Six Thinking Hats
|Author||Edward de Bono|
|Publisher||Little Brown and Company|
|Preceded by||Masterthinker's Handbook (1985)|
|Followed by||I Am Right, You Are Wrong (1991)|
Six Thinking Hats is a system designed by Edward de Bono which describes a tool for group discussion and individual thinking involving six colored hats. "Six Thinking Hats" and the associated idea parallel thinking provide a means for groups to plan thinking processes in a detailed and cohesive way, and in doing so to think together more effectively.
The premise of the method is that the human brain thinks in a number of distinct ways which can be deliberately challenged, and hence planned for use in a structured way allowing one to develop tactics for thinking about particular issues. De Bono identifies six distinct directions in which the brain can be challenged. In each of these directions the brain will identify and bring into conscious thought certain aspects of issues being considered (e.g. gut instinct, pessimistic judgement, neutral facts). None of these directions is a completely natural way of thinking, but rather how some of us already represent the results of our thinking.
Since the hats do not represent natural modes of thinking, each hat must be used for a limited time only. Also, some will feel that using the hats is unnatural, uncomfortable or even counterproductive and against their better judgement.
A compelling example presented is sensitivity to "mismatch" stimuli. This is presented as a valuable survival instinct, because, in the natural world: the thing that is out of the ordinary may well be dangerous. This mode is identified as the root of negative judgement and critical thinking.
Six distinct directions are identified and assigned a color. The six directions are:
- Managing Blue – what is the subject? what are we thinking about? what is the goal? Can look at the big picture.
- Information White – considering purely what information is available, what are the facts?
- Emotions Red – intuitive or instinctive gut reactions or statements of emotional feeling (but not any justification)
- Discernment Black – logic applied to identifying reasons to be cautious and conservative. Practical, realistic.
- Optimistic response Yellow – logic applied to identifying benefits, seeking harmony. Sees the brighter, sunny side of situations.
- Creativity Green – statements of provocation and investigation, seeing where a thought goes. Thinks creatively, outside the box.
Coloured hats are used as metaphors for each direction. Switching to a direction is symbolized by the act of putting on a coloured hat, either literally or metaphorically. This metaphor of using imaginary hat or cap as a symbol for different thinking direction De Bono mentions as early as 1971 in his book "Lateral Thinking for Management" when describing brainstorming framework. These metaphors allow for a more complete and elaborate segregation of the thinking directions. The six thinking hats indicate problems and solutions about an idea the thinker may come up with.
Similarly to "The Five Stages of Thinking" method, corresponding tools to all six thinking hats first appear in his CoRT Thinking Programme in 1973 like
- Blue - CAF, FIP,
- White - Information,
- Pink - Emotions and Ego
- Black - PMI, Evaluation,
- Yellow - PMI,
- Green - Concept Challenge, Yes, No, Po.
Strategies and programs
Having identified the six modes of thinking that can be accessed, distinct programs can be created. These are sequences of hats which encompass and structure the thinking process toward a distinct goal. A number of these are included in the materials provided to support the franchised training of the six hats method; however it is often necessary to adapt them to suit an individual purpose. Also, programs are often "emergent", which is to say that the group might plan the first few hats then the facilitator will see what seems to be the right way to go.
Sequences always begin and end with a blue hat; the group agrees together how they will think, then they do the thinking, then they evaluate the outcomes of that thinking and what they should do next. Sequences (and indeed hats) may be used by individuals working alone or in groups. Example programs are shown below, each hat is typically used for approximately 2 minutes at a time - although at the start of a process an extended white hat session is common to get everyone onto the same page, and the red hat is recommended to be used for a very short period to get a visceral gut reaction - about 30 seconds, and in practice often takes the form of dot voting.
Initial Ideas - Blue, White, Green, Blue
Choosing between alternatives - Blue, White,(Green), Yellow, Black, Red, Blue
Identifying Solutions - Blue, White, Black, Green, Blue
Quick Feedback - Blue, Black, Green, Blue
Strategic Planning - Blue, Yellow, Black, White, Blue, Green, Blue
Process Improvement - Blue, White, White (Other peoples views), Yellow, Black, Green, Red, Blue
Solving Problems - Blue, White, Green, Red, Yellow, Black, Green, Blue
Performance Review - Blue, Red, White, Yellow, Black, Green Red, Blue
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Speedo Researchers are said to have tried the six thinking hats in the creation of swimsuits. "They tried the “Six Thinking Hats” method of brainstorming, a green hat for creative ways to attack a problem, a black one to look at the feasibility of those ideas."
Typically, a project will begin with an extended white hat action, as facts are assembled. Thereafter each hat is used for a few minutes at a time only, except the red hat which is limited to a very short 30 seconds or so to ensure that it is an instinctive gut reaction, rather than a form of judgement. This pace is believed to have a positive impact on the thinking process, in accordance with Malcolm Gladwell's theories on "blink" thinking.
De Bono believed that the key to a successful use of the Six Thinking Hats methodology was the deliberate focusing of the discussion on a particular approach as needed during the meeting or collaboration session. For instance, a meeting may be called to review a particular problem and to develop a solution for the problem. The Six Thinking Hats method could then be used in a sequence to first explore the problem, then develop a set of solutions, and to finally choose a solution through critical examination of the solution set.
The meeting may start with everyone assuming the Blue hat to discuss how the meeting will be conducted and to develop the goals and objectives. The discussion may then move to Red hat thinking in order to collect opinions and reactions to the problem. This phase may also be used to develop constraints for the actual solution such as who will be affected by the problem and/or solutions. Next the discussion may move to the (Yellow then) Green hat in order to generate ideas and possible solutions. Next the discussion may move between White hat thinking as part of developing information and Black hat thinking to develop criticisms of the solution set.
Because everyone is focused on a particular approach at any one time, the group tends to be more collaborative than if one person is reacting emotionally (Red hat) while another person is trying to be objective (White hat) and still another person is being critical of the points which emerge from the discussion (Black hat). The hats aid individuals in addressing problems from a variety of angles, and focus individuals on deficiencies in the way that they approach problem solving.
Even with good courtesy and clear shared objectives in any collaborative thinking activity there is a natural tendency for "spaghetti thinking" where one person is thinking about the benefits while another considers the facts and so on. The hats process avoids this. Everyone considers and all look in the same direction together. For example, a façade of a house (metaphorically speaking) and then the group will turn to the backyard. These can also be problems, or the benefits, or the facts, reducing distractions and supporting cross pollination of thought. This is achieved because everyone will put on one hat, e.g., the white hat, together, then they will all put on the next hat together. In this way all present think in the same way at the same time. The only exception is the facilitator, who will tend to keep the blue hat on all the time to make sure things progress effectively. The blue hat tends to be the outward-looking, leader/trail blazing hat that attracts the leaders of all groups. The hats are not a description but a way to look at things. They should not be used to describe thinking that has already taken place but they are directions in which to think next. Therefore, such methodology aids in better design.
- Amazon.com listing, Hardcover edition, retrieved March 7, 2012.
- de Bono, Edward (1985). Six Thinking Hats: An Essential Approach to Business Management. Little, Brown, & Company. ISBN 0-316-17791-1 (hardback) and 0316178314 (paperback).
- Kamal S. Birdi, No idea? Evaluating the effectiveness of creativity training, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 29 No. 2, 2005, pp. 102–111, Emerald Group Publishing Limited
- Edward De Bono 1971. Lateral Thinking for Management: A Handbook Of Creativity. American Management Association, New York. pp. 116
- de Bono, Edward, CoRT Thinking Program, Workcards and Teacher’s Notes, 1973a, Sydney: Direct Education Services.
- Six Thinking Hats; Official training materials, DeBono Thinking Systems
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