Fraser in May 2012
4 September 1937 |
Balmain, New South Wales
|Height||1.72 m (5 ft 8 in)|
|Weight||67 kg (148 lb)|
Dawn Fraser, AO, MBE (born 4 September 1937) is an Australian champion swimmer and former politician. She is one of only three swimmers to have won the same Olympic event three times – in her case the 100-metre freestyle.
Within Australia, during her swimming career she was often known for her controversial behaviour and larrikin character as much as for her athletic ability. She outgrew that reputation and received many honours after her competitive swimming career ended.
Fraser was born in the Sydney suburb of Balmain in 1937 into a working-class family. She was spotted at the early age of 14 by Sydney coach Harry Gallagher swimming at the local sea baths.
Fraser won eight Olympic medals, including four gold medals, and six Commonwealth Games gold medals. She also held 39 records. The 100 metres freestyle record was hers for 15 years from 1 December 1956 to 8 January 1972.
She is the first of only three swimmers in Olympic history (Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary and Michael Phelps of the United States being the two others) to have won individual gold medals for the same event at three successive Olympics (100 metres freestyle – 1956, 1960, 1964).
In October 1962, she became the first woman to swim 100 metres freestyle in less than one minute. It was not until 1973, eight years after Fraser retired, that her 100m record of 58.9 secs was broken.
During the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Fraser angered swimming team sponsors and the Australian Swimming Union (ASU) by marching in the opening ceremony against their wishes, and wearing an older swimming costume in competition because it was more comfortable than the one supplied by the sponsors. She was accused of stealing an Olympic flag from a flagpole outside Emperor Hirohito's palace from the Kōkyo. She was arrested but released without charge. In the end she was given the flag as a souvenir. However, the Australian Swimming Union suspended her for 10 years. They relented a few months before the 1968 Games but by then it was too late for Fraser, at 31, to prepare.
She later denied having swum the moat to steal the flag, telling The Times in 1991: "There's no way I would have swum that moat. I was terrified of dirty water and that moat was filthy. There's no way I'd have dipped my toe in it."
|Member of the New South Wales Parliament
19 March 1988 – 25 May 1991
|Preceded by||Peter Crawford|
|Succeeded by||District abolished|
Fraser became a publican at the Riverview Hotel, Balmain, and took up swimming coaching. In 1988, she was elected an independent Member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly (MLA) for the seat of Balmain. Fraser left politics when the seat was abolished in 1991 and she failed to win the new seat of Port Jackson. Fraser is a high profile supporter and a board director of the Wests Tigers NRL club.
She was named the Australian of the Year in 1964, was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 1965, was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in 1967, and appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia (AO) in 1998. Also in 1998, she was voted Australia's greatest female athlete in history. She was named Australian Female Athlete of the Century by the Sport Australia Hall of Fame, who had inducted her as their first female member in 1985. In 1999 the International Olympic Committee named her the World's Greatest Living Female Water Sports Champion. on 14 July 2000, Fraser was awarded the Australian Sports Medal for "outstanding contribution as a swimming competitor".
She was one of the bearers of the Olympic Torch at the opening ceremony of the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. She carried the Olympic Torch at the stadium, as one of the bearers for the final segment, before the lighting of the Olympic Flame.
In 1979, a movie called Dawn! was made about Fraser's life and career. It starred Bronwyn Mackay-Payne as Fraser.
Fraser married Gary Ware on 30 January 1965 at St Stephens Church, Macquarie Street, Sydney. The marriage was short-lived. She has one daughter from the marriage, Dawn-Lorraine, who has a son, Jackson.
In 2015, Fraser drew criticism for comments about Australian tennis players Nick Kyrgios and Bernard Tomic, who are children of immigrants, stating that "they should go back to where their parents come from" if they didn't want to represent Australia, with many Australians considering the comments xenophobic and inappropriate.
|1956 Summer Olympics|
|4×100m Freestyle Relay||4:17.1||Gold||WR|
|1960 Summer Olympics|
|4×100m Freestyle Relay||4:11.3||Silver|
|4×100m Medley Relay||4:45.9||Silver|
|1964 Summer Olympics|
|4×100m Freestyle Relay||4:06.9||Silver|
|4×100m Medley Relay||4:52.3||9th|
- 1962 Perth Commonwealth Games
- 110 yards freestyle – gold medal
- 440 yards freestyle – gold medal
- 4 x 110 yards (4 x 100.58 metres) freestyle relay – gold medal
- 4 x 110 yards (4 x 100.58 metres) medley relay – gold medal
- List of multiple Olympic gold medalists
- List of multiple Olympic gold medalists in one event
- List of Olympic medalists in swimming (women)
- World record progression 100 metres freestyle
- World record progression 200 metres freestyle
- World record progression 4 × 100 metres freestyle relay
- Dawn Fraser. sports-reference.com
- Clarkson, Alan (28 October 1962). "Champion's world time in 110 yds". The Sun-Herald. p. 67.
- "Swim contest a spectacular of records". The Sun-Herald (AAP, Reuters). 2 May 1971. p. 107.
- Monica Attard, Lorna Knowles and Dan Driscoll (15 April 2007). "Dawn Fraser: still kicking". [Profile]http://www.abc.net.au/sundayprofile/stories/s1897086.htm
|transcripturl=missing title (help). ABC. Radio National.
- "Ms Dawn Fraser (1937 – )". Members of Parliament. Parliament of New South Wales. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
- Lewis, Wendy (2010). Australians of the Year. Pier 9 Press. ISBN 978-1-74196-809-5.
- International Swimming Hall of Fame, Honorees, Dawn Fraser (AUS). Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- It's an Honour – Member of the Order of the British Empire
- It's an Honour – Officer of the Order of Australia
- Wilson, Chris (28 February 2013). "Fraser named greatest despite push for skater". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Dawn Fraser AO MBE". Sport Australia Hall of Fame. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Dawn Fraser". Australian Honours Database. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Hickson, Jack (30 January 1965). "Dawn Fraser's wedding to Gary Ware, St. Stephen's Church, Sydney". acms.sl.nsw.gov.au. State Library of NSW. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- Fraser, Dawn (15 April 2007). Dawn Fraser: still kicking. Sunday Profile www.abc.net.a. Interview with Attard, Monica (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- Hardy, Karen (15 December 2013). "Dawn Fraser still smiling". The Sydney Morining Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- "Olympic legend Dawn Fraser launches racist attack on Nick Kyrgios". NEWS\|date=6 July 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dawn Fraser.|
- Dawn Fraser – Olympic athlete profile at Australian Olympic Committee
- Dawn Fraser's world records
- Dawn Fraser – article in The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia
- Dawn Fraser (AUS) – Honor Swimmer profile at International Swimming Hall of Fame
|Parliament of New South Wales|
|Member for Balmain