David Henry Peter Maybury-Lewis (May 5, 1929 – December 2, 2007) was an anthropologist, ethnologist of lowland South America, activist for indigenous peoples' human rights and professor emeritus of Harvard University.
Born in Hyderabad, Sindh (now in Pakistan), Maybury-Lewis attended Oxford University, at which he earned a D.Phil. In 1960, he joined the Harvard faculty, and was Edward C. Henderson Professor of Anthropology there from 1966 until he retired in 2004. His extensive ethnographic fieldwork was conducted primarily among indigenous peoples in central Brazil, which culminated in his ethnography among the Xavante, as well as post-modernist renditions. In 1972, he co-founded with his wife Pia Cultural Survival, the leading U.S. based advocacy and documentation organization devoted to "promoting the rights, voices and visions of indigenous peoples."
- Former president of the American Ethnological Society
- Grand Cross of the Brazilian Order of Scientific Merit, Brazil's highest academic honor, in 1997
- Anders Retzius gold medal of the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography, in 1998
- Akwẽ-Shavante Society (1974) ISBN 0-19-519729-1
- Dialectical Societies: The Ge and Bororo of Central Brazil (1979) ISBN 0-674-20285-6
- Prospects for Plural Societies: 1982 Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society (1984) ISBN 0-942976-04-5
- The Attraction of Opposites: Thought and Society in the Dualistic Mode (1989) ISBN 0-472-08086-5
- Millennium: Tribal Wisdom and the Modern World (1992) ISBN 0-670-82935-8
- The Savage and the Innocent (2000) ISBN 0-8070-4685-X
- Indigenous Peoples, Ethnic Groups, and the State (2001) ISBN 0-205-33746-5
- The Politics of Ethnicity:Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States (2003) ISBN 0-674-00964-9
- Cultural Survival
- Prins, Harald E.L., and Graham, Laura. 2008. “Pioneer in Brazilian Ethnography & Indigenous Rights Advocacy: David Maybury-Lewis (1929-2007).” Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America, Vol.6 (No.1-2), pp. 115–22.