Page semi-protected

David Miscavige

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

David Miscavige
David Miscavige - Portrait.jpg
Miscavige in 2011
Born (1960-04-30) April 30, 1960 (age 62)
OccupationChairman of the Board, Religious Technology Center
OrganizationChurch of Scientology
(m. 1982)
RelativesJenna Miscavige Hill (niece)
WebsiteOfficial website

David Miscavige (/mɪˈskævɪ/; born April 30, 1960)[1] is the leader of the Church of Scientology and, according to the organization, "Captain of the Sea Org".[2] His official title within the organization is Chairman of the Board of the Religious Technology Center (RTC), a corporation that controls the trademarks and copyrights of Dianetics and Scientology. Miscavige was a deputy to Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard as a teenager. He joined the Sea Org, a management group for the Scientology organization, then later went on to join the Commodore's Messenger Organization, a group within the Sea Org that carried Hubbard's orders to subordinates.[3] He rose to a leadership position by the early 1980s and was named "Chairman of the Board" of RTC in 1987, the year after Hubbard's death.[4] Official Church of Scientology biographies describe Miscavige as "the ecclesiastical leader of the Scientology religion".[3][5][6]

Since he assumed his leadership position, there have been a number of allegations made against Miscavige. These include claims of human trafficking, child abuse, slavery, forced separation of family members, coercive fundraising practices, harassment of journalists and Church of Scientology critics, and emotional and physical abuse of subordinates by Miscavige. Miscavige and spokespersons for the organization deny the majority of these claims, often making derogatory comments and attacking the credibility of those who bring them.[7][8][9][10][11]

Miscavige has been investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation due to allegations of criminal activities within the Scientology organization.[12][13] He is named as a defendant in numerous lawsuits involving his role in the organization.[22] The most recent lawsuit, filed in April 2022, refers to repeated sexual assault of children by senior Scientology officials in the Sea Org during Miscavige's leadership. The case also involves allegations of human trafficking, forced labor, and other forms of child abuse.[19][20][21]

Early life

David Miscavige was born in 1960 in Bristol Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania,[23] to the Roman Catholic Polish-Italian family of Ronald and Loretta Miscavige.[24] Miscavige and his twin sister, Denise, were raised primarily in Willingboro Township, New Jersey.[6][25]

As a child, Miscavige played baseball and football, but he suffered from asthma and severe allergies.[26] His father, a trumpet player, became interested in Scientology, and he sent the younger Miscavige to see a Scientologist. According to both father and son, a 45-minute Dianetics session cured his ailments.

Miscavige's family joined the Church of Scientology in 1971 and eventually moved to the organization's world headquarters in Saint Hill Manor, England.[24] By the age of twelve, Miscavige was conducting Scientology auditing sessions.[6] Saint Hill served as his own training ground as an auditor, and he is remembered by the organization as the "12-year-old prodigy" who became the youngest professional Scientology auditor.[27] The family returned to Philadelphia within a few years, where Miscavige attended Marple Newtown High School.[24]

In 1976, on his sixteenth birthday, Miscavige left high school with his father's permission to move to Clearwater, Florida and joined the Sea Org, a Scientologist organization established in 1968 by founder L. Ron Hubbard.[24][28] Some of his earliest jobs in the Sea Org included delivering telexes, groundskeeping, food service and taking photographs for Scientology brochures.[24] Miscavige then joined an elite group of young Scientologists in the Sea Org called the Commodore's Messenger Organization (CMO), which Hubbard had established to carry out his personal errands and deliver executive directives to Scientology management, but as they grew into adolescence, their power and influence within the Sea Org increased.[29][30][31]

Early roles in Scientology

L. Ron Hubbard, science fiction author and founder of Scientology, appointed Miscavige as an assistant and groomed him for leadership.

By 1977, Miscavige was living in La Quinta, California and working directly under Hubbard as a cameraman for Scientology training films.[28] Hubbard appointed Miscavige to the CMO, responsible for enforcing Hubbard's policies within the individual Scientology organizations; Miscavige became head of the CMO in 1979.[28] By 1980, Hubbard was no longer appearing at public functions related to Scientology, and by some accounts Miscavige took effective control of the organization at this time.[32] In 1981, Miscavige was placed in charge of the Watchdog Committee and the All Clear Unit, with the task of handling the various legal claims against Hubbard. He also became in charge of Author Services, Inc., an entity to manage Hubbard's literary and financial affairs, which was established in the same year.[33]

Sea Org succession

By age of 19, Miscavige headed the Commodore's Messenger Organization, responsible for sending out teams to investigate problem areas within the Scientology organization.[34] In 1987, the year after Hubbard's death, he became the Captain of the Sea Org, which gave him absolute authority over the Sea Org command structure and all Sea Org orgs.[4]

Operation Snow White

After the Guardian's Office's (GO) criminal involvement in Operation Snow White, Miscavige persuaded Mary Sue Hubbard to resign from the GO and purged several top GO officials through ethics proceedings.[35] The St. Petersburg Times, in a 1998 article "The Man Behind Scientology", says: "During two heated encounters, Miscavige persuaded Mary Sue Hubbard to resign. Together they composed a letter to Scientologists confirming her decision – all without ever talking to L. Ron Hubbard."[24] She subsequently changed her mind, believing that she had been tricked.[36] Despite this, Miscavige claims he and Mary Sue Hubbard remained friends thereafter.[37]

Corporate restructuring

In 1982, Miscavige set up a new organizational structure to release Hubbard from personal liability and to handle the Scientology founder's personal wealth through a corporate entity outside of the Scientology organization.[28] He established the Religious Technology Center (RTC), in charge of licensing Scientology's intellectual property, and Author Services Inc. to manage the proceeds.[35] Miscavige has held the title of chairman of the board of the RTC since the organization's founding.[3] The Church of Spiritual Technology (CST) was created at the same time with an option to repurchase all of RTC's intellectual property rights.[35] In a 1982 probate case, Ronald DeWolf, Hubbard's estranged son, accused Miscavige of embezzling from and manipulating his father. Hubbard denied this in a written statement, saying that his business affairs were being well managed by Author Services Inc., of which Miscavige was also chairman of the board. In the same document, Hubbard called Miscavige a "trusted associate" and "good friend" who had kept his affairs in good order. A judge ruled the statement was authentic.[38] The case was dismissed on June 27, 1983.[37]

In October 1982, Miscavige required Scientology Missions to enter new trademark usage contracts which established stricter policies on the use of Scientology materials.[33][39] Over the two years following the formation of the RTC, Miscavige and his team replaced most of Scientology's upper and middle management.[40] A number of those ousted attempted to establish breakaway organizations, such as the Advanced Ability Center led by David Mayo, a former RTC board member who had also been Hubbard's personal auditor.[40][41] The Advanced Ability Center closed in 1984, two years after opening.[40]

1986 – 2009: Leadership of Scientology organization

When Hubbard died in 1986, Miscavige announced Hubbard's death to Scientologists at the Hollywood Palladium.[42] Shortly before Hubbard died, an apparent order from him circulated in the Sea Org that promoted Scientologist Pat Broeker and his wife to the new rank of Loyal Officer, making them the highest-ranking members; Miscavige asserted this order had been forged.[43] After Hubbard's death, Miscavige assumed the position of head of the Church of Scientology and, according to the organization, "ecclesiastical leader of the Scientology religion".[44] Within the Scientology organization Miscavige is given the title of "Captain of the Sea Organization", and is its highest-ranking member.[2]

Since Miscavige assumed his leadership role in Scientology, there have been numerous accounts of illegal and unethical practices by the Church of Scientology and by Miscavige himself. A 1991 Time magazine cover story, "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power", described Miscavige as "ringleader" of a "hugely profitable global racket that survives by intimidating members and critics in a Mafia-like manner".[5] Miscavige stated in a 1992 interview on Nightline—his only live televised interview to date—that the publication of the article resulted from a request by Eli Lilly, because of "the damage we had caused to their killer drug Prozac".[45] The Scientology organization filed a suit against Lilly, J. Walter Thompson, Hill & Knowlton and the WPP Group. The case was settled for an undisclosed amount.[46] The Scientology organization also brought a libel lawsuit against the piece's publisher Time Warner and its author Richard Behar, seeking damages of $416 million.[47][48] All counts of the suit were dismissed by the court, and the dismissal upheld when the Scientology organization appealed.[49][50] Similar lawsuits in Switzerland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Germany were dismissed as groundless.[51]

In 1987, the BBC Panorama program Scientology: The Road to Total Freedom? featured an interview with former member Don Larson, who described Miscavige's physical violence towards a staff member.[52] In a 1995 interview for ITV, Stacy Young, Miscavige's former secretary and the ex-wife of Hubbard's former spokesman, Robert Vaughn Young, asserted that Miscavige emotionally tormented staff members on a regular basis. "His viciousness and his cruelty to staff was unlike anything that I had ever experienced in my life", she said. "He just loved to degrade the staff."[53]

Though Miscavige and Scientology have been the subject of much press attention, he has rarely spoken directly to the press. Exceptions include the 1992 interview on Nightline,[54] a 1998 newspaper interview with the St. Petersburg Times,[55] and a 1998 appearance in an A&E Investigative Reports installment called "Inside Scientology".[56][54]

Relationship with the IRS

In 1991, Miscavige, together with Marty Rathbun, visited the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) headquarters in Washington, D.C. to arrange a meeting with Commissioner Fred T. Goldberg, Jr. For more than two decades, the IRS had refused to recognize Scientology as a nonprofit charitable organization. Prior to this meeting, Scientology had filed more than fifty lawsuits against the IRS and, according to The New York Times:

"Scientology's lawyers hired private investigators to dig into the private lives of IRS officials and to conduct surveillance operations to uncover potential vulnerabilities... [and] taken documents from an I.R.S. conference and sent them to church [sic] officials and created a phony news bureau in Washington to gather information on church [sic] critics. The church [sic] also financed an organization of I.R.S. whistle-blowers that attacked the agency publicly."[57]

At the meeting with Commissioner Goldberg, Miscavige offered to cease Scientology's suits against the IRS in exchange for tax exemptions.[57] This led to a two-year negotiating process, in which IRS tax analysts were ordered to ignore the substantive issues because the issues had been resolved prior to review. In 1992 Scientology was granted recognition as a nonprofit organization in the U.S., which creates a tax exemption for the Church of Scientology International and its subsidiaries, and tax deductions for those who contribute to their programs.[6][57] Senior Scientology officials and the IRS later issued a statement that the ruling was based on a two-year inquiry and voluminous documents that, they said, showed the organization was qualified for the exemptions.[57]

To announce the settlement with the IRS, Miscavige gathered a reported 10,000 members of Scientology in the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena, where he delivered a two-and-a-half-hour address and proclaimed, "The war is over!"[6][57] The crowd gave Miscavige an ovation that lasted more than ten minutes.[58]

Church of Scientology initiatives

According to the Scientology organization, Miscavige initiated a long-term project of issuing unreleased and corrected editions of Hubbard's books and restoring L. Ron Hubbard lectures, including translating many works into other languages. Another initiative by Miscavige, launched in 2003, is to build new or remodeled Scientology locations, called "Ideal Orgs",[59] in every major city in the world. Since then, over seventy[60][61] new or remodelled locations have been opened, including facilities in Washington, D.C.,[62] Madrid, New York City, London, Berlin,[63] Mexico City,[64] Rome,[65] Tel Aviv,[66] Atlanta,[67] Miami,[68] and San Diego.[69]

As Chairman of the Board of the RTC, Miscavige works primarily from Scientology's Gold Base near Hemet, California.[28][70][71] Scientologists often refer to him as "DM", or "C.O.B.", for chairman of the board.[33][72] In their 2007 book, Extraordinary Groups: An Examination of Unconventional Lifestyles, W. W. Zellner and Richard T. Schaefer noted that, "David Miscavige has been the driving force behind the Church of Scientology for the past two decades" and that, "Miscavige's biography and speeches are second only to Hubbard in dominating the official Scientology Web site."[6]

Flag Building

The Flag Building in Clearwater, Florida is one of Miscavige's flagship projects. The building contains a Sea Org museum and training facilities.

One of the largest projects of Miscavige's career is the Flag Building, originally called the "Super Power Building", which is described as the spiritual headquarters of the Scientology organization.[73] It is the largest of Scientology's properties in Clearwater, Florida. The 377,000 square foot structure[74] is reportedly outfitted with custom-built equipment designed to administer the supposedly perception-enhancing "Super Power Rundown" to high-level Scientologists.[75][76] The building was scheduled for completion in 2003, but underwent ten years of delays and re-designs as Scientology completed two other major construction and restoration projects in the same area ahead of it, the Fort Harrison Hotel and the Oak Cove Hotel.[77] Miscavige inaugurated the Flag Building on November 17, 2013.[78][79]

2009 – present: Criminal investigation and subsequent lawsuits

Miscavige in Amsterdam, 2017

In 2009, the St. Petersburg Times published a series titled "The Truth Rundown", which featured allegations by former high-ranking executives of Scientology that Miscavige had repeatedly humiliated and physically beaten his staff, and had confined Church of Scientology staff members in degrading conditions in a property owned by the organization known as "The Hole".[10][70] The series included interviews with Mike Rinder, former official spokesperson for the Church of Scientology and director of the organizations's Office of Special Affairs, and Mark Rathbun, the former Inspector General of the RTC. Rinder has said that he was physically assaulted by Miscavige on about fifty occasions.[10] These allegations have been supported by other former Scientologists: Lawrence Wright, author of Going Clear, interviewed twelve individuals who reported having been personally attacked by Miscavige and twenty-one people who say they have witnessed such attacks.[80] Scientology denies all of these reports.[81]

"Inside Scientology: The Truth Rundown" was recognized with journalistic honors, including the 2010 Gold Medal for Public Service award from the Florida Society of News Editors.[82][83][84][85] The series was cited as a basis for subsequent journalistic investigations, including a weeklong series hosted on CNN by Anderson Cooper. In an incident also witnessed and supported by Amy Scobee,[86] Jeff Hawkins, a former marketing guru for Scientology, said he had attended a meeting where Miscavige "jumped up on the conference room table, like with his feet right on the conference room table, launched himself across the table at me — I was standing — battered my face, and then shoved me down on the floor".[87]

Scientology representatives have consistently denied abuse by Miscavige, insisting that the allegations come from apostates motivated by bitterness or attempting to extract money from the organization.[10][81][88][89] Hawkins' claims were responded to by Scientology when he reiterated them in a documentary, saying they were "fabricated" and referring to him as "a discredited anti-Scientology media source".[90] Scientology executive David Bloomberg said that it was Hawkins who attacked Miscavige.[86] Miscavige sent an open letter to the newspaper challenging the integrity of the reporters and labeling their sources as "lying", after the persons in question had been removed from the Scientology organization for what Miscavige described as "fundamental crimes against the Scientology religion".[8] Scientology also commissioned an independent review of the Times's reporting, but have not, to date, released those findings.[91][92]

Miscavige is portrayed within Scientology as "a servant of Hubbard's message, not an agent in his own right".[93] Official Scientology websites describe him as Hubbard's "trusted friend".[94] Miscavige uses Church publications as well as professionally produced videos of gala events, at which he acts as master of ceremonies, to communicate with Scientologists worldwide.[58] According to the organization, as the RTC's chairman of the board his primary task is to "preserve, maintain and protect" the Scientology organization.[95]

In 2012, Miscavige opened Scientology's "National Affairs Office" in Washington, D.C., which he declared to be, "An office designed to give back to a United States government that steadfastly guaranteed our religious rights, the very freedom that allows us to do what we are doing today."[96] Scientology says the National Affairs Office was built "to oversee programs around the country and the world dealing with human rights, drug addiction, literacy and disaster response".[97]

FBI investigation

In his role as the leader of Scientology, Miscavige has been the subject of law enforcement investigations, including by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, into suspected human trafficking, and slavery.[12][13] He is also the subject of ongoing lawsuits involving child abuse, human trafficking, and forced labor. He was investigated as part of wide-ranging investigation into Scientology by the FBI in 2009–2010. It focused particularly on criminal activities at the organization's de facto headquarters near San Jacinto, California, against which the FBI had planned a raid before the investigation was discontinued.[12][13][98]

Scientology Network

Scientology launched the Scientology Network, a DIRECTV broadcast and OTT streaming service on March 12, 2018, with Miscavige introducing its inaugural broadcast in a rare on-camera appearance.[99][100][101][102] The network is produced by Scientology Media Productions in Los Angeles, a facility opened by the organization in May 2016. Addressing the crowd at the SMP opening, Miscavige called the channel, "Our uncorrupted communication line to the billions. Because as the saying goes, if you don't write your own story, someone else will."[103][104][105][106]

Abuse lawsuits

An individual who was raised as a Scientologist and joined the Sea Org had been assigned as Miscavige's personal steward at the age of fifteen. She filed suit against the Scientology organization and Miscavige in 2019.[14][15][16] The lawsuit also alleged kidnapping, stalking, libel, slander, constructive invasion of privacy and intentional infliction of emotional distress.[107] Lawyers for the Scientology organization convinced a judge to move the case to internal Scientology arbitration in January 2020.[108]

Miscavige is named in a lawsuit involving a series of alleged rapes by Danny Masterson, and subsequent efforts by the Scientology organization to harass the three women accusing Masterson.[17] The organization's lawyers had tried to force the case into the organization's own arbitration, similar to the case in 2020, but this failed following a three-judge ruling in January 2022.[109][18]

Three former Scientology workers filed a lawsuit for human trafficking and peonage of children as young as six years old, against Miscavige and the organization in April 2022.[19][20][21] The lawsuit also alleges repeated sexual assault of children by senior members of the Sea Org, of which Miscavige was leader at the time and remains so to the present.[19][21]

Personal life


Miscavige is married to fellow Sea Org member Michele Diane "Shelly" Miscavige, who has not been seen in public since August 2007.[110] Multiple sources have alleged she disappeared from Gold Base shortly after she "filled several job vacancies without her husband's permission".[111] In July 2012, responding to press accounts of speculation on Shelly's whereabouts, lawyers who said they represented her informed two UK newspapers that "she is not missing and devotes her time to the work of the Church of Scientology".[112] In 2013, in the Los Angeles Times, Andrew Blankstein reported, based on anonymous sources from the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), that the department had closed their investigation following a missing-persons report filed by former Scientologist and actress Leah Remini, having "located and spoke[n]" to Shelly Miscavige.[113] The LAPD declined to answer questions about the details of the report.[114] Lawrence Wright reports that "former Sea Org members" say Shelly is being held under guard at Gold Base.[80]

Family and relatives

Miscavige's elder brother Ronald Miscavige Jr. served as an executive in the Sea Org for a time,[43] but left Scientology in 2000.[115] Miscavige's twin sister, Denise Licciardi, was hired by major Scientology donor Bryan Zwan as a top executive for the Clearwater, Florida-based company Digital Lightwave, where she was linked to an accounting scandal.[116][117] Ronald Jr.'s daughter Jenna Miscavige Hill, niece of David Miscavige, remained in the Sea Org until 2005. She has since become an outspoken critic of Scientology, publishing a book about her experiences in 2013. In the book, titled Beyond Belief: My Secret Life Inside Scientology And My Harrowing Escape, she stated that her grandfather Ronald Miscavige Sr. left the Church of Scientology in 2012 and is living with her father in Virginia.[118]

In July 2013, Wisconsin police confronted Dwayne S. Powell after a suspicious person report. Powell said he had been hired at $10,000 a week to conduct full-time surveillance on the elder Miscavige for Scientology, which he said he had been doing for over a year. Los Angeles Times reporter Kim Christensen reports that David Miscavige and Scientology denied any connection to Powell. Gary Soter, a Church attorney, stated that the allegations were "blatantly false".[119][120] Powell told police that on one occasion, he witnessed what he believed to be Ronald Sr. undergoing cardiac arrest. According to Powell, after immediately reporting the perceived emergency to his superiors, he received a call for further instructions from a man who identified himself as David Miscavige. According to the police report, Powell was instructed not to intervene in any way. Church of Scientology spokesperson Karin Pouw asserted in an email that "no such conversation with Mr. Miscavige ever took place."[119][120][121] Ron Miscavige and Dan Koon wrote Ruthless: Scientology, My Son David Miscavige, and Me, which was published in May 2016.[122]

Friendship with Tom Cruise

Miscavige is a close friend to actor Tom Cruise[9] and served as best man at Cruise's wedding to Katie Holmes.[123]

See also


  1. ^ Ortega, Tony (April 30, 2018). "David Miscavige turns 58 today, and we're celebrating with tales of birthdays past". The Underground Bunker. Tony Ortega. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  2. ^ a b Reitman, Janet (July 5, 2011). Inside Scientology. ISBN 978-0547549231.
  3. ^ a b c Christensen, Dorthe Refund (2004). "Inventing L. Ron Hubbard". In James R. Lewis (scholar) (ed.). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 247. ISBN 0-19-515683-8.
  4. ^ a b Young, Robert Vaughn (November–December 1993). "Scientology from inside out". Quill Magazine. 81 (9).
  5. ^ a b Behar, Richard (May 6, 1991). "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power". Time. Archived from the original on February 20, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Zellner, William W.; Richard T. Schaefer (2007). "David Miscavige". In William W. Zellner (ed.). Extraordinary Groups: An Examination of Unconventional Lifestyles (8th ed.). Worth Publishers. pp. 285–286. ISBN 978-0-7167-7034-3.
  7. ^ "Ex-members spar with Scientology over beating allegations". CNN. March 30, 2010. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  8. ^ a b Joe Childs, Thomas C. Tobin (June 23, 2009). "A letter from David Miscavige". St Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
  9. ^ a b Hoffman, Claire (December 18, 2005). "Tom Cruise and Scientology". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d Joe Childs, Thomas C. Tobin (June 23, 2009). "The Truth Run Down". St Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
  11. ^ Joe Childs, Thomas C. Tobin (June 23, 2009). "Inside Scientology: A Times Investigation". St Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  12. ^ a b c Swaine, Jon (February 8, 2011). "Church of Scientology investigated by FBI". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group.
  13. ^ a b c Wright, Lawrence (February 7, 2011). "Paul Haggis vs. the Church of Scientology". The New Yorker. New York: Condé Nast.
  14. ^ a b Riotta, Chris (June 20, 2019). "Church of Scientology accused of child abuse and human trafficking in new lawsuit". The Independent. London: Independent Digital News & Media.
  15. ^ a b Johnson, Alex (June 20, 2019). "Ex-Scientologist sues church and its leader alleging abuse, human trafficking". NBC News. Los Angeles: NBCUniversal.
  16. ^ a b Dickson, E. J. (June 21, 2019). "Church of Scientology Lawsuit Alleges Abuse and Human Trafficking". Rolling Stone. New York: Penske Media Corporation.
  17. ^ a b Abcarian, Robin (May 29, 2021). "How the Church of Scientology hopes to quash a lawsuit by Danny Masterson's accusers". Los Angeles Times. LA Times Communications.
  18. ^ a b Netburn, Deborah (January 21, 2022). "Appeals court says accusers' case against Church of Scientology can proceed". Los Angeles Times. LA Times Communications.
  19. ^ a b c d McManus, Tracey (April 28, 2022). "3 former Scientology workers sue, saying they were trafficked as children". Tampa Bay Times. St. Petersburg, FL: Times Publishing Company.
  20. ^ a b c Schneiders, Ben (April 28, 2022). "Scientology accused of child trafficking, forced labour of Australians". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney: Nine Entertainment.
  21. ^ a b c d Bolado, Carolina (May 2, 2022). "Ex-Scientologists Sue Church Claiming Forced Labor, Abuse - Law360". Law360. New York: LexisNexis.
  22. ^ [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]
  23. ^ Nark, Jason. "Father of Scientology's leader: 'I lost my family'". The (Philadelphia) Inquirer. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Thomas C. Tobin (October 25, 1998). "The man behind Scientology, part 2". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved August 27, 2007.
  25. ^ Nark, Jason. "From here to Scientology: Worldwide leader David Miscavige's Philly-area roots", The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 3, 2012. Accessed April 9, 2013. "Miscavige's middle-class Catholic upbringing in Willingboro, N.J., abruptly changed four decades ago when his childhood asthma led the family to another utopian vision – that of L. Ron Hubbard."
  26. ^ Nark, J. (January 3, 2012). "From here to Scientology: Worldwide leader David Miscavige's Philly-area roots". McClatchy – Tribune Business News. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
  27. ^ Nark, Jason. "From here to Scientology: Worldwide leader David Miscavige's Philly-area roots". Retrieved November 23, 2015.
  28. ^ a b c d e Times Staff Writer (June 20, 2009). "David Miscavige bio, and bios of Scientology officials who defected". St. Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on August 8, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  29. ^ Sappell, J., & Welkos, R. W. (June 24, 1990). The man in control series: The scientology story. today: The making of L. ron hubbard. first in a six-part series.NEXT: Part two-- the selling of scientology. Los Angeles Times (Pre-1997 Fulltext)
  30. ^ Miller, Russell (1987). "18. Messengers of God". Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard (First American ed.). New York: Henry Holt & Co. pp. 301–304. ISBN 0-8050-0654-0.
  31. ^ Atack, Jon. "A Piece Of Blue Sky - Part 6, Chapter 1: The Commodore's Messengers 1977-1982". Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  32. ^ Chryssides, George D. (2006). The A to Z of New Religious Movements. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 163. ISBN 0-8108-5588-7.
  33. ^ a b c Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W. (June 24, 1990). "The Man In Control". Los Angeles Times. p. A41:4. Retrieved June 6, 2006.
  34. ^ Miscavige 2016, pp. 105.
  35. ^ a b c Lamont, Stewart (1986). Religion Inc.: The Church of Scientology. London: Harrap. p. 95. ISBN 0-245-54334-1.
  36. ^ Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky. New York: Carol Publishing Group. pp. 266–7. ISBN 0-8184-0499-X.
  37. ^ a b Miller, Russell (1987). Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard (First American ed.). New York: Henry Holt & Co. pp. 305–306, 369. ISBN 0-8050-0654-0.
  38. ^ "The man behind Scientology". Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  39. ^ "Mystery of the Vanished Ruler". Time. January 31, 1983. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
  40. ^ a b c Nordhausen, Frank; von Billerbeck, Liane (2008), Scientology. Wie der Sektenkonzern die Welt erobern will (in German), Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag, pp. 278, 288, 302, ISBN 978-3-86153-470-9
  41. ^ Abgrall, Jean-Marie (1999). Soul Snatchers: The Mechanics of Cults. Algora Publishing. p. 294. ISBN 978-1-892941-04-6.
  42. ^ American Society of Magazine Editors (2007). The Best American Magazine Writing 2007. Columbia University Press. pp. 311, 323. ISBN 978-0-231-14391-2. {{cite book}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  43. ^ a b Atack, Jon (1990). "Chapter Four—The Young Rulers". A Piece of Blue Sky. Lyle Stuart. pp. 362, 448. ISBN 0-8184-0499-X.
  44. ^ Gallagher, Eugene V.; W. Michael Ashcraft (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. Greenwood. pp. 98, 120, 173. ISBN 0-275-98717-5.
  45. ^ "Scientology Leader Gave ABC First-Ever Interview". ABC News. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  46. ^ Garcia, Wayne (July 7, 1994). "Church of Scientology settles suit with PR firm". St. Petersburg Times.
  47. ^ Frantz, Douglas (March 9, 1997). "An Ultra-Aggressive Use of Investigators and the Courts". The New York Times. p. 31. Retrieved October 25, 2007.
  48. ^ Kumar, J.P. (Summer 1997). ""Fair Game": Leveling the Playing Field in Scientology Litigation". The Review of Litigation. 16: 747.
  49. ^ "Court Passes on Scientology Libel Case". Associated Press. October 1, 2001.
  50. ^ Staff (January 13, 2001). "Time Magazine wins approval of libel suit dismissal". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. p. F2.
  51. ^ Carmody, Deirdre (October 2, 1991). "Reader's Digest Defies Court". The New York Times. pp. D6. Retrieved October 25, 2007.
  52. ^ "Scientology – The Road to Total Freedom?". Panorama. April 27, 1987.
  53. ^ "Inside the Cult". The Big Story. ITV. 1995.
  54. ^ a b Koppel, Ted (February 14, 1992). "David Miscavige interview". Nightline. ABC News. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  55. ^ Tobin, Thomas C. (October 25, 1998). "The Man Behind Scientology". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
  56. ^ "InsidMe Scientology". Investigative Reports. A & E. December 14, 1998.
  57. ^ a b c d e Frantz, Douglas (March 9, 1997). "Scientology's Puzzling Journey From Tax Rebel to Tax Exempt". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
  58. ^ a b Tobin, Thomas C. (October 25, 1998). "The man behind Scientology, part 4". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved August 27, 2007.
  59. ^ "New Churches of Scientology". Scientology. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  60. ^ "Where Spirituality Intersects With Human Brilliance: The New Church of Scientology Opens in Silicon Valley". February 18, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  61. ^ Payne, Will (January 20, 2014). "The Church of Scientology Responds to "The Tip of the Spear"". Los Angeles Magazine. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 30, 2014. More than 30 new Ideal Churches opening in major cities throughout the United States and around the world. This year those new Churches opened in Hamburg, Germany; Florence, Kentucky; Sacramento, Orange County, San Jose and Los Gatos, California; Phoenix, Arizona; Denver, Colorado; Buffalo, New York; Padova, Italy; and our first in the Middle East, in Tel Aviv, Israel.
  62. ^ "Founding Church of Scientology, Washington, D.C., Ribbon Cutting". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  63. ^ "'Church' that yearns for respectability". The Times. London. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  64. ^ "Scientology Opens New National Organization for Mexico in The City Of Palaces". Archived from the original on September 27, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  65. ^ "Scoop: Scientologists not anti-gay, official says – Entertainment – The Scoop". Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  66. ^ Kalman, Matthew (November 11, 2012). "Scientology comes to Israel". The Independent. London. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  67. ^ FOX. "Georgia's first ideal Scientology Church Opens | WAGA". Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  68. ^ Rodriguezrrodriguez, Rene (May 1, 2017). "Church of Scientology opens massive new facility in Miami". Miami Herald. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  69. ^ Stone, Ken (November 24, 2016). "Inside Scientology's New Church at Old San Diego Home". Times of San Diego. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  70. ^ a b Reitman, Janet (March 9, 2006). "Inside Scientology". Rolling Stone. No. 995. p. 57. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  71. ^ Streeter, Michael (2008). Behind Closed Doors. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-84537-937-7.
  72. ^ Frenschkowski, Marco (January 1, 2010). "Researching Scientology: Some Observations on Recent Literature, English and German". Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review. Academic Publishing. 1 (1): 36–37. doi:10.5840/asrr20101127. ISSN 1946-0538.
  73. ^ Stacy, Mitch (September 23, 2007). "Fla. town comes to terms with status as Scientology mecca". Usatoday.Com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  74. ^ Eric Goldschein (January 12, 2012). "The Scientology Building Where Members Will Receive 'Infinite Power' Is Finally About To Open – Business Insider". Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  75. ^ Farley, Robert (June 6, 2006). "Scientology nearly ready to unveil Super Power". St. Petersburg Times.
  76. ^ "Cornerstone Newsletter", Church of Scientology Religious Trust, undated but published 2007
  77. ^ Brassfield, Mike (March 21, 2009). "Scientology church gives Clearwater's Fort Harrison Hotel a $40M makeover". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  78. ^ Joe Childs; Charlie Frago (November 17, 2013). "Stars come out for dedication of Scientology's 'Super Power' building in Clearwater". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  79. ^ "Church of Scientology Dedicates $145 Million 'Super Power' Building". ABC News. November 18, 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  80. ^ a b Wright, Lawrence, Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood and the Prison of Belief: New York: Knopf, 2013
  81. ^ a b Tobin, Thomas C; Childs, Joe (January 13, 2013). "Scientology defectors describe violence, humiliation in "the Hole"". Tampa Bay Times.
  82. ^ Sentinel Staff Report (June 18, 2010). "Orlando Sentinel wins 17 awards from Florida Society of News Editors". Orlando Sentinel. Florida: Archived from the original on May 21, 2016. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  83. ^ Florida Society of News Editors (June 18, 2010). "FSNE Gold Medal for Public Service". FSNE 2010 Journalism Awards. Florida: Archived from the original on June 24, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2010. Inside Scientology – The St. Petersburg Times reporting on the Church of Scientology is in the finest traditions of American journalism. The reporting by Joseph Childs and Thomas Tobin stands out for the ways in which it held accountable the powerful. {{cite news}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  84. ^ "Winners of 76th Annual National Headliner Awards". The New York Times. March 24, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2010.[dead link]
  85. ^ "Print Division – Daily Newspapers and News Syndicates – Writing & Reporting". National Headliner Awards. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
  86. ^ a b Tobin, Thomas; Childs, Joe (June 23, 2009). "Scientology: Ecclesiastical Justice, Part 3 of 3 in a special report on the Church of Scientology". Retrieved December 11, 2011.
  87. ^ "Scientology: A History of Violence; Students Charged in Bullying Case (Transcript)". Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees. CNN. March 30, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
  88. ^ "The man behind Scientology". Retrieved April 9, 2011.
  89. ^ "Scientology: Origins, celebrities and holdings". Archived from the original on May 26, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
  90. ^ Erin Jensen, USA TODAY (December 21, 2016). "'Scientology' accuses church leader David Miscavige of physical abuse". USA Today. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  91. ^ Finn, Scott (February 25, 2010). "Scientology Hires Reporters to Investigate St. Petersburg Times". WUSF Public Media. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
  92. ^ Urban, Hugh B. (March 17, 2010). "The Rundown Truth: Scientology Changes Strategy in War with Media". Religion Dispatches. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
  93. ^ Lewis, James R.; Olav Hammer (2007). The Invention of Sacred Tradition. Cambridge University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-521-86479-4.
  94. ^ Sappell, Joel. "Scientology Won't Set Me Free". Los Angeles Magazine. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  95. ^ "The man behind Scientology". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  96. ^ "Scientology Expands Its Presence in Washington". Washingtonian. September 14, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
  97. ^ Zeller, Shawn (September 24, 2012). "Solons Salute Scientologists". CQ Weekly.
  98. ^ Ortega, Tony (March 19, 2012). "FBI Investigation of Scientology: Already Over Before We Even Heard of It". The Village Voice. Voice Media Group.
  99. ^ "Church of Scientology Launches New Network Airing on DirectTV, Streaming Devices". KTLA. March 12, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018. Posted 8:24 PM, March 12, 2018, by CNN Wire
  100. ^ "Scientology Leader David Miscavige Makes Rare On-Camera Appearance as the Church Launches TV Network". People. March 15, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  101. ^ Elber, Lynn (March 12, 2018). "Church of Scientology launches TV channel". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 13, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  102. ^ Grove, Lloyd (March 13, 2018). "David Miscavige Comes Out of the Shadows on the First Night of Scientology's TV Network". The Daily Beast. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  103. ^ Heller, Emily (March 23, 2018). "The Church of Scientology has launched a TV channel. It's weirdly familiar". Vox. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  104. ^ Chiland, Elijah (August 29, 2016). "What are Scientologists doing with their new LA film studio? – Curbed LA". Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  105. ^ Gibson, Kate (March 12, 2018). "Scientology Network set for TV launch". CBS News. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  106. ^ "Scientology Opens $50 Million Movie And TV Studio Complex In Hollywood". Retrieved July 19, 2018.
  107. ^ "Ex-Scientologist Accuses Church Of Trafficking & Starving Children In Scathing Lawsuit". RadarOnline. New York: American Media, Inc. October 1, 2019.
  108. ^ McManus, Tracey (June 11, 2020). "Clearwater woman drops lawsuit against Scientology alleging child sexual abuse". Tampa Bay Times. St. Petersburg, FL: Times Publishing Company.
  109. ^ Maddaus, Gene (January 20, 2022). "Danny Masterson's Accusers Do Not Have to Go to Scientology Arbitration". Variety. Los Angeles: Penske Media Corporation.
  110. ^ Wright, Lawrence (2013). Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood, and the Prison of Belief. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-307-70066-7.
  111. ^ Wright, Lawrence (February 14, 2011). "The Apostate". The New Yorker. Retrieved November 6, 2013. According to Rinder and Brousseau, in June, 2006, while Miscavige was away from the Gold Base, his wife, Shelly, filled several job vacancies without her husband's permission. She disappeared soon after. Her current status is unknown. Tommy Davis told me, 'I definitely know where she is,' but he won't disclose where that is.
  112. ^ "Mrs Shelly Miscavige". London: Telegraph. July 31, 2012. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  113. ^ Blankstein, Andrew (August 9, 2013). "Scientology leader's wife located by LAPD after Leah Remini inquiry". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  114. ^ Kelsey, Eric (August 8, 2013). "L.A. police close inquiry into Scientology leader's wife". Reuters. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  115. ^ Jacobsen, Jonny (January 28, 2008). "Niece of Scientology's leader backs Cruise biography". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
  116. ^ O'Neil, Deborah; Kitty Bennett; Jeff Harrington (June 2, 2002). "The CEO and his church: Months of interviews and thousands of pages of court papers show the effect that influential church members had on a Clearwater company that was a darling of the dot-com boom". St. Petersburg Times. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  117. ^ Harrington, Jeff (May 10, 2003). "Digital Whistleblower Finally Wins". St. Petersburg Times. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
  118. ^ Joe Childs; Thomas C. Tobin (February 8, 2013). "Niece of Scientology leader describes rocky youth in church". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
  119. ^ a b Pelisek, Christine (April 9, 2015). "Scientology Leader Hired Private Investigator to Spy on His Father, Police Report States". People Magazine. California. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
  120. ^ a b Christensen, Kim (April 8, 2015). "Scientology head's father was spied on, police report says". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
  121. ^ "Cops: Scientology leader's father was tracked". Today (NBC). April 9, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  122. ^ Miscavige, Ron; Koon, Dan (May 3, 2016). Ruthless: Scientology, My Son David Miscavige, and Me. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1-250-09693-7.
  123. ^ "John Sweeney revisits the Church of Scientology". BBC News. September 26, 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2010.

Works cited

  • Miscavige, Ron (2016). Ruthless: Scientology, My Son David Miscavige, and Me. United States: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1250096937.

External links

Interviews and press coverage