David Reardon

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David C. Reardon is the American director of the Elliot Institute and an advocate in favor of legislating strict barriers to abortion.[1] Reardon is the author of a number of articles and five books examining the controversial issue of mental health effects associated with abortion (see abortion and mental health). Reardon is a pro-life activist, and was described in the New York Times Magazine as the "Moses" of the "post-abortion movement".[2]


A graduate of the University of Illinois department of electrical engineering,[3] Reardon began researching the effects of abortion in the mid-1980s. Reardon subsequently received a Ph.D in biomedical ethics from Pacific Western University (Hawaii),[4] an unaccredited correspondence school offering no classroom instruction.[3][5][6]

Reardon describes his position on abortion as both "pro-life" (believing a human fetus is deserving of protection) and "pro-woman" and "anti-abortion" (believing abortion hurts women).[7] In a 2002 article in Ethics & Medicine, Reardon argued that in order to be effective, pro-life efforts had to present "a moral vision that consistently demonstrates just as much concern for women as for their unborn children."[8] Reardon appealed to the pro-life movement to support his "pro-woman/pro-life" strategy writing:

For the purpose of passing restrictive laws to protect women from unwanted and/or dangerous abortions, it does not matter if people have a pro-life view. The ambivalent majority of people who are willing to tolerate abortion in "some cases" are very likely to support informed consent legislation and abortion clinic regulations, for example, because these proposals are consistent with their desire to protect women. In some cases, it is not even necessary to convince people of abortion's dangers. It is sufficient to simply raise enough doubts about abortion that they will refuse to actively oppose the proposed anti-abortion initiative. In other words, if we can convince many of those who do not see abortion to be a "serious moral evil" that they should support anti-abortion policies that protect women and reduce abortion rates, that is a sufficiently good end to justify NRS efforts. Converting these people to a pro-life view, where they respect life rather than simply fear abortion, is a second step. The latter is another good goal, but it is not necessary to the accomplishment of other good goals, such as the passage of laws that protect women from dangerous abortions and thereby dramatically reduce abortion rates.[8]

Reardon's findings conflict with the view of the American Psychological Association, as well as other scientists and researchers, that abortion carries no greater mental-health risk than carrying a fetus to term.[9][10]

Media coverage[edit]

In a Washington Monthly article titled "Research and Destroy", author Chris Mooney profiled Reardon as an example of what he describes as "Christian conservatives [who] have gone a long way towards creating their own scientific counter-establishment."[5] He also notes that Reardon's findings conflict with those of the American Psychological Association, which in 1990 had rejected "the notion that abortion regularly causes severe or clinical mental problems", and with the conclusions of former United States Surgeon General C. Everett Koop.[5]

In a front-page story for the New York Times Magazine, Slate editor Emily Bazelon described the growth of post-abortion counseling ministries around the United States as part of an effort by the pro-life movement to outlaw abortion by stressing its purported psychological effects. She describes Reardon as arguing that the pro-life movement will "never win over a majority... by asserting the sanctity of fetal life", and therefore should focus on disseminating information that abortion is psychologically harmful to women as a more effective strategy.[2]

Bazelon goes on to say:

For anti-abortion activists, this strategy offers distinct advantages. It challenges the connection between access to abortion and women's rights — if women are suffering because of their abortions, then how could making the procedure readily available leave women better off? It replaces mute pictures of dead fetuses with the voices of women who narrate their stories in raw detail and who claim they can move legislators to tears. And it trades condemnation for pity and forgiveness. "Pro-lifers who say, 'I don't understand how anyone could have an abortion,' are blind to how hurtful this statement can be," Reardon writes on his Web site. "A more humble pro-life attitude would be to say, 'Who am I to throw stones at others?'

When researchers attack his findings, Reardon writes to the journals' letters pages. "Even if pro-abortionists got five paragraphs explaining that abortion is safe and we got only one line saying it's dangerous, the seed of doubt is planted," he wrote in his book. [2]

Reardon has been described in the Boston Globe as someone who "wants Congress to impose strict barriers to abortion." The Boston Globe also wrote:

This dual role of advocate/researcher is becoming more common, especially as advocacy groups realize they can sway more opinions by asserting that their research is based on science, rather than simply on personal belief. [David] Reardon, like many people who play this dual role, insists he can objectively look at the data without being influenced by his personal viewpoint.[1]

According to the website of the Elliot Institute, which Reardon founded, he is "a frequent guest on Christian radio and Christian television talk shows and has been a frequently invited speaker state and national conventions for crisis pregnancy centers and pro-life organizations."[11] Reardon addressed the National Pro-Life Religious Council in 1998, where he discussed emotional reactions to abortion in the context of the disputed entity of "post-abortion syndrome".[12][13]

Elliot Institute[edit]

Reardon is the founder and director of the Elliot Institute, which in 2005 reported that it had two full-time and one part-time employees.[14] According to its web site, the Elliot Institute studies "the effects of eugenics, abortion, population control, and sexual attitudes and practices on individuals and society at large."[15] The Institute was described by USA Today as an "anti-abortion organization focusing on the physical and psychological effects of abortion."[16]

The Elliot Institute has endorsed model legislation regarding informed consent provisions for women considering abortion and bills that would increase the liability of physicians who provide abortions that are deemed "unsafe or unnecessary".[17] The Elliot Institute is also leading an effort to build a coalition of groups to advocate for laws that would create a preemptive ban on human genetic engineering.[18]

Reardon and the Elliot Institute opposed The Missouri Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative, and proposed a competing initiative which would have prohibited any embryonic stem cell research which resulted in the destruction of a human embryo, as well as some other types of genetic research, in Missouri.[19] The Elliot institute created the website ElliotInstitute.org which mimicked the site of a pro-stem-cell-research group, the Missouri Coalition for Lifesaving Cures. The group sued the Elliot Institute in federal court for alleged copyright and trademark violations. Consequently, the Elliot Institute website was ordered temporarily shut down by a federal judge.[20]

Books and articles[edit]

Reardon has written a number of books and articles on what he asserts are the harmful side effects of abortion.

Aborted Women, Silent No More[21]

Making Abortion Rare[22]

The Jericho Plan - Breaking Down the Walls Which Prevent Post-Abortion Healing[23]

Victims and Victors - Speaking Out About Their Pregnancies, Abortions, and Children Resulting from Sexual Assault [24]

Rape, Incest and Abortion - Searching Beyond the Myths[25]

Peer-reviewed studies[edit]

Reardon's peer reviewed studies are a source of scientific controversy. His research and methodology have been criticized by, among others, Brenda Major of the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara and Nancy Russo, a psychology professor at Arizona State University.[2][26]

The following is a partial list of some of Reardon's articles, as well as academic responses to his articles:

  • "Abortion and Subsequent Substance Abuse"[27]
  • "Depression and unintended pregnancy in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth" - a cohort study Reardon coauthored a brief report published in 2002 in the British Medical Journal. (BMJ)[28]
    Schmiege and Russo reported in the BMJ in 2005 that when the same NLSY dataset was analyzed using methodology which they described as more accurate, the association reported by Reardon disappeared. The concluded that "...there is no credible evidence that choosing to terminate an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of subsequent depression than does choosing to deliver an unwanted first pregnancy."[29] Among the many "Rapid Responses" were two lengthy letters by Reardon.[30] The BMJ published seven "Rapid Responses" to his report, and six replies thereto by Reardon.[31]
  • "Deaths associated with pregnancy outcome - a record linkage study of low income women" - In a 2002 report published in the Southern Medical Journal[32]
  • "Psychiatric Admissions of Low-income Women Following Abortion and Childbirth" - In 2003, Reardon published a study of California Medicaid records for 56,741 low income women. After controlling for one year prior psychiatric history, Reardon and his colleagues found that women who had an abortion were 2.6 times more likely than women who carried to term to be hospitalized for psychiatric care in the first 90 days following their pregnancy outcome.[33] depression,[34]
    Along with Reardon's paper, the Canadian Medical Association Journal published an article by Brenda Major, who argued that Reardon's methodology failed to control for more than a single year of prior mental illness, marital status, and other factors. She concluded that given these unaddressed issues and the political controversy over abortion, "Statistics such as those reported by Reardon and colleagues thus run a high risk of being used in ways that misinform and mislead the public."[26] The two articles "elicited a barrage of letters",[35] including short responses by Reardon[36] and Major.[37][38]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Science in support of a cause: the new research, by Michael Kranish. Published in the Boston Globe on July 31, 2005; accessed November 27, 2007.
  2. ^ a b c d Is There a Post-Abortion Syndrome?, by Emily Bazelon. Published in the New York Times Magazine on January 21, 2007; accessed November 27, 2007.
  3. ^ a b Politicized Science: How Anti-Abortion Myths Feed the Christian Right Agenda, by Pam Chamberlain. Published in The Public Eye by Political Research Associates, Summer 2006. Accessed February 17, 2008.
  4. ^ http://educationservices.us/faq.html
  5. ^ a b c Mooney, Chris. (October 1, 2004). "Research and Destroy". Washington Monthly. Retrieved February 11, 2007. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "mooney" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  6. ^ PBS NOW transcript, show #329, aired on PBS on July 20, 2007; accessed November 27, 2007. In the transcript, PBS senior correspondent Maria Hinojosa describes Reardon: "With a PhD from an unaccredited online institution, he's turned out dozens of studies that supposedly prove abortion is dangerous to women's mental health."
  7. ^ David C. Reardon. Making Abortion Rare: A Healing Strategy for a Divided Nation (1996) Acorn Books. See especially Chapter Two where Reardon discusses the terms pro-life, pro-woman, anti-abortion, pro-choice and pro-abortion.
  8. ^ a b Reardon DC (2002). "A defense of the neglected rhetorical strategy (NRS)". Ethics Med 18 (2): 23–32. PMID 14700036.  Full text in pdf here
  9. ^ Research and Destroy
  10. ^ Schmiege S, Russo NF (December 2005). "Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study". BMJ 331 (7528): 1303. doi:10.1136/bmj.38623.532384.55. PMC 1298850. PMID 16257993. 
  11. ^ Elliot Institute Website Retrieved November 19, 2007
  12. ^ Real Audio from the National Pro-Life Religious Council website Retrieved November 19, 2007
  13. ^ "Pastors Gather to Meet Challenge of Pro-Life Ministry." Publication: National Right to Life News
  14. ^ Elliot Institute 2005 Year End Report
  15. ^ Elliot Institute Website "About Our Coalition"
  16. ^ No Abortion-Breast Cancer Link, by Rita Rubin. Published in USA Today on February 26, 2003; accessed March 6, 2008.
  17. ^ Elliot Institute Website "Politics"
  18. ^ Elliot Institute homepage
  19. ^ Missouri State Government website
  20. ^ Court Shuts Down Anti-Stem-Cell Web Site for Copyright Violations, by Donna Higgins. From news.findlaw.com, originally published March 27, 2006. Accessed January 7, 2008.
  21. ^ Peter J. Leithart. "Book Review" (PDF). Journal of Biblical Ethics in Medicine. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  22. ^ Rev. Paul Marx. "Book Review". Human Life International. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  23. ^ David Reardon. "Who Should Use This Book?". Acorn Books. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  24. ^ "Victims and Victors". Elliot Institute. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  25. ^ Rape, Incest and Abortion: Searching Beyond the Myths Retrieved March 12, 2008
  26. ^ a b Major B (2003). "Psychological implications of abortion--highly charged and rife with misleading research". CMAJ 168 (10): 1257–8. PMC 154180. PMID 12743067. 
  27. ^ Reardon DC, Ney PG (2000). "Abortion and subsequent substance abuse". Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 26 (1): 61–75. doi:10.1081/ADA-100100591. PMID 10718164. 
  28. ^ Reardon DC, Cougle JR (2002). "Depression and unintended pregnancy in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: a cohort study". BMJ 324 (7330): 151–2. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7330.151. PMC 64517. PMID 11799033. 
  29. ^ Schmiege S, Russo NF (2005). "Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study". BMJ 331 (7528): 1303. doi:10.1136/bmj.38623.532384.55. PMC 1298850. PMID 16257993. 
  30. ^ "Rapid Responses to Schmiege, Russo". BMJ. 
  31. ^ "Rapid Responses to Reardon, Cougle". BMJ. 
  32. ^ Reardon DC, Ney PG, Scheuren F, Cougle J, Coleman PK, Strahan TW (2002). "Deaths associated with pregnancy outcome: a record linkage study of low income women". South. Med. J. 95 (8): 834–41. doi:10.1097/00007611-200208000-00010. PMID 12190217. 
  33. ^ Reardon DC, Cougle JR, Rue VM, Shuping MW, Coleman PK, Ney PG (2003). "Psychiatric admissions of low-income women following abortion and childbirth". CMAJ 168 (10): 1253–6. PMC 154179. PMID 12743066. 
  34. ^ Cougle JR, Reardon DC, Coleman PK (2003). "Depression associated with abortion and childbirth: a long-term analysis of the NLSY cohort". Med. Sci. Monit. 9 (4): CR105–12. PMID 12709667. 
  35. ^ "Unwanted results: the ethics of controversial research". CMAJ 169 (2): 93. 2003. PMC 164957. PMID 12874140. 
  36. ^ David Reardon, Abortion Perils Debated Full Text
  37. ^ Brenda Major, Abortion Perils Debated Full Text
  38. ^ Reardon DC, Cougle JR, Rue VM, Shuping MW, Coleman PK, Ney PG (May 2003). "Psychiatric admissions of low-income women following abortion and childbirth". CMAJ 168 (10): 1253–6. PMC 154179. PMID 12743066. 


Books by Reardon
  • Nancyjo Mann; Reardon, David C. (2002). Aborted Women: Silent No More. Acorn Publishing. ISBN 0-9648957-2-2. 
  • Reardon, David C. (1996). Making abortion rare: a healing strategy for a divided nation. Randburg, South Africa: Acorn Books. ISBN 0-9648957-6-5. 
  • Reardon, David C. (1996). The Jericho Plan: Breaking Down the Walls Which Prevent Post-Abortion Healing. Randburg, South Africa: Acorn Books. ISBN 0-9648957-5-7. 
  • Sobie, Amy; Reardon, David C.; Makimaa, Julie (2000). Victims and victors: speaking out about their pregnancies, abortions, and children resulting from sexual assault. Randburg, South Africa: Acorn Books. ISBN 0-9648957-1-4. 
  • Reardon, David C.; Burke, Theresa Karminski (2002). Forbidden grief: the unspoken pain of abortion. Randburg, South Africa: Acorn Books. ISBN 0-9648957-8-1. 

External links[edit]