Dayaram

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Dayaram (Gujarati:દયારામ) (1777–1853) was a Gujarati poet of medieval Gujarati literature. He was known for his literary form called Garbi in Gujarat.[1] He was a follower of Pushtimarg of Hindu Vaishnavism.[2] Dayaram, along with Narsinh Mehta and Meera, is considered as major contributor during Bhakti Movement in Gujarati literature.

Life[edit]

Dayaram was born on 16 August 1777 in Chanod on the bank of Narmada river. He was the second son of Prabhuram Pandya, a Sathodara Nagar Brahmin. His siblings, elder sister Dahigauri and younger brother Manishankar, died at the age of nine and two respectively.[2]

His father was a clerk. He had very little education and he was interested in devotional songs of Vaishnava temple. He married in his childhood but his first wife died after two years of marriage. His second marriage did not accompanied as his father died when he was twelve years old. His mother too died two years later. He resided with his relatives in Chanod and Dabhoi. He traveled across India on pilgrimage of religious places associated with Vaishnavism. His contact with Ichchharam Bhatt turned him to his religious interest.[2]

He was initiated into Pushtimarg (Bhrahmasambandha) in Vikram Samvat 1858 by Vallabhaji Maharaj and was fully initiated in Vikram Samvat 1861.[2]

Contribution[edit]

Dayaram was follower of "Nirgun bhakti sampraday" (pushti sampraday) in Gujarat. So he gave many Garbi describing Krishna as human-being.

Although Dayaram has written in prose a major chunk of his published work is in poetry. The total number of his creations is not known and is still under debate. There are various opinions of scholars. Kavi Narmad writes; with confirmation with Dayaram's chief disciple Ranchod, that the poet has written 38 Gujarati books and 37 Hindustani books, whereas one other scholar states that the total number of books is 87, whereas some others believe that the total number of the poet's creations is almost one and a half lakhs whereas some believe that he has written 48 books in Gujarati, 41 in 'Vraj' plus 7000 more in 'Gujarati',12,000 in 'Vraj', 200 in Marathi, 24 in Punjabi, 15 in Sanskrit and 75 in Urdu.

Hence such wide writings are impossible to mention here, however they can be roughly divided into 14 parts.

  • Shikshatmak
  • Siddhantmak
  • Bhavatmak
  • Namatmak
  • Aakhyanatmak
  • Varnatmak
  • Shuddha Kavyatmak
  • Prameyatmak
  • Rahasyatmak
  • Prakeerna
  • Anuvaado
  • Gadya
  • Stotratmak
  • Lakshanatmak

Some of his most famous works are:

(A) Creations pertaining to Vallabh sampraday of Shrimad Vallabhacharya (known as Mahaprabhuji.)

  • Vallabh Parivar
  • Choryashi Vaishnav Nu Dhol
  • Bhaktiposhan
  • Rasik Vallabh
  • Saat Saiya (Hindi)

(B) Pouranik Aakhiyano

  • Aajamilaakhyan
  • Vakatraasurakhyan
  • Satyabhamaakhyan
  • Okha haran
  • Dashamheela
  • Raas Panchadhyayi

(C) Prakeernasarjan

  • Narsinh Mehta Ni Hundi
  • Shadarutuvarnan
  • Neetibhakti Na Pado

(D) Garbi Sangraha

  • Dayaram Raas-Sudha

Apart from the above below are a few more of his creations (These do not Include his Garba-Garbi)

  • Aakalcharitrachandrika
  • Anubhavmanjari
  • Aaparadhkshama Stotra
  • Aashbhapatrani No Vivah
  • Aashtottar Shaat Krushna Maala
  • Aloukik Nayak Nayika Bhed Prakran
  • Kamal Leela
  • KaalGnanSaransh
  • Kunwarbai Nu Mameru
  • Koutuk Ratnavalli
  • Krishna Virah Na baar Maas
  • KaaleshKuthar
  • GuruShishya Samvad
  • GuruSataKhyan
  • ChaaturchittaVilaas
  • ChintaChurnika
  • Chovees Aavtaar Nu Dhol
  • TatvaPrabandh
  • DharmaNeetisaar
  • NaagnaJeetiVivah
  • NaamPrabhavBatrishi
  • NissaDhanta
  • Patra Leela
  • Pingal Saar
  • PushtiPathRahasya
  • PushtiPaathSaarmanidam
  • PushtiRoopMaalika
  • Prabhandh
  • PrabodhBaavni
  • PrashnottarMalika
  • PrashnottarMala
  • Prashnottari
  • PremBhakti
  • PremraasGeeta
  • BaassoBaavan Vaishnav Nu Dhol
  • Baal Leela
  • BrahmanBhaktVeevad
  • BhaktaVel
  • BhaktiPoshan
  • BhaktiVeedhan
  • Bhagwad Geeta Mahatmaya
  • BhagwataNuKramanika
  • Maanprabodh No Kakko
  • MaanMatiSamvad
  • MeeraCharitra
  • MurliLeela
  • MurkhaLakshanaValli
  • RasikRanjan
  • Rasik Vallabh
  • Rasiyaji Na Maheena
  • RukmaniVivah
  • RukmaniSeemant
  • Roop Leela
  • VastuVrundDeepika
  • VinayBatrishi
  • VignaptiVilas
  • Vrutasur Nu Aakhyan
  • Vrundavan Vilas
  • Shree Krishna Akaal Charitra Chandrika
  • Shree Krishna Ashtottar Shaat Naam Chintamani
  • Shree Krishna Upreet
  • Shree Krishna Naam Chintamani
  • Shree Krishna Naam Chintamani Maala
  • Shree Krishna Naam Maahat Maya Manjari
  • Shree Krishna NaamAmrutDhara
  • Shree KrishnaNaamaMrutDhvani
  • Shree Krishna StavanChandrika
  • Shree Krishna StavanManjari
  • Shree Krishna Stavan Maadhuri
  • Shree Krishna StavanaMrut
  • Shree DushMaskandh Leela Nu Kramanika
  • Shree Purushottam Panchaang
  • ShreeMad Bhagwad Geeta
  • ShreeMad Bhagwad Geeta Mahatmaya
  • Shree Vishnu Swami Ni Parchari
  • Shree SheShshayee Nu Dhol
  • Shaad Rutuvarnan
  • Saat Saiya
  • SampradaySaar
  • SaarShiksha
  • SaaraVali
  • Siddhant Saar
  • Hanuman Garud Samvad
  • Haridas Mani Mala
  • Hari Heeradi SwarupTaarat Maya

Further reading[edit]

  • Milestones in Gujarati Literature by K M Jhaveri.
  • Brahmbhatt, Prasad. (2003) Kavyasarita. (Literary Criticism of the evolution of Poetry). Ahmedabad: Parshwa Publication.
  • Dwyer, Rachel. (2000) The Poetics of Devotion: The Gujarati Lyrics of Dayaram. London: Routledge.
  • Trivedi, Ramesh. M. (1994) Arvachin Gujarati Sahityano Itihaas. (History of Modern Gujarati Literature). Ahmedabad: Adarsh Prakashan.
  • Trivedi, Ramesh. M. (2005) Gujarati Sahityano Itihaas. (History of Gujarati Literature). Ahmedabad: Adarsh Prakashan.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rachel Dwyer (2001). The Poetics of Devotion: The Gujarati Lyrics of Dayaram. Psychology Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7007-1233-5. 
  2. ^ a b c d Parikh, Dhiru (1995). Dayaram Na Shreshtha Kavyo. Navbharat Sahitya Mandir Ahmedabad. pp. 3–6. 

External links[edit]