|Born||16 April 1951|
|Education||Bristol Grammar School|
|Alma mater||Downing College, Cambridge|
|Known for||Founding Drug Science |
Controversial removal from the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs
Performing the first MRI of a human brain under the influence of LSD
Imperial College London
University of Cambridge
University of Oxford
University of Bristol
Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD)
Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs (ISCD)
The European Brain Council
|Thesis||The effect of convulsions and drugs on seizure susceptibility in rats (1982)|
David John Nutt (born 16 April 1951) is an English neuropsychopharmacologist specialising in the research of drugs that affect the brain and conditions such as addiction, anxiety, and sleep. He is the chairman of Drug Science, a non-profit which he founded in 2010 to provide independent, evidence-based information on drugs. Until 2009, he was a professor at the University of Bristol heading their Psychopharmacology Unit. Since then he has been the Edmond J Safra chair in Neuropsychopharmacology at Imperial College London and director of the Neuropsychopharmacology Unit in the Division of Brain Sciences there. Nutt was a member of the Committee on Safety of Medicines, and was President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
Career summary and research
Nutt completed his secondary education at Bristol Grammar School and then studied medicine at Downing College, Cambridge, graduating in 1972. In 1975, he completed his clinical training at Guy's Hospital.
He worked as a clinical scientist at the Radcliffe Infirmary from 1978 to 1982 where he carried out basic research into the function of the benzodiazepine receptor/GABA ionophore complex, the long-term effects of BZ agonist treatment and kindling with BZ partial inverse agonists. This work culminated in a ground-breaking paper in Nature (journal) in 1982 which described the concept of inverse agonism (using his preferred term, "contragonism") for the first time. From 1983 to 1985, he lectured in psychiatry at the University of Oxford. In 1986, he was the Fogarty visiting scientist at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in Bethesda, MD, outside Washington, D.C. Returning to the UK in 1988, he joined the University of Bristol as director of the Psychopharmacology Unit. In 2009, he then established the Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Molecular Imaging at Imperial College, London, taking a new chair endowed by the Edmond J Safra Philanthropic Foundation. He is an editor of the Journal of Psychopharmacology, and is also the president of The European Brain Council.
In 2007 Nutt published a controversial study on the harms of drug use in The Lancet. Eventually, this led to his dismissal from his position in the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD); see government positions below. Subsequently, Nutt and a number of his colleagues who had subsequently resigned from the ACMD founded the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, which was later re-named Drug Science.
Through Drug Science, Nutt has released a number of prominent drug policy reports while launching campaigns in support of evidence-based drug policy. These include Project Twenty21, the Medical Cannabis Working Group, and the Medical Psychedelics Working Group. In 2013, Drug Science launched the peer-reviewed Journal of Drug Science, Policy and Law, with Nutt appointed as Editor. Nutt also hosts the Drug Science Podcast, where he explores drugs and drug policy with drug policy experts, policy-makers, and scientists.
Nutt is the deputy head of the Centre for Psychedelic Research at Imperial College London. He and his team have published research into psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression, as well as neuroimaging studies investigating psilocybin, MDMA, LSD, and DMT.
In November 2010, Nutt published another study in The Lancet, co-authored with Les King and Lawrence Phillips on behalf of this independent Committee. This ranked the harm done to user and society by a range of drugs. Owing in part to criticism over the arbitrary weighting of the factors in the 2007 study, the new study employed a multiple-criteria decision analysis procedure and found that alcohol is more harmful to society than both heroin and crack, while heroin, crack, and methamphetamine are the most harmful drugs to individuals. Nutt has also written about this topic in newspapers for the general public, sometimes leading to public disagreements with other researchers.
Alcarelle & GABA Labs
Starting in around 2014, Nutt began talking about bringing to market a compound that could mimic some of the effects of alcohol (ethanol) - primarily "conviviality" - in humans (impacting the GABA receptor) while avoiding the negative health impacts of alcohol; a safer replacement. He calls it "Alcarelle", but does not disclose the exact chemical(s). Early tests used a benzodiazepine derivative, with later adaptations targeting improved efficacy and reduced abuse potential.
In 2018 Nutt's company GABALabs (previously called "Alcarelle") applied for patents for a series of new compounds, branded as Alcarelle, that more closely mimic the "conviviality" effects of alcohol. As of October 2019, none of these compounds were available to consumers, their long-term health impacts were not known and there has been no published research about them.
The science team at GABA Labs has produced a botanical ingredient which was released to the market in the form of the drink Sentia in January 2021 as a "botanical spirit".
In collaboration with Amanda Feilding and the Beckley Foundation, David Nutt is working on the effects of psychedelics on cerebral blood flow. In March 2015 it was announced that a crowdfunding site set up by Nutt to raise funds to research the effects of LSD on the brain had attracted more than 1,000 backers in less than a week. The study, a part of the Beckley Foundation's Psychedelic Research Programme, initially sought to raise £25,000 for an fMRI and MEG imaging study into LSD on the brain. After some £50,000 was raised in under a week, however, the research goals were extended to include a further £50,000 to research LSD and creativity and problem solving. Nutt and his colleagues have already carried out a brain imaging study of people who had taken psilocybin, showing that the chemical played a role in the default mode network, an area of the brain implicated in depression, OCD, and Alzheimer's.
He served on the Committee on Safety of Medicines where he participated in an enquiry into the use of SSRI anti-depressants in 2003. His participation was criticised as, owing to his financial interest in GlaxoSmithKline, he had to withdraw from discussions of the drug paroxetine. In January 2008 he was appointed as the chairman of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD), having previously been Chair of the Technical Committee of the ACMD for seven years.
As ACMD chairman Nutt repeatedly clashed with government ministers over issues of drug harm and classification. In January 2009 he published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology an editorial ("Equasy – An overlooked addiction with implications for the current debate on drug harms") in which the risks associated with horse riding (1 serious adverse event every ~350 exposures) were compared to those of taking ecstasy (1 serious adverse event every ~10,000 exposures).
The word equasy derives from equestrianism and other words based on Latin equus, 'horse'). Nutt told The Daily Telegraph that his intention was "to get people to understand that drug harm can be equal to harms in other parts of life". In 2012, he explained to the UK Home Affairs Committee that he chose riding as the "pseudo-drug" in his comparison after being consulted by a patient with irreversible brain damage caused by a fall from a horse. He discovered that riding was "considerably more dangerous than [he] had thought ... popular but dangerous" and "something ... that young people do".
The issue of the mismatch between lawmakers' classification of recreational drugs, in particular that of cannabis, and scientific measures of their harmfulness surfaced again in October 2009, after the publication of a pamphlet containing a lecture Nutt had given to the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies at King's College London in July 2009. In this, Nutt repeated his view that illicit drugs should be classified according to the actual evidence of the harm they cause, and presented an analysis in which nine 'parameters of harm' (grouped as 'physical harm', 'dependence', and 'social harms') revealed that alcohol or tobacco were more harmful than LSD, ecstasy or cannabis. In this ranking, alcohol came fifth behind heroin, cocaine, barbiturates and methadone, and tobacco ranked ninth, ahead of cannabis, LSD and ecstasy, he said. In this classification, alcohol and tobacco appeared as Class B drugs, and cannabis was placed at the top of Class C. Nutt also argued that taking cannabis created only a "relatively small risk" of psychotic illness, and that "the obscenity of hunting down low-level cannabis users to protect them is beyond absurd". Nutt objected to the recent re-upgrading (after 5 years) of cannabis from a Class C drug back to a Class B drug (and thus again on a par with amphetamines), considering it politically motivated rather than scientifically justified. In October 2009 Nutt had a public disagreement with psychiatrist Robin Murray in the pages of The Guardian about the dangers of cannabis in triggering psychosis.
Following the release of this pamphlet, Nutt was dismissed from his ACMD position by the Home Secretary, Alan Johnson. Explaining his dismissal of Nutt, Alan Johnson wrote in a letter to The Guardian, that "He was asked to go because he cannot be both a government adviser and a campaigner against government policy. [...] As for his comments about horse riding being more dangerous than ecstasy, which you quote with such reverence, it is of course a political rather than a scientific point." Responding in The Times, Professor Nutt said: "I gave a lecture on the assessment of drug harms and how these relate to the legislation controlling drugs. According to Alan Johnson, the Home Secretary, some contents of this lecture meant I had crossed the line from science to policy and so he sacked me. I do not know which comments were beyond the line or, indeed, where the line was [...]". He maintains that "the ACMD was supposed to give advice on policy".
In the wake of Nutt's dismissal, Dr Les King, a part-time advisor to the Department of Health, and the senior chemist on the ACMD, resigned from the body. His resignation was soon followed by that of Marion Walker, Clinical Director of Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust's substance misuse service, and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society's representative on the ACMD.
The Guardian revealed that Alan Johnson ordered what was described as a 'snap review' of the 40-strong ACMD in October 2009. This, it was said, would assess whether the body is "discharging the functions" that it was set up to deliver and decide if it still represented value for money for the public. The review was to be conducted by David Omand. Within hours of that announcement, an article was published online by The Times arguing that Nutt's controversial lecture actually conformed to government guidelines throughout. This issue was further publicised a week later when Liberal Democrat science spokesman Dr Evan Harris, MP, attacked the Home Secretary for apparently having misled Parliament and the country in his original statement about Nutt's dismissal.
John Beddington, the Chief Scientific Adviser to the UK Government stated that he agreed with the views of Professor Nutt on cannabis. When asked if he agreed whether cannabis was less harmful than cigarettes and alcohol, he replied: "I think the scientific evidence is absolutely clear cut. I would agree with it." A few days later, it was revealed that a leaked email from the government's Science Minister Lord Drayson was quoted as saying Mr Johnson's decision to dismiss Nutt without consulting him was a "big mistake" that left him "pretty appalled".
On 4 November, the BBC reported that Nutt had financial backing to create a new independent drug research body if the ACMD was disbanded or proved incapable of functioning. This new body, the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs (later re-named DrugScience), was launched in January 2010 (later on to establish, in 2013, the journal Drug Science, Policy and Law). On 11 November 2010, after a meeting between ACMD and Alan Johnson, three other scientists tendered their resignations, Dr Simon Campbell, a chemist, psychologist Dr John Marsden and scientific consultant Ian Ragan.
In an 11 November 2009 editorial in The Lancet, Nutt explicitly attributed his dismissal to a conflict between government and science, and reiterated that "I have repeatedly stated [cannabis] is not safe, but that the idea that you can reduce use through raising the classification in the Misuse of Drugs Act from class C to class B—where it had previously been placed, but thus now increasing the maximum penalty for possession for personal use to 5 years in prison—is implausible." In a rejoinder, William Cullerne Bown of Research Fortnight pointed out that the framing of science vs. government was misleading because the weighting of the factors in Nutt's 2007 Lancet paper was arbitrary, and consequently that there was no scientific answer to ranking drugs. In reply, Nutt admitted the limitations of the original study, and wrote that ACMD was in the process of devising a multicriteria decision-making approach when he was dismissed. Nutt reiterated that "The repeated claims by Gordon Brown's government that it had scientific evidence that trumped that of the ACMD and the acknowledgment that it was only interested in scientific evidence that supported its political aims was a cynical misuse of scientific evidence that breached the principles of the 1971 Act and was insulting to Council." Nutt announced that he and number of colleagues that had resigned from the ACMD had set up an Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs.
A subsequent review of policy drafted by Lord Drayson essentially reaffirmed that the scientific advisers to the government can be dismissed under similar circumstances: "Government and its scientific advisers should not act to undermine mutual trust." This clause was kept despite protest from Sense About Science, Campaign for Science and Engineering, and Liberal Democrat MP Evan Harris; according to Lord Drayson, the clause was requested by John Beddington, the Chief Scientific Adviser to the UK Government. Les Iversen was announced as the successor of Nutt as the chair of the ACMD in January 2010.
David Nutt is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Psychiatrists and the Academy of Medical Sciences. He holds visiting professorships in Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands. He is a past president of the British Association of Psychopharmacology and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. He was the recipient of the 2013 John Maddox Prize for promoting sound science and evidence on a matter of public interest, whilst facing difficulty or hostility in doing so. He is past president of the British Neuroscience Association and past president of the European Brain Council.
Nutt is a Patron of My Death My Decision, an organisation which seeks a more compassionate approach to dying in the UK, including the legal right to a medically-assisted death, if that is a person's persistent wish.
- Carhart-Harris, RL; et al. (2016). "Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging". PNAS. 113 (17): 4853–4858. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113.4853C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1518377113. PMC 4855588. PMID 27071089.
- Nutt, David; Baldwin, David; Aitchison, Katherine (2013). "Benzodiazepines: Risks and benefits. A reconsideration" (PDF). J Psychopharmacol. 27 (11): 967–71. doi:10.1177/0269881113503509. PMID 24067791. S2CID 8040368. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 September 2015.
- Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Brink, Wim (2013). "Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs" (PDF). J Psychopharmacol. 27 (3): 317–324. doi:10.1177/0269881112474525. PMID 23343598. S2CID 12288500.
- Carhart-Harris, RL; Erritzoe, D; Williams, T; Stone, JM; Reed, LJ; Colasanti, A; Tyacke, RJ; Leech, R; Malizia, AL; Murphy, K; Hobden, P; Evans, J; Feilding, A; Wise, RG; Nutt, DJ (February 2012). "Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109 (6): 2138–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.1119598109. PMC 3277566. PMID 22308440.
- David J Nutt; Harrison PJ; Baldwin DS; Barnes TR; et al. (October 2011). "No psychiatry without psychopharmacology". Br J Psychiatry. 199 (4): 263–5. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.094334. PMID 22187725.
- Nutt, DJ; Lingford-Hughes, A; Chick, J (2012). "Through a glass darkly: can we improve clarity about mechanism and aims of medications in drug and alcohol treatments?". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 26 (2): 199–204. doi:10.1177/0269881111410899. PMID 22287478.
- Nutt J. D.J. (June 2011). "Highlights of the international consensus statement on major depressive disorder". J Clin Psychiatry. 72 (6): e21. doi:10.4088/JCP.9058tx2c. PMID 21733474.
- Nutt DJ, King LA, Phillips LD; Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs. (November 2010). "Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis" (PDF). Lancet. 376 (9752): 1558–65. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.690.1283. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61462-6. PMID 21036393. S2CID 5667719.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C (March 2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse" (PDF). Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–53. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID 17382831. S2CID 5903121.
- Nutt, D (2006). "Alcohol Alternatives: A Goal for Psychopharmacology?". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 20 (3): 318–320. doi:10.1177/0269881106063042. PMID 16574703. S2CID 44290147.
- David J. Nutt (2012). Drugs Without the Hot Air: Minimising the Harms of Legal and Illegal Drugs. Cambridge: UIT. ISBN 978-1-906860-16-5.
- David J. Nutt (2020). Drink ? : The New Science of Alcohol and Your Health. Yellow Kite. ISBN 978-1-529393-23-1.
Medical and science
- David J. Nutt; Roni Shiloh; Stryjer Rafael; Abraham Weizman (2005). Essentials in Clinical Psychiatric Pharmacotherapy, Second Edition. London; New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-39983-8. 1st ed(2001):ISBN 1-84184-092-0.
- David J. Nutt; Roni Shiloh; Rafael Stryjer; Abraham Weizman (2006). Atlas of Psychiatric Pharmacotherapy, Second Edition. New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-84184-281-3. 1st ed(1999):ISBN 1-85317-630-3.
- David J. Nutt; Adam Doble; Ian L. Martin (2001). Calming the brain: benzodiazepines and related drugs from laboratory to clinic. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-84184-052-9.
- David J. Nutt; Mike Briley (2000). Anxiolytics. Basel etc.: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7643-6032-0.
- David J. Nutt; Wallace B. Mendelson (1995). Hypnotics and Anxiolytics. London: Bailliere Tindall. ISBN 978-0-7020-1955-5.
- David J. Nutt; Martin Sarter; Richard G. Lister (1995). Benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonists. New York: Wiley-Liss. ISBN 978-0-471-56173-6.
Addiction and associated disorder
- David J. Nutt; Trevor W. Robbins; Barry J. Everitt (2010). The neurobiology of addiction: new vistas. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956215-2.
- David J. Nutt; Noeline Latt; Katherine Conigrave; Jane Marshall; John Saunders (2009). Addiction medicine. Oxford Psychiatry Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/med/9780199539338.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-953933-8.
- David J. Nutt; George F. Koob; Mustafa al'Absi (2008). Bundle for researchers in Stress and Addiction. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374868-3.
- David J. Nutt; Trevor W. Robbins; Gerald V. Stimson; Martin Ince; Andrew Jackson (2006). Drugs and the future: brain science, addiction and society. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-370624-9.
- David J. Nutt; James C. Ballenger (2003). Anxiety disorders. Oxford: Blackwell Science. ISBN 978-0-632-05938-6.
- David J. Nutt; Eric J.L. Griez; Carlo Faravelli; Joseph Zohar (2001). Anxiety disorders: an introduction to clinical management and research. New York: Wiley. doi:10.1002/0470846437. ISBN 978-0-471-97873-2.
- David J. Nutt; Spilios Argyropoulos; Adrian Feeney (2002). Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-84184-049-9.
- David J. Nutt; Karl Rickels; Dan J. Stein (2002). Generalised Anxiety Disorder: Symptomatology, Pathogenesis and Management. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-84184-131-1.
- David J. Nutt; Spilios Argyropoulos; Sam Forshall (2001). Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment and Its Relationship to Other Anxiety Disorders, 3rd edition. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-84184-135-9. 1st ed(1998):ISBN 1-85317-659-1
- David J. Nutt; Spilios Argyropoulos; Sean Hood (2000). Clinician's manual on anxiety disorders and comorbid depression. London: Science Press. ISBN 978-1-85873-397-5.
- David J. Nutt; Sidney H. Kennedy; Raymond W. Lam; Michael E. Thase (2007). Treating Depression Effectively: Applying Clinical Guidelines, Second Edition. Informa Healthcare. ISBN 978-0-415-43910-7. 1st ed(2004):ISBN 1-84184-328-8.
- David J. Nutt; Caroline Bell; John Potokar (1996). Depression. Anxiety and the Mixed Condition - pocketbook. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-85317-359-2.
- David J. Nutt; Eric J. L. Griez; Carlo Faravelli; Joseph Zohar (2005). Mood disorders: clinical management and research issues. London: J. Wiley. doi:10.1002/0470094281. ISBN 978-0-470-09426-6.
- David J. Nutt; Caroline Bell; Christine Masterson; Clare Short (2001). Mood and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: a psychopharmacological. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-85317-924-2.
- David J. Nutt; James C. Ballenger; Jean Pierre Lépine (1999). Panic Disorder: Clinical Diagnosis, Management and Mechanisms. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-85317-518-3.
- David J. Nutt; Murray B. Stein; Joseph Zohar (2009). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnosis, Management And Treatment, Second Edition. London: Informa Healthcare. ISBN 978-0-415-39571-7. 1st(2000):ISBN 1-85317-926-4.
Sleep and connected disorder
- David J. Nutt; Sue Wilson (2008). Sleep disorders. Oxford Psychiatry Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/med/9780199234332.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-923433-2.
- David J. Nutt; Jaime M. Monti; S. R. Pandi-Perumal; Barry L. Jacobs (2008). Serotonin and Sleep: Molecular, Functional and Clinical Aspects. Sleep. 32. Basel: Birkhäuser. pp. 699–700. doi:10.1007/978-3-7643-8561-3. ISBN 978-3-7643-8560-6. PMC 2675905. (PMC link is a 2-page book review)
- "Drug Science founded". drugscience.org.uk.
- "Johnson 'misled MPs over adviser'". BBC News. 8 November 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
- Sample, Ian (11 April 2016). "LSD's impact on the brain revealed in groundbreaking images". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
- Nutt, David (21 January 2009). "Equasy -- an overlooked addiction with implications for the current debate on drug harms". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 23 (1): 3–5. doi:10.1177/0269881108099672. PMID 19158127. S2CID 32034780.
- "David Nutt". The Life Scientific. 18 September 2012. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Science and Technology Select Committee (18 July 2006). "Drug classification: making a hash of it?" (PDF). House of Commons: Ev 1. Retrieved 11 October 2008. Cite journal requires
- "The Truth About Drugs". drugscience.org.uk. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "Professor David Nutt". University of Bristol. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009. Cite journal requires
- "Home - Professor David Nutt DM, FRCP, FRCPsych, FSB, FMedSci". www.imperial.ac.uk. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "David J Nutt". The Royal Institution. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- List of publications from Microsoft Academic
- http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio4/tls/tls_20120918-0930a.mp3 David Nutt on The Life Scientific with Jim Al-Khalili, September 2012, BBC Radio 4
- Lucy Goodchild (8 January 2009). "Addiction, anxiety and Alzheimer's disease tackled by new Chair at Imperial College". Imperial College, London. Cite journal requires
- Nutt, D. J.; Cowen, P. J.; Little, H. J. (1982). "Unusual interactions of benzodiazepine receptor antagonists". Nature. 295 (5848): 436–438. Bibcode:1982Natur.295..436N. doi:10.1038/295436a0. PMID 6276771. S2CID 779441.
- "Editor - David J Nutt". SAGE. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
- "European Brain Council - About us: Presentation". Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- Nutt, D.; King, L. A.; Saulsbury, W.; Blakemore, C. (2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse" (PDF). The Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–1053. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID 17382831. S2CID 5903121.
- Nutt, D. (2010). "Nutt damage – Author's reply". The Lancet. 375 (9716): 724. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60302-9. S2CID 54387485.
- "SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class research journals". SAGE Journals. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "The Drug Science Podcast". drugscience.org.uk. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "People". Imperial College London. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- "Research". Imperial College London. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- Nutt, D. J.; King, L. A.; Phillips, L. D. (2010). "Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis" (PDF). The Lancet. 376 (9752): 1558–1565. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.690.1283. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61462-6. PMID 21036393. S2CID 5667719. Lay summary – BBC (1 November 2010).
- Tim Locke (1 November 2010) Alcohol more harmful than crack or heroin: Study. Former government drugs advisor Professor David Nutt produces new measures on the way drugs and alcohol cause harm Archived 10 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, WebMD Health News
- "The best scientific advice on drugs (written by David Nutt)". The Guardian. London. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010.
- Robin Murray, A clear danger from cannabis, The Guardian, 29 October 2009 replying to David Nutt The cannabis conundrum, The Guardian, 29 October 2009
- "Medicinal cannabis: time for a comeback?". Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Nutt, David (1 March 2014). "Mind‐altering drugs and research: from presumptive prejudice to a Neuroscientific Enlightenment?: Science & Society series on "Drugs and Science"". EMBO Reports. 15 (3): 208–211. doi:10.1002/embr.201338282. PMC 3989684. PMID 24531723.
- Nutt, DJ; King, LA; Nichols, DE (2013). "Effects of Schedule I drug laws on neuroscience research and treatment innovation". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14 (8): 577–85. doi:10.1038/nrn3530. PMID 23756634. S2CID 1956833.
- Nutt, D. J.; King, L. A.; Nichols, D. E. (2013). "New victims of current drug laws". Nat Rev Neurosci. 14 (12): 877. doi:10.1038/nrn3530-c2. PMID 24149187. S2CID 205509004.
- Could 'alcosynth' provide all the joy of booze – without the dangers?
- Amy Fleming (26 March 2019). "Could 'alcosynth' provide all the joy of booze – without the dangers?". The Guardian.
- Journal 6751, GB1813962.6, Applicant: Alcarelle Holdings Limited Title: Mood enhancing compounds. Date Lodged: 28 August 2018
- Journal 6751, GB1813962.9, Applicant: Alcarelle Holdings Limited Title: Mood enhancing compounds. Date Lodged: 28 August 2018
- Carhart-Harris R, Kaelen M, Nutt DJ  How do hallucinogens work on the brain? http://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-27/edition-9/how-do-hallucinogens-work-brain
- Nutt DJ  A brave new world for psychology? The Psychologist Special issue: http://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-27/edition-9/special-issue-brave-new-world-psychology
- Petri, G; Expert, P; Turkheimer, F; Carhart-Harris, R; Nutt, D; Hellyer, PJ; Vaccarino, F (2014). "Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks". J. R. Soc. Interface. 11 (101): 20140873. doi:10.1098/rsif.2014.0873. PMC 4223908. PMID 25401177.
- Muthukumaraswamy S, Carhart-Harris R, Moran R, Brookes M, Williams M, Erritzoe D, Sessa B, Papadopoulos A, Bolstridge M, Singh K, Fielding A, Friston K, Nutt DJ (2013) Broadband cortical desynchronisation underlies the human psychedelic state The Journal of Neuroscience, 18 September 2013 • 33(38):15171–15183
- Hobden P, Evans J, Feilding A, Wise RG, Nutt DJ (2012) Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin PNAS 1-6 10.1073/pnas.1119598109
- "The acid test - The Psychologist". thepsychologist.bps.org.uk. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Sarah Boseley (17 March 2003). "Drugs inquiry thrown into doubt over members' links with manufacturers". The Guardian. London.
- Dominic Casciani (30 October 2009). "Profile: Professor David Nutt". BBC. Cite journal requires
- Hope, Christopher (9 February 2009). "Home Office's drugs adviser apologises for saying ecstasy is no more dangerous than riding a horse". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009.
- "House of Commons: Oral Evidence Taken Before the Home Affairs Committee - Drugs: Breaking the Cycle - Minutes of Evidence (HC 184-II)". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- Christopher Hope (9 February 2009). "Home Office's drugs adviser apologises for saying ecstasy is no more dangerous than riding a horse". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009.
- Chu, Ben (8 November 2015). "Why does someone dying from alcohol poisoning get no media coverage, while an ecstasy-related death does?". The Independent (opinion).
- Ellenberg, J. (2014). "Book Review: 'The Norm Chronicles' by Michael Blastland and David Spiegelhalter". The Wall Street Journal.
- Baggini, J. (2014). "Sind Drogengesetze moralisch inkonsistent?". Die Großen Fragen Ethik (in German): 56–64. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36371-9_6. ISBN 978-3-642-36370-2.
- Watts, Michael; Jolliffe, Gray (2017). Sanación psicodélica para el siglo XXI (in Spanish). ISBN 9781912317042.
- Gøtzsche, P.C. (2015). Deadly Psychiatry and Organised Denial. ISBN 9788771596243.
- "David Nutt's pamphlet 'Estimating drug harms: a risky business?'" (PDF). Retrieved 29 April 2018.
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