
October 17, 1974 – February 12, 1976
|Appointed by||Gerald Ford|
|Preceded by||Donald Rumsfeld|
|Succeeded by||Robert Strausz-Hupé|
|Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office to the People's Republic of China|
May 14, 1973 – September 25, 1974
|Preceded by||Diplomatic relations established|
|Succeeded by||George H. W. Bush|
|United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom|
March 17, 1961 – March 20, 1969
|President||John F. Kennedy|
Lyndon B. Johnson
|Preceded by||John Hay Whitney|
|Succeeded by||Walter Annenberg|
|United States Ambassador to Germany|
April 17, 1957 – October 29, 1959
|President||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|Preceded by||James B. Conant|
|Succeeded by||Walter C. Dowling|
|United States Ambassador to France|
May 17, 1949 – March 10, 1952
|President||Harry S. Truman|
|Preceded by||Jefferson Caffery|
|Succeeded by||James Clement Dunn|
|United States Under Secretary of State|
April 1, 1952 – January 20, 1953
|Preceded by||James E. Webb|
|Succeeded by||Walter B. Smith|
David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce
February 12, 1898
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
|Died||December 5, 1977 (aged 79)|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
(m. 1926; div. 1945)
|Education||University of Maryland Law School|
David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce (February 12, 1898 – December 5, 1977) was an American diplomat, intelligence officer and politician. He served as ambassador to France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom, the only American to be all three.
Bruce was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to William Cabell Bruce and Louise Este (Fisher) Bruce (1864–1945). One of his three brothers was James Cabell Bruce. He studied for a year and a half at Princeton University. He dropped out to serve in the United States Army during World War I. At parental insistence, he then attended the University of Virginia School of Law (1919–1920) and the University of Maryland School of Law (1920–1921) without taking a degree before being admitted to the Maryland bar in November 1921.
During World War II, Bruce headed the Europe branch of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), a precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which was based in London and coordinated espionage activities behind enemy lines for the United States Armed Forces branches. Other OSS functions included the use of propaganda, subversion, and post-war planning. He observed the invasion of Normandy landing there the day after the initial invasion.
After leaving the OSS at the end of World War II, and before entering the diplomatic field, in 1948–1949 David Bruce was with the Economic Cooperation Administration which administered the Marshall Plan. It was during this time that David Bruce and his new 2nd wife became an early member of the informal Georgetown Set within D.C.
Bruce, as a member of the new President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities, wrote a secret report on the CIA's covert operations for President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956 that was highly critical of its operation under Allen Dulles's leadership.
He served as the United States Ambassador to France from 1949 to 1952, United States Ambassador to West Germany from 1957 to 1959, and United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1961 to 1969. He was an American envoy at the Paris peace talks between the United States and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. Bruce also served as the first United States emissary to the People's Republic of China from 1973 to 1974. He was the ambassador to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization from late 1974 to 1976.
President John F. Kennedy (1961–1963) appointed Bruce as ambassador to the Court of St James's (i.e. the United Kingdom). After Kennedy's death President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–1969) kept Bruce but ignored all his recommendations. Bruce sought closer ties with Britain and greater European unity. Bruce's reports regarding Britain's financial condition were pessimistic and alarmist. With regard to Vietnam, Bruce privately questioned U.S. involvement and constantly urged the Johnson administration to allow Britain more of a role in bringing the conflict to an end.
Personal life and death
On May 29, 1926, Bruce married Ailsa Mellon, the daughter of the banker and diplomat Andrew W. Mellon. They divorced on April 20, 1945. Their only daughter, Audrey, and her husband, Stephen Currier, were presumed dead when a plane in which they were flying in the Caribbean disappeared on January 17, 1967, after requesting permission to fly over Culebra, a U. S. Navy installation. No trace of the plane, pilot, or passengers was ever found. Audrey and Stephen Currier left three children: Andrea, Lavinia, and Michael.
He married Evangeline Bell (1914–1995) on April 23, 1945, three days after his divorce. She was a granddaughter of Sir Herbert Conyers Surtees, a niece of Sir Patrick Ramsay, a stepdaughter of Ambassador Sir James Leishman Dodds, and the elder sister of Virginia Surtees (who married, and divorced, Sir Henry Ashley Clarke, the British Ambassador to Italy). They had two sons and one daughter, Alexandra (called Sasha). Alexandra died under mysterious circumstances (possibly murder or suicide) in 1975 at age 29 at the Bruce family home in Virginia.
Bruce purchased and restored Staunton Hill, his family's former estate in Charlotte County, Virginia.
Bruce received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with Distinction, in 1976.
The David K.E. Bruce Award was established in 2007 at the American School in London.
Bruce wrote a book of biographical essays on the American presidents originally published as Seven Pillars of the Republic (1936). He later expanded it as Revolution to Reconstruction (1939) and again revised it as Sixteen American Presidents (1962).
- "The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Bruce".
- "Bruce, David Kirkpatrick Este | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
- Harry S. Truman Library-Oral History of David K.E. Bruce
- Bio data
- David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce; Nelson D. Lankford (January 1991). OSS Against the Reich: The World War II Diaries of Colonel David K.E. Bruce. Kent State University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-87338-427-8.
- Tim Weiner, The Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (London: Allen Lane, 2007), p. 133.
- "David Bruce, 75, Selected To Head Office in Peking". The New York Times. March 16, 1973. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
President Nixon announced today that he had recalled Ambassador David K. E. Bruce from retirement to head a United States liaison office in Peking.
- School Web site Archived December 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 20, 2010.
- Jonathan Colman, "The London Ambassadorship of David KE Bruce During the Wilson-Johnson Years, 1964–68." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15.2 (2004): 327-352. online
- Pitz, Marylynne (November 15, 2009). "Ailsa Mellon Bruce's artworks part of Carnegie collection". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
In 1926, the beautiful, reserved and stubborn young woman married David K. E. Bruce, a talented lawyer and the son of Maryland Sen. William C. Bruce. For wedding presents, A.W. Mellon gave his daughter a pearl necklace valued at $100,000 and a 200-acre estate in Syosset, Long Island.
- Barron, James (December 14, 1995). "Evangeline Bruce, 77, Hostess Known for Washington Soirees". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Owens, Mitchell (March 16, 1995). "AT HOME WITH: Evangeline Bruce; The Improbable Author". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- "Virginia Surtees, scholar of Pre-Raphaelite art – obituary". The Telegraph. October 25, 2017 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- Nation: A Gothic Romance in Old Virginia
- Public Service and Private Pain
- "U.S. envoy David Bruce is dead at 79". Chicago Tribune. December 6, 1977. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
David K. E. Bruce, a veteran American diplomat who served in a variety of posts including mainland China, died of a heart attack Monday at Georgetown University Medical Center. He was 79.
|Presentation by Nelson Lankford on The Last American Aristocrat, August 23, 1996, C-SPAN|
- Colman, Jonathan. "The London Ambassadorship of David KE Bruce During the Wilson-Johnson Years, 1964–68." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15.2 (2004): 327-352. online
- Lankford, Nelson D. The Last American Aristocrat: The Biography of David K. E. Bruce, 1898–1977 (1996).
- Lankford, Nelson D., ed. OSS against the Reich: The World War II Diaries of Colonel David K. E. Bruce (1991).
- Young, John W. "David K. E. Bruce, 1961–69." in The Embassy in Grosvenor Square (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2012), 153-170.
- First Chapter of 'The Last American Aristocrat' published by the Washington Post with permission of the author
- Review of the book, "The Last American Aristocrat" from The Washington Monthly magazine
- Oral history interview with David K. E. Bruce, 1 March 1972, at the Truman Presidential Museum and Library
- David K. E. Bruce's archives at the "Fondation Jean Monnet"