David Rizzio, sometimes written as David Riccio or David Rizzo (c. 1533 – 9 March 1566), was an Italian courtier, born close to Turin, a descendant of an ancient and noble family still living in Piedmont, the Riccio Counts di San Paolo e Solbrito, who rose to become the private secretary of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary's husband, Lord Darnley, is said to have been jealous of their friendship, because of rumours that he had impregnated Mary, and joined in a conspiracy of Protestant nobles, led by Patrick Ruthven, 3rd Lord Ruthven, to murder him. The murder was the catalyst for the downfall of Darnley, and it had serious consequences for Mary's subsequent career. Mary was having dinner with Rizzio and a few ladies-in-waiting when Darnley joined them, accused his wife of adultery and then had someone murder Rizzio, who was hiding behind Mary. Mary was held at gunpoint and Rizzio was stabbed numerous times. His body took 57 dagger wounds.
Introduction to Court
Rizzio (whose name appears in Italian records as David Riccio di Pancalieri in Piemonte) went first from Turin to the Court of the Duke of Savoy, then at Nice. However, finding no opportunities for advancement there, he found means to get himself admitted into the train of the Count de Moretto in 1561, who was about to lead an embassy to Scotland. The Court in Scotland had no employment for Rizzio, and dismissed him. He ingratiated himself with the Queen's musicians, whom she had brought with her from France. James Melville, a friend of Rizzio, said that "Her Majesty had three valets in her chamber, who sung three parts, and wanted a bass to sing the fourth part". Thus, he was drawn into her court.
He was considered a good musician, and an excellent singer, which first brought him to the attention of the cosmopolitan young Queen. Towards the end of 1564, having grown wealthy under her patronage, he became the Queen's secretary for relations with France, after the previous occupant of the post retired there. This post attracted a quarterly salary of £20. Ambitious (seeing himself as all but a Secretary of State), a Catholic and a foreigner to boot, Rizzio, it was felt, was too close to the Queen. Rumours became rife that Mary was having an adulterous affair with Rizzio.
Jealousy precipitated his murder in the Queen's presence, in her supper chamber ("a cabinet about XII foot square, in the same a little low reposinge bedde, and a table") in the Palace of Holyroodhouse after the royal guards were quickly overpowered and the palace was turned over to the control of the rebels.
The Queen was five months pregnant (with James VI) at the time, and Rizzio was accused of having impregnated her. Having burst into the Queen's private dining room, the rebels, led by Patrick Ruthven, demanded Rizzio be handed over. The Queen refused. Rizzio then hid behind Mary but was nevertheless seized and stabbed to death in the presence of the Queen.
After this violent struggle, Rizzio was stabbed an alleged 57 times, before being thrown down the main staircase and stripped of his jewels and fine clothes. He was buried within two hours in the cemetery of Holyrood. Buchanan and Daniel state that shortly afterwards his body was removed by the Queen's orders and deposited in the sepulchre of the Kings of Scotland; a measure most impolitic, as it strengthened the previous reports of her familiarity with him. Rumours were thrown around as to why this happened to Rizzio – most claim Darnley was jealous.
Robert Melville arrived in Edinburgh from London and reported back to Elizabeth and Cecil on the aftermath of the murder. He noted that Morton, Lord Ruthven, and Patrick Lindsay, 6th Lord of Byres had fled, and William Maitland of Lethington, the Clerk Register James Balfour, the Justice Clerk John Bellenden, and some gentlemen of Lothian who were suspected of having knowledge of the plan had fled. Mary had escaped from Edinburgh to Dunbar Castle.
Rizzio's brother, Joseph, arrived in Scotland with Michel de Castelnau and was appointed secretary in David's place by 25 April 1566. Joseph and an Italian colleague, Joseph Lutyni, had some trouble over coins taken from the queen's purse, and in April 1567 he was accused and acquitted with Bothwell of Darnley's murder.
Legacy and memorial
David Rizzio's career was remembered and referred to by Henry IV of France. Mocking the pretension of James VI of Scotland to be the "Scottish Solomon", he remarked that "he hoped he was not David the fiddler's son", alluding to the possibility that Rizzio, not Darnley, fathered King James.
It has been alleged that Rizzio is buried at Canongate Kirkyard, Edinburgh; this would have required reinterment of a Catholic with no living friends in a Protestant graveyard 120 years after his death. It is considered more likely that he lies in an unmarked grave in the graveyard attaching Holyrood Abbey. The Protestant historian George Buchanan wrote in 1581 that David was first buried outside the door of the Abbey, and then Mary arranged for him to be buried in the tomb of her father James V and Madeleine of France within. As Buchanan described this circumstance as reflecting badly on the Queen, while his book was at the printers, a friend James Melville tried to get Buchanan to rewrite the passage, fearing that Mary's son James VI would suppress the whole book. Buchanan asked his cousin, Thomas Buchanan, a schoolmaster in Stirling, if he thought the story was true, and the cousin agreed. The story was published.
Representation in visual media and fiction
Rizzio was played by John Carradine in the 1936 RKO picture Mary of Scotland; by Ian Holm in the 1971 movie Mary, Queen of Scots; by Tadeusz Pasternak in the BBC mini-series "Gunpowder, Treason, and Plot"; by Andrew Shaver in The CW network television show Reign; and by Ismael Cruz Cordova in the 2018 film Mary Queen of Scots.
The takers in hand
- Earl of Morton
- Patrick Ruthven, 3rd Lord Ruthven
- Patrick Lindsay, 6th Lord of Byres
- William Maitland of Lethington
- Master of Ruthven
- John Cockburn, laird of Ormiston
- The laird of "Haughton," William Sinclair of Herdmanston
- John Crichton, laird of Brunstane
- The laird of Whittinghame
- The laird of Lochleven
- The laird of Elphingstone (Johnston)
- Patrick Murray
- Andrew Kerr of Fawdonsyde-son-in-law of John Knox
- William Tweedie of Drumelzier
- Adam Tweedie of Dreva
with the preachers; John Knox and John Craig.
- Portrait of a man known as David Rizzio, Royal Collection
- Fraser, Antonia (1994) . Mary Queen of Scots. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 236. ISBN 0-297-17773-7.
- Overview of David Rizzio
- Labanoff, A., Lettres de Marie Stuart, vol. 7, London, Dolman (1862), 65, Letter to Cosme Ier, Duke of Tuscany 1566.
- Hawkins (1778).
- NAS E30/11 Account 1564, f15, f17
- OED Cabinet – Quotation from a letter reporting to London by Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford then warden of the Scottish Marches (on the border)
- Daniel, William S. (1852), History of The Abbey and Palace of Holyrood. Pub. Edinburgh: Duncan Anderson. p. 75.
- Daniel, William S. (1852), History of The Abbey and Palace of Holyrood. Pub. Edinburgh: Duncan Anderson. p. 76.
- Ruthen (1815).
- Calendar State Papers Scotland, vol. ii, (1900), 267, 272, 274, 275
- Calendar State Papers Scotland, vol. 2 (1900), 276, 311, 320.
- Buchanan, George, History of Scotland, book 17 chapter 65: Aikman James, translation, vol.2 (1827), p.483 & footnote: The Diary of Mr James Melville, Bannatyne Club (1829) p.86: Holyroodhouse is within the old Canongate jurisdiction, which pre-dated the Canongate Kirk and burying ground, thus Riccio's death is recorded in the Canongate registers.
- Calendar of State Papers Scotland, vol. ii (1900), 269–270.
- Ruthen, Lord (1815). Some Particulars of the Life of David Riccio, chief favourite of Mary Queen of Scots. London: Triphook.
- The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, edited by John Hill Burton, LL.D., vol.1. 1545–1569, Edinburgh, 1877, p. 437, lists all those charged with "the slauchter of David Riccio." Given the very many names shown, it presumably includes those in the wider conspiracy.
- Hawkins, Sir John (1778). History and Character of Scots Music, including Anecdotes of the Celebrated David Rizzio. Universal Magazine, October 1778.
- Media related to David Rizzio at Wikimedia Commons
- Manuscript of extracts of letters sent by Mary to her uncle, the Cardinal of Lorraine, with news of the murder from the Bibliothèque nationale de France