David Nutt

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David John Nutt
Picture of David Nutt
Nutt at a presentation in Oslo, May 2013
Born (1951-04-16) 16 April 1951 (age 68)
EducationBristol Grammar School
Alma materDowning College, Cambridge
Known forEcstasy controversy[1]
Scientific career
InstitutionsImperial College London
University of Cambridge
University of Oxford
University of Bristol
Guy's Hospital
Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD)
Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs (ISCD)
The European Brain Council
ThesisThe effect of convulsions and drugs on seizure susceptibility in rats (1982)

David John Nutt (born 16 April 1951) is an English neuropsychopharmacologist specialising in the research of drugs that affect the brain and conditions such as addiction, anxiety, and sleep.[3] He was until 2009 a professor at the University of Bristol heading their Psychopharmacology Unit.[4] Since then he has been the Edmond J Safra chair in Neuropsychopharmacology at Imperial College London and director of the Neuropsychopharmacology Unit in the Division of Brain Sciences there.[5] Nutt was a member of the Committee on Safety of Medicines, and was President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology.[6][7][8] His book Drugs Without the Hot Air (UIT press) won the Transmission Prize for Communicating Science in 2014.

Career summary and research[edit]

Nutt completed his secondary education at Bristol Grammar School and then studied medicine at Downing College, Cambridge, graduating in 1972. In 1975, he completed his clinical training at Guy's Hospital.[9]

He worked as a clinical scientist at the Radcliffe Infirmary from 1978 to 1982 where he carried out basic research into the function of the benzodiazepine receptor/GABA ionophore complex, the long-term effects of BZ agonist treatment and kindling with BZ partial inverse agonists. This work culminated in a ground-breaking paper in Nature (journal) in 1982[10] which described the concept of inverse agonism (using his preferred term, "contragonism") for the first time. From 1983 to 1985, he lectured in psychiatry at the University of Oxford. In 1986, he was the Fogarty visiting scientist at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in Bethesda, MD, just outside Washington, D.C. Returning to the UK in 1988, he joined the University of Bristol as director of the Psychopharmacology Unit. In 2009, he then established the Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Molecular Imaging at Imperial College, London, taking a new chair endowed by the Edmond J Safra Philanthropic Foundation.[9] He is an editor of the Journal of Psychopharmacology,[11] and is also the president of The European Brain Council.[12]

In 2007 Nutt published a controversial study on the harms of drug use in The Lancet.[13] Eventually, this led to his dismissal from his position in the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD); see government positions below. Subsequently, Nutt and a number of his colleagues who had subsequently resigned from the ACMD founded the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs.[14]

A summary of the results from Nutt's 2010 paper in The Lancet

In November 2010, Nutt published another study in The Lancet, co-authored with Les King and Lawrence Phillips on behalf of this independent Committee. This ranked the harm done to user and society by a range of drugs.[15] Owing in part to criticism over the arbitrary weighting of the factors in the 2007 study,[14][16] the new study employed a multiple-criteria decision analysis procedure and found that alcohol is more harmful to society than both heroin and crack, while heroin, crack, and methamphetamine (crystal meth) are the most harmful drugs to individuals.[15] Nutt has also written about this topic in newspapers for the general public,[17] sometimes leading to public disagreements with other researchers.[18]

Nutt is also campaigning for a change in UK drug laws to allow for more research opportunities.[19][20][21][22]


Starting in around 2014, Nutt said he intends to bring to market a recreational drug which has the same effect as alcohol but does less physical harm; a safer replacement. He calls it "alcosynth", but does not disclose the exact chemical(s). Early tests used a benzodiazepine derivative, but later candidates do not. Also a drug he calls "chaperone" that he said attenuates the effects of alcohol.[23][24]

According to an article by Michael Slezak in the New Scientist in December 2014, the "chaperone" drug was 5-methoxy-2-aminoindane (MEAI), which was "created" by a recreational drug chemist who goes by "Dr. Z",[25] who filed a patent[26] application on the drug in November 2014 and, when the article was published, was going to donate the patent application to Nutt's nonprofit organization.[27]

As of October 2016 none of these compounds were available to consumers, their long health effects were not known, and there was no published research about them.[28] A peer reviewed paper about MEAI was published in March 2017 by Nutt in the journal Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology,[29] followed by another in February 2018 which detailed pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and metabolism of MEAI.[30] In 2018, a company in the United States began offering an MEAI-based drink called "Pace".[31]

In 2018 Nutt's company Alcarelle applied for patents for a series of new compounds, branded as Alcarelle,[32] that more closely mimic the effects of alcohol.[33][34]


Simplified visualization of the persistence homological brain function scaffolds from placebo on the left and that induced through psilocybin on the right

In collaboration with Amanda Feilding and the Beckley Foundation, David Nutt is working on the effects of psychedelics on cerebral blood flow.[35][36][37][38][39] In March 2015 it was announced that a crowdfunding site set up by Nutt to raise funds to research the effects of LSD on the brain had attracted more than 1,000 backers in less than a week. The study, a part of the Beckley Foundation's Psychedelic Research Programme, initially sought to raise £25,000 for an fMRI and MEG imaging study into LSD on the brain. After some £50,000 was raised in under a week, however, the research goals were extended to include a further £50,000 to research LSD and creativity and problem solving. Nutt and his colleagues have already carried out a brain imaging study of people who had taken psilocybin, showing that the chemical played a role in the default mode network, an area of the brain implicated in depression, OCD, and Alzheimer's.[40]

Government positions[edit]

Nutt worked as an advisor to the Ministry of Defence, Department of Health, and the Home Office.[9]

He served on the Committee on Safety of Medicines where he participated in an enquiry into the use of SSRI anti-depressants in 2003. His participation was criticised as, owing to his financial interest in GlaxoSmithKline, he had to withdraw from discussions of the drug paroxetine.[41] In January 2008 he was appointed as the chairman of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD), having previously been Chair of the Technical Committee of the ACMD for seven years.[3]

Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment. The associated paper was written by Nutt and included in his controversial lecture[13][42]

As ACMD chairman Nutt repeatedly clashed with government ministers over issues of drug harm and classification. In January 2009 he published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology an editorial ('Equasy – An overlooked addiction with implications for the current debate on drug harms') in which the risks associated with horse riding (1 serious adverse event every ~350 exposures) were compared to those of taking ecstasy (1 serious adverse event every ~10,000 exposures).[1] In February 2009 he was criticised by Home Secretary Jacqui Smith for stating in the paper that the drug ecstasy was statistically no more dangerous than an addiction to horse-riding.[43] Speaking to the Daily Telegraph, Nutt said that the point was "to get people to understand that drug harm can be equal to harms in other parts of life". Jacqui Smith claimed to be "surprised and profoundly disappointed" by the remarks, and added: "I'm sure most people would simply not accept the link that he makes up in his article between horse riding and illegal drug taking". She also insisted that he apologise for his comments, and asked him to apologise also to 'the families of the victims of ecstasy'.[44]

The issue of the mismatch between lawmakers' classification of recreational drugs, in particular that of cannabis, and scientific measures of their harmfulness surfaced again in October 2009, after the publication of a pamphlet[45] containing a lecture Nutt had given to the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies at King's College London in July 2009. In this, Nutt repeated his view that illicit drugs should be classified according to the actual evidence of the harm they cause, and presented an analysis in which nine 'parameters of harm' (grouped as 'physical harm', 'dependence', and 'social harms') revealed that alcohol or tobacco were more harmful than LSD, ecstasy or cannabis. In this ranking, alcohol came fifth behind heroin, cocaine, barbiturates and methadone, and tobacco ranked ninth, ahead of cannabis, LSD and ecstasy, he said. In this classification, alcohol and tobacco appeared as Class B drugs, and cannabis was placed at the top of Class C. Nutt also argued that taking cannabis created only a "relatively small risk" of psychotic illness,[46] and that "the obscenity of hunting down low-level cannabis users to protect them is beyond absurd".[47] Nutt objected to the recent re-upgrading (after 5 years) of cannabis from a Class C drug back to a Class B drug (and thus again on a par with amphetamines), considering it politically motivated rather than scientifically justified.[42] In October 2009 Nutt had a public disagreement with psychiatrist Robin Murray in the pages of The Guardian about the dangers of cannabis in triggering psychosis.[18]


Following the release of this pamphlet, Nutt was dismissed from his ACMD position by the Home Secretary, Alan Johnson. Explaining his dismissal of Nutt, Alan Johnson wrote in a letter to The Guardian, that "He was asked to go because he cannot be both a government adviser and a campaigner against government policy. [...] As for his comments about horse riding being more dangerous than ecstasy, which you quote with such reverence, it is of course a political rather than a scientific point."[48] Responding in The Times, Professor Nutt said: "I gave a lecture on the assessment of drug harms and how these relate to the legislation controlling drugs. According to Alan Johnson, the Home Secretary, some contents of this lecture meant I had crossed the line from science to policy and so he sacked me. I do not know which comments were beyond the line or, indeed, where the line was [...]"[49]

In the wake of Nutt's dismissal, Dr Les King, a part-time advisor to the Department of Health, and the senior chemist on the ACMD, resigned from the body.[50] His resignation was soon followed by that of Marion Walker, Clinical Director of Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust's substance misuse service, and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society's representative on the ACMD.[51]

The Guardian revealed that Alan Johnson ordered what was described as a 'snap review' of the 40-strong ACMD in October 2009. This, it was said, would assess whether the body is "discharging the functions" that it was set up to deliver and decide if it still represented value for money for the public. The review was to be conducted by David Omand.[52] Within hours of that announcement, an article was published online by The Times arguing that Nutt's controversial lecture actually conformed to government guidelines throughout.[53] This issue was further publicised a week later when Liberal Democrat science spokesman Dr Evan Harris, MP, attacked the Home Secretary for apparently having misled Parliament and the country in his original statement about Nutt's dismissal.[54]

John Beddington, the Chief Scientific Adviser to the UK Government stated that he agreed with the views of Professor Nutt on cannabis. When asked if he agreed whether cannabis was less harmful than cigarettes and alcohol, he replied: "I think the scientific evidence is absolutely clear cut. I would agree with it."[55] A few days later, it was revealed that a leaked email from the government's Science Minister Lord Drayson was quoted as saying Mr Johnson's decision to dismiss Nutt without consulting him was a "big mistake" that left him "pretty appalled".[56]

On 4 November, the BBC reported that Nutt had financial backing to create a new independent drug research body if the ACMD was disbanded or proved incapable of functioning.[57] This new body, The Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, was launched in January 2010. On 11 November, after a meeting between ACMD and Alan Johnson, three other scientists tendered their resignations, Dr Simon Campbell, a chemist, psychologist Dr John Marsden and scientific consultant Ian Ragan.[58]

In an 11 November 2009 editorial in The Lancet, Nutt explicitly attributed his dismissal to a conflict between government and science, and reiterated that "I have repeatedly stated [cannabis] is not safe, but that the idea that you can reduce use through raising the classification in the Misuse of Drugs Act from class C to class B—where it had previously been placed, but thus now increasing the maximum penalty for possession for personal use to 5 years in prison—is implausible."[59] In a rejoinder, William Cullerne Bown of Research Fortnight pointed out that the framing of science vs. government was misleading because the weighting of the factors in Nutt's 2007 Lancet paper was arbitrary, and consequently that there was no scientific answer to ranking drugs.[60] In reply, Nutt admitted the limitations of the original study, and wrote that ACMD was in the process of devising a multicriteria decision-making approach when he was dismissed. Nutt reiterated that "The repeated claims by Gordon Brown's government that it had scientific evidence that trumped that of the ACMD and the acknowledgment that it was only interested in scientific evidence that supported its political aims was a cynical misuse of scientific evidence that breached the principles of the 1971 Act and was insulting to Council." Nutt announced that he and number of colleagues that had resigned from the ACMD had set up an Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs.[14]

A subsequent review of policy drafted by Lord Drayson[14] essentially reaffirmed that the scientific advisers to the government can be dismissed under similar circumstances: "Government and its scientific advisers should not act to undermine mutual trust."[61] This clause was kept despite protest from Sense About Science, Campaign for Science and Engineering, and liberal-democrat MP Evan Harris; according to Lord Drayson, the clause was requested by John Beddington, the Chief Scientific Adviser to the UK Government.[62] Les Iversen was announced as the successor of Nutt as the chair of the ACMD in January 2010.[63]


He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Psychiatrists and the Academy of Medical Sciences. He holds visiting professorships in Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands. He is a past president of the British Association of Psychopharmacology and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology.[9] He was the recipient of the 2013 John Maddox Prize for promoting sound science and evidence on a matter of public interest, whilst facing difficulty or hostility in doing so.[64] He is past president of the British Neuroscience Association and current president of the European Brain Council.[65]




  • David J. Nutt (2012). Drugs Without the Hot Air: Minimising the Harms of Legal and Illegal Drugs. Cambridge: UIT. ISBN 978-1-906860-16-5.

Medical and science[edit]


Brain science

  • David J. Nutt; Martin Sarter; Richard G. Lister (1995). Benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonists. New York: Wiley-Liss. ISBN 978-0-471-56173-6.

Addiction and associated disorder

Anxiety disorders

  • David J. Nutt; James C. Ballenger (2003). Anxiety disorders. Oxford: Blackwell Science. ISBN 978-0-632-05938-6.
  • David J. Nutt; Eric J.L. Griez; Carlo Faravelli; Joseph Zohar (2001). Anxiety disorders: an introduction to clinical management and research. New York: Wiley. doi:10.1002/0470846437. ISBN 978-0-471-97873-2.
  • David J. Nutt; Spilios Argyropoulos; Adrian Feeney (2002). Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-84184-049-9.
  • David J. Nutt; Karl Rickels; Dan J. Stein (2002). Generalised Anxiety Disorder: Symptomatology, Pathogenesis and Management. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-84184-131-1.
  • David J. Nutt; Spilios Argyropoulos; Sam Forshall (2001). Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment and Its Relationship to Other Anxiety Disorders, 3rd edition. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-84184-135-9. 1st ed(1998):ISBN 1-85317-659-1
  • David J. Nutt; Spilios Argyropoulos; Sean Hood (2000). Clinician's manual on anxiety disorders and comorbid depression. London: Science Press. ISBN 978-1-85873-397-5.

Other disorders

Sleep and connected disorder


  1. ^ a b Nutt, D. (2008). "Equasy -- an overlooked addiction with implications for the current debate on drug harms". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 23 (1): 3–5. doi:10.1177/0269881108099672. PMID 19158127.
  2. ^ "David Nutt". The Life Scientific. 18 September 2012. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b Science and Technology Select Committee (18 July 2006). "Drug classification: making a hash of it?" (PDF). House of Commons: Ev 1. Retrieved 11 October 2008.
  4. ^ "Professor David Nutt". University of Bristol.
  5. ^ "Home - Professor David Nutt DM, FRCP, FRCPsych, FSB, FMedSci". www.imperial.ac.uk. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  6. ^ "David J Nutt". The Royal Institution. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  7. ^ List of publications from Microsoft Academic
  8. ^ http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio4/tls/tls_20120918-0930a.mp3 David Nutt on The Life Scientific with Jim Al-Khalili, September 2012, BBC Radio 4
  9. ^ a b c d Lucy Goodchild (8 January 2009). "Addiction, anxiety and Alzheimer's disease tackled by new Chair at Imperial College". Imperial College, London
  10. ^ Nutt, D. J.; Cowen, P. J.; Little, H. J. (1982). "Unusual interactions of benzodiazepine receptor antagonists". Nature. 295 (5848): 436–438. doi:10.1038/295436a0. PMID 6276771.
  11. ^ "Editor - David J Nutt". SAGE. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  12. ^ "European Brain Council - About us: Presentation". Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  13. ^ a b Nutt, D.; King, L. A.; Saulsbury, W.; Blakemore, C. (2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse" (PDF). The Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–1053. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID 17382831.
  14. ^ a b c d Nutt, D. (2010). "Nutt damage – Author's reply". The Lancet. 375 (9716): 724. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60302-9.
  15. ^ a b Nutt, D. J.; King, L. A.; Phillips, L. D. (2010). "Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis" (PDF). The Lancet. 376 (9752): 1558–1565. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61462-6. PMID 21036393. Lay summaryBBC (1 November 2010).
  16. ^ Tim Locke (1 Nov 2010) Alcohol more harmful than crack or heroin: Study. Former government drugs advisor Professor David Nutt produces new measures on the way drugs and alcohol cause harm, WebMD Health News
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  18. ^ a b Robin Murray, A clear danger from cannabis, The Guardian, 29 Oct 2009 replying to David Nutt The cannabis conundrum, The Guardian, 29 Oct 2009
  19. ^ "Medicinal cannabis: time for a comeback?". Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  20. ^ Nutt, David (1 March 2014). "Mind‐altering drugs and research: from presumptive prejudice to a Neuroscientific Enlightenment?: Science & Society series on "Drugs and Science"". EMBO Reports. 15 (3): 208–211. doi:10.1002/embr.201338282. PMC 3989684. PMID 24531723.
  21. ^ Nutt, DJ; King, LA; Nichols, DE (2013). "Effects of Schedule I drug laws on neuroscience research and treatment innovation". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14 (8): 577–85. doi:10.1038/nrn3530. PMID 23756634.
  22. ^ Nutt, D. J.; King, L. A.; Nichols, D. E. (2013). "New victims of current drug laws". Nat Rev Neurosci. 14 (12): 877. doi:10.1038/nrn3530-c2.
  23. ^ Burn-Callander, Rebecca; Cormier, Zoe (22 January 2015). "Get drunk without a hangover on synthetic booze". The Telegraph.
  24. ^ "'Hangover-free alcohol' could replace all regular alcohol by 2050, says David Nutt". The Independent. 23 September 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  25. ^ Zee, Dr. "Dr Zee NeoShulginist". Dr Zee NeoShulginist. DRZEE. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  26. ^ "Binge behavior regulators". Google Patents. WIPO. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  27. ^ Michael Slezak (31 December 2014). "High and dry? Party drug could target excess drinking". New Scientist. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  28. ^ "October 11, 2016 full episode transcript". CBC Radio. this is a product which is ready to rollout... And do you know yet about the long term effects... Well, you can't... And have you tried this with human beings?...I've had parties on it... Well, the safety, the preclinical toxicology is in process... Well, there isn't any research on anything yet.
  29. ^ Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Winkler, Ilan; Edery, Nir; Golan, Ezekiel; van Wettum, René; Nutt, David (15 March 2017). "Toxicological evaluation of 5-methoxy-2-aminoindane (MEAI): Binge mitigating agent in development" (PDF). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 319: 59–68. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2017.01.018. ISSN 1096-0333. PMID 28167221.
  30. ^ Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Sobol, Eyal; Golan, Ezekiel; Ben Ari, Yulius; Gal, Orit (March 2018). "Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of 5-methoxy-2-aminoindane (MEAI): A new binge-mitigating agent". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 343: 29–39. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2018.02.009.
  31. ^ Pace, Drink. "Pace by DACOA". Pace. DACOA. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  32. ^ Amy Fleming (26 March 2019). "Could 'alcosynth' provide all the joy of booze – without the dangers?". The Guardian.
  33. ^ Journal 6751, GB1813962.6, Applicant: Alcarelle Holdings Limited Title: Mood enhancing compounds. Date Lodged: 28 August 2018
  34. ^ Journal 6751, GB1813962.9, Applicant: Alcarelle Holdings Limited Title: Mood enhancing compounds. Date Lodged: 28 August 2018
  35. ^ Carhart-Harris R, Kaelen M, Nutt DJ [2014] How do hallucinogens work on the brain? http://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-27/edition-9/how-do-hallucinogens-work-brain
  36. ^ Nutt DJ [2014] A brave new world for psychology? The Psychologist Special issue: http://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-27/edition-9/special-issue-brave-new-world-psychology
  37. ^ Petri, G; Expert, P; Turkheimer, F; Carhart-Harris, R; Nutt, D; Hellyer, PJ; Vaccarino, F (2014). "Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks". J. R. Soc. Interface. 11 (101): 20140873. doi:10.1098/rsif.2014.0873. PMC 4223908. PMID 25401177.
  38. ^ Muthukumaraswamy S, Carhart-Harris R, Moran R, Brookes M, Williams M, Erritzoe D, Sessa B, Papadopoulos A, Bolstridge M, Singh K, Fielding A, Friston K, Nutt DJ (2013) Broadband cortical desynchronisation underlies the human psychedelic state The Journal of Neuroscience, 18 September 2013 • 33(38):15171–15183
  39. ^ Hobden P, Evans J, Feilding A, Wise RG, Nutt DJ (2012) Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin PNAS 1-6 10.1073/pnas.1119598109
  40. ^ "The acid test - The Psychologist". thepsychologist.bps.org.uk. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  41. ^ Sarah Boseley (17 March 2003). "Drugs inquiry thrown into doubt over members' links with manufacturers". London: The Guardian
  42. ^ a b Dominic Casciani (30 October 2009). "Profile: Professor David Nutt". BBC
  43. ^ Christopher Hope (9 February 2009). "Home Office's drugs adviser apologises for saying ecstasy is no more dangerous than riding a horse". London: The Daily Telegraph
  44. ^ Hope, Christopher (9 February 2009). "Home Office's drugs adviser apologises for saying ecstasy is no more dangerous than riding a horse The Government's chief drugs adviser has been ordered to apologise by the Home Secretary for saying that taking ecstasy was no worse than riding a horse". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  45. ^ "David Nutt's pamphlet 'Estimating drug harms: a risky business?'" (PDF). Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  46. ^ Jones, Sam; Robert Booth (1 November 2009). "David Nutt's sacking provokes mass revolt against Alan Johnson". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  47. ^ Vuillamy, Ed (24 July 2011). "Richard Nixon's 'war on drugs' began 40 years ago, and the battle is still raging". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  48. ^ Johnson, Alan (2 November 2009). "Why Professor David Nutt was shown the door". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  49. ^ Nutt, David (2 November 2009). "Penalties for drug use must reflect harm". London: The Times. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  50. ^ "Government drugs adviser resigns". BBC News. 1 November 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  51. ^ "Second drugs adviser quits post". BBC News. 1 November 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  52. ^ Travis, Alan; Deborah Summers (2 November 2009). "Alan Johnson orders swift review of drugs advice body". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  53. ^ Henderson, Mark (2 November 2009). "David Nutt's controversial lecture conformed to government guidelines". The Times. Archived from the original on 4 November 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  54. ^ "Johnson 'misled MPs over adviser'". BBC News. 8 November 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  55. ^ Ghosh, Pallab (3 November 2009). "Science chief backs cannabis view". BBC News. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  56. ^ "Minister 'backs adviser autonomy'". BBC News. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  57. ^ "Nutt vows to set up new drug body". BBC News. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  58. ^ "Three more drugs advisers resign". BBC News. 10 November 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  59. ^ Nutt, D. (2009). "Government vs science over drug and alcohol policy". The Lancet. 374 (9703): 1731–1733. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61956-5. PMID 19910043.
  60. ^ Bown, W. C. (2010). "Nutt damage". The Lancet. 375 (9716): 723–724. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60301-7.
  61. ^ "Scientific advice to government: principles". GOV.UK. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  62. ^ Nick Dusic (24 Mar 2010) Principles of Scientific Advice, Campaign for Science and Engineering
  63. ^ "Focus on cannabis 'past history'". 29 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  64. ^ David Nutt: John Maddox Prize winner 2013 on YouTube
  65. ^ "List of Officers". European Brain Council. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2016.

External links[edit]

  1. ^ Kupferschmidt, Kai (31 January 2014). "The Dangerous Professor". Science. 343 (6170): 478–481. doi:10.1126/science.343.6170.478. PMID 24482461.