de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter

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DHC-6 Twin Otter
WinAir De Havilland Canada DHC-6-300 Twin Otter Breidenstein.jpg
A Winair DHC-6 Twin Otter landing at St Barthelemy Gustaf III Airport.
Role Utility aircraft
Manufacturer de Havilland Canada
Viking Air
First flight 20 May 1965
Introduction 1966
Status In production[1]
Produced 1965–1988 (Series 100–300)
2008–present (Series 400)
Number built Oct 2017: 967
(844 DHC, 123 Viking)[2]
Unit cost
US$680,000 (1972)[3]
US$6.5 million (2017)[4]
Developed from de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter
Developed into de Havilland Canada Dash 7

The de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter, currently marketed as the Viking Air DHC-6 Twin Otter, is a Canadian 19-passenger STOL (Short Takeoff and Landing) utility aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada and currently produced by Viking Air. The aircraft's fixed tricycle undercarriage, STOL capabilities, twin turboprop engines and high rate of climb have made it a successful commuter passenger airliner as well as a cargo and medical evacuation aircraft. In addition, the Twin Otter has been popular with commercial skydiving operations, and is used by the United States Army Parachute Team and the United States Air Force's 98th Flying Training Squadron.

Design and development[edit]

Aerovías DAP DHC-6 Series 300 at Puerto Williams
A Twin Otter making a normal landing approach in Queensland
First flight of the Series 400 technical demonstrator by Viking Air at Victoria Airport, October 1, 2008

Development of the aircraft began in 1964, with the first flight on May 20, 1965. A twin-engine replacement for the single-engine DHC-3 Otter retaining DHC's renowned STOL qualities, its design features included double-slotted trailing-edge flaps and ailerons that work in unison with the flaps to boost STOL performance. The availability of the 550 shp (410 kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-20 turboprop in the early 1960s made the concept of a twin more feasible. To bush operators, the improved reliability of turboprop power and the improved performance of a twin-engine configuration made it an immediately popular alternative to the piston-powered Otter which had been flying since 1951.

The first six aircraft produced were designated Series 1, indicating that they were prototype aircraft. The initial production run consisted of Series 100 aircraft, serial numbers seven to 115 inclusive. In 1968, Series 200 production began with serial number 116. Changes made at the beginning of Series 200 production included improving the STOL performance, adding a longer nose that was equipped with a larger baggage compartment (except for aircraft fitted with floats), and fitting a larger door to the rear baggage compartment. All Series 1, 100, and 200 aircraft and their variants (110, 210) were fitted with the 550-shaft-horsepower PT6A-20 engines.

In 1969, the Series 300 was introduced, beginning with serial number 231. Both aircraft performance and payload were improved by fitting more powerful PT6A-27 engines. This was a 680 hp (510 kW) engine that was flat-rated to 620 hp (460 kW) for use in the Series 300 Twin Otter. The Series 300 proved to be the most successful variant by far, with 614 Series 300 aircraft and their subvariants (Series 310 for United Kingdom operators, Series 320 for Australian operators, etc.) sold before production in Toronto by de Havilland Canada ended in 1988.

New production[edit]

After Series 300 production ended, the remaining tooling was purchased by Viking Air of Victoria, British Columbia, which manufactures replacement parts for all of the out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft. On February 24, 2006, Viking purchased the type certificates from Bombardier Aerospace for all the out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft (DHC-1 through DHC-7).[5] The ownership of the certificates gives Viking the exclusive right to manufacture new aircraft.

On July 17, 2006, at the Farnborough Air Show, Viking Air announced its intention to offer a Series 400 Twin Otter. On April 2, 2007, Viking announced that with 27 orders and options in hand, it was restarting production of the Twin Otter, equipped with more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 engines.[6] As of November 2007, 40 firm orders and 10 options had been taken and a new final assembly plant was established in Calgary, Alberta.[7][8] Zimex Aviation of Switzerland received the first new production aircraft, serial number 845, in July 2010.[9][10] By mid-2014, Viking had built 55 new aircraft at its Calgary facility. The production rate as of summer 2014 was about 24 aircraft per year. In April 2015, Viking announced a reduction of the production rate to 18 aircraft per year.[11] On June 17, 2015, Viking further announced a partnership with a Chinese firm, Reignwood Aviation Group. The group will purchase 50 aircraft and become the exclusive representatives for new Series 400 Twin Otters in China.

Major changes introduced with the Series 400 include Honeywell Primus Apex fully integrated avionics, deletion of the AC electrical system, deletion of the beta backup system, modernization of the electrical and lighting systems, and use of composites for nonload-bearing structures such as doors.[12]

The 100th Series 400 (MSN 944) was displayed at the July 2017 EAA AirVenture Oshkosh, 38% are operated as regional airliners, 31% in military aviation or special missions, 26% in industrial support and 5% in private air charter; 70 are on regular landing gear wheels, 18 are configured as straight or amphibious floatplanes, 10 have tundra tires and 2 have wheel skis.[13]

Operational history[edit]

Maldivian DHC-6 Twin Otter water landing
de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter on Beechey Island at seamen's graves of John Franklin expedition (Nunavut, Canada) circa 1997. Note the tundra tires.
Twin Otter daily scheduled service between Glasgow (Scotland) and Barra Airport. Barra Airport's runway is on a sand beach.

Twin Otters could be delivered directly from the factory with floats, skis, or tricycle landing gear fittings, making them adaptable bush planes for remote and northern areas. Areas including Canada and the United States, (specifically Alaska) had much of the demand. Many Twin Otters still serve in the far north, but they can also be found in Africa, Australia, Asia, Antarctica, and other regions where bush planes are the optimum means of travel. Their versatility and maneuverability have made them popular in areas with difficult flying environments such as Papua New Guinea. In Norway, the Twin Otter paved the way for the network of short-field airports, connecting rural areas with larger towns. The Twin Otter showed outstanding reliability, and remained in service until 2000 on certain routes. Widerøe of Norway was, at one time, the world's largest operator of Twin Otters. During one period of its tenure in Norway, the Twin Otter fleet achieved over 96,000 cycles (take-off, flight, and landing) per year.[citation needed]

A number of commuter airlines in the United States got their start by operating Twin Otters in scheduled passenger operations. Houston Metro Airlines (which later changed its name to Metro Airlines) constructed their own STOLport airstrip with a passenger terminal and maintenance hangar in Clear Lake City, Texas, near the NASA Johnson Space Center. The Clear Lake City STOLport was specifically designed for Twin Otter operations. According to the February 1976 edition of the Official Airline Guide, Houston Metro operated 22 round-trip flights every weekday at this time between Clear Lake City (CLC) and Houston Intercontinental Airport (IAH, now Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport) in a scheduled passenger airline shuttle operation.[14] Houston Metro had agreements in place for connecting passenger feed services with Continental Airlines and Eastern Airlines at Houston Intercontinental, with this major airport having a dedicated STOL landing area at the time specifically for Twin Otter flight operations. The Clear Lake City STOLport is no longer in existence.

The Walt Disney World resort in Florida was also served with scheduled airline flights operated with Twin Otter aircraft. The Walt Disney World Airport (DWS), also known as the Lake Buena Vista STOLport, was a private airfield constructed by the Walt Disney Company with Twin Otter operations in mind. In the early 1970s, Shawnee Airlines operated scheduled Twin Otter flights between the Disney resort and nearby Orlando Jetport (MCO, now Orlando International Airport), as well as to Tampa International Airport (TPA). This service by Shawnee Airlines is mentioned in the "Air Commuter Section" of the Sept, 6, 1972 Eastern Air Lines system timetable as a connecting service to and from Eastern flights.[15] This STOL airfield is no longer in use.

Another commuter airline in the U.S., Rocky Mountain Airways, operated Twin Otters from the Lake County Airport in Leadville, CO. At an elevation of 9,927 feet above mean sea level, this airport is the highest airfield in the U.S. ever to have received scheduled passenger airline service, thus demonstrating the wide-ranging flight capabilities of the Twin Otter. Rocky Mountain Airways went on to become the worldwide launch customer for the larger, four-engine de Havilland Canada DHC-7 Dash 7 STOL turboprop, but continued to operate the Twin Otter, as well.

Larger scheduled passenger airlines based in the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean and Australia, particularly jetliner operators, also flew Twin Otters, with the aircraft providing connecting feeder service for these airlines. Jet aircraft operators which also flew the Twin Otter included Aeronaves de Mexico, Air BC, Alaska Airlines, ALM Antillean Airlines, Ansett Airlines, Cayman Airways, Frontier Airlines (1950-1986), LIAT, Norcanair, Nordair, Ozark Air Lines, Pacific Western Airlines, Quebecair, South Pacific Island Airways, Time Air, Transair (Canada), Trans Australian Airlines (TAA), Wardair Canada and Wien Air Alaska.[16][17] In many cases, the excellent operating economics of the Twin Otter allowed airlines large and small to provide scheduled passenger flights to communities that most likely would otherwise never have received air service.

Twin Otters are also a staple of Antarctic transportation.[18] Four Twin Otters are employed by the British Antarctic Survey on research and supply flights, and several are employed by the United States Antarctic Program via contract with Kenn Borek Air. On April 24–25, 2001, two Twin Otters performed the first winter flight to Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station to perform a medical evacuation.[19][20][21][22] On June 21–22, 2016, Kenn Borek Air's Twin Otters performed the third winter evacuation flight to Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station to remove two people for medical reasons.[23]

The Argentine Air Force has used the Twin Otter in Antarctica[24] since the 1970s, with at least one of them deployed year-round at Marambio Base.[25] The Chilean Air Force has operated the type since 1980, usually having an example based at Presidente Frei Antarctic base of the South Shetland islands.

Air Greenland uses one of its Twin Otters for winter supply flights to the Summit Camp polar research station.

As of August 2006, a total of 584 Twin Otter aircraft (all variants) remain in service worldwide. Major operators include: Libyan Arab Airlines (16), Maldivian Air Taxi (22), Trans Maldivian Airways (23), Kenn Borek Air (42)[26] and Scenic Airlines (11). Some 115 airlines operate smaller numbers of the aircraft including Yeti Airlines in Nepal, Malaysia Airlines (which uses the Twin Otter exclusively for passenger and freight transportation to the Kelabit Highlands region in Sarawak), and in the United Kingdom, the FlyBe franchise operator Loganair which uses the aircraft to service the island of Barra in the Hebrides islands. This daily scheduled service is unique as the aircraft lands on the beach and the schedule is partly influenced by the tide tables. Trials in Barra with heavier planes than the Twin Otter, like the Short 360, failed because they sank in the sand. The Twin Otter is also used for landing at the world's shortest commercial runway on the Caribbean island of Saba, Netherlands Antilles.

The Twin Otter has been popular with commercial skydiving operations. It can carry up to 22 skydivers to over 17,000 ft (a large load compared to most other aircraft in the industry); presently, the Twin Otter is used in skydiving operations in many countries. The United States Air Force operates three Twin Otters for the United States Air Force Academy's skydiving team.

On 26 April 2001, the first ever air rescue during polar winter from the South Pole occurred with a ski-equipped Twin Otter operated by Kenn Borek Air.[27][28][29]

On September 25, 2008, the Series 400 Technology Demonstrator achieved "power on" status in advance of an official rollout.[30][31] First flight of the Series 400 technical demonstrator, C-FDHT, took place October 1, 2008, at Victoria Airport.[32][33] Two days later, the aircraft departed Victoria for a ferry flight to Orlando, Florida, site of the 2008 National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) Conference and exhibition. The first new build Series 400 Twin Otter (SN 845) made its first flight on February 16, 2010, in Calgary, Alberta.[34] Transport Canada presented Viking Air Limited with an amended DHC-6 Type Certificate including the Series 400 on July 21, 2010.[8] Six years after, in July 2016, 100 series 400 have been delivered to 34 customers operating in 29 countries.[35] In June 2017, 125 have been made since restarting production in 2010.[36]

Variants[edit]

Air Seychelles de Havilland Canada DHC-6-300 Twin Otter on Bird Island, Seychelles
A Seaborne Airlines DHC-6-300 fitted with floats makes a water landing at Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
DHC-6 Series 100 
Twin-engine STOL utility transport aircraft, powered by two 550 shp (432 kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A20 turboprop engines.
DHC-6 Series 110 
Variant of the Series 100 built to conform to BCAR (British Civil Air Regulations).
DHC-6 Series 200 
Improved version.
DHC-6 Series 300 
Twin-engine STOL utility transport aircraft, powered by two 680 shp (715 ESHP) (462 kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprop engines.
DHC-6 Series 300M 
Multi-role military transport aircraft. Two of these were produced as "proof-of-concept" demonstrators. Both have since been reverted to Series 300 conformity.
DHC-6 Series 310 
Variant of the Series 300 built to conform to BCAR (British Civil Air Regulations).
DHC-6 Series 320 
Variant of the Series 300 built to conform to Australian Civil Air Regulations.
DHC-6 Series 300S 
Six demonstrator aircraft fitted with 11 seats, wing spoilers and an anti-skid braking system. All have since been reverted to Series 300 conformity.
Viking Air DHC-6 Series 400
Viking Air production, first delivered in July 2010, powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 engines, and available on standard landing gear, straight floats, amphibious floats, skis, wheel skis, or intermediate flotation landing gear.
Viking Air DHC-6 Series 400S Seaplane
Viking Air seventeen-seat seaplane version of the Series 400 with twin floats and corrosion-resistance measures for the airframe, engines and fuels system. Customer deliveries planned from early 2017.[37] 500 lb (230 kg) lighter than the 400.[38]
CC-138 
Twin-engine STOL utility transport, search and rescue aircraft for the Canadian Forces. Based on the Series 300 aircraft.
UV-18A 
Twin-engine STOL utility transport aircraft for the U.S. Army Alaska National Guard. Six built. It has been replaced by the C-23 Sherpa in US Army service.
UV-18B 
Parachute training aircraft for the United States Air Force Academy. The United States Air Force Academy's 98th Flying Training Squadron maintains three[39] UV-18s in its inventory as free-fall parachuting training aircraft,[40] and by the Academy Parachute Team, the Wings of Blue, for year-round parachuting operations. Based on the Series 300 aircraft.
UV-18C 
United States Army designation for three Viking Air Series 400s delivered in 2013.[41]

Operators[edit]

270 Twin Otters were in airline service in 2018, and 14 on order : 111 in North/South America, 117 in Asia Pacific & Middle East (14 orders), 26 in Europe and 13 in Africa.[42]

The Twin Otter has been popular not only with bush operators as a replacement for the single-engine de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter but also with other civil and military customers, with over 890 aircraft built. Many commuter airlines in the U.S. got their start by flying the Twin Otter in scheduled passenger operations.

Airlines with six aircraft or more[42]
Operator in service
[400 Viking]
(orders)
Trans Maldivian Airways 50
Grand Canyon Airlines 15
Kenn Borek Air 13
Maldivian 11
SonAir 8
Provincial Airlines 8
Air Inuit 7
SVG Air 7
Zimex Aviation 7 [1]
Air Adelphi 6
Aviastar Mandiri 6
MASwings [6]
LADE 6
Seabird Airlines [6]

Kaymac Inc., a government civilian contractor based in Nevada, operates 18.[43]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Accidents with fatalities[44]
Date Flight Fat. Location Event Surv.
29 Jun 1972 Air Wisconsin 671 8 USA, Wisconsin, Lake Winnebago collided mid-air with a NCA Convair 580 carrying five, killing all.[45]
5 Jan 1975 Argentine Army 13 Argentina, Tucumán crashed due to bad weather and lack of a flight plan.[46]
3 May 1976 demonstration 11 Zambia, Monze AF Base crashed on take off[47]
18 Jan 1978 Frontier Airlines 3 USA, Colorado, Pueblo crashed during a training flight[48]
2 Sep 1978 Airwest Airlines 11 Canada, BC, Vancouver, Coal Harbour Approach loss of control after a corroded rod failed and a flap retracted[49] 2
18 Nov 1978 Jonestown cult rescue Guyana, Port Kaituma shot up by cultists while rescuing Americans[50][51]
31 Jul 1981 Panamanian AF FAP-205 7 Panama, Coclé Province including President Omar Torrijos[52]
21 Feb 1982 Pilgrim Airlines 458 1 USA, RI, Scituate Reservoir emergency landing after a fire broke out on board[53] 10
11 Mar 1982 Widerøe Flight 933 15 Barents Sea crashed near Gamvik, Norway
18 Jun 1986 Grand Canyon Airlines 6 20 USA, Arizona, Grand Canyon collided with a Helitech Bell 206, also killing its five occupants
28 Oct 1989 Aloha Island Air 1712 20 USA, Hawaii, Molokai crashed into a mountain on approach to Hoolehua Airport.[54]
12 Apr 1990 Widerøe Flight 839 5 Norway, outside Værøy crashed in the ocean due to wind
22 Apr 1992 Perris Valley Aviation 16 USA, California, Perris Valley Airport fuel contamination, lost power and crashed near the runway end[55] 6
10 Jan 1995 Merpati Nusantara 6715 14 Indonesia, Molo Strait disappeared in bad weather on a scheduled flight from Bima Airport to Satar Tacik Airport, Ruteng.[56]
30 Nov 1996 ACES Colombia 15 Colombia, near Medellin 8 km. from Olaya Herrera Airport[57]
7 Jan 1997 Polynesian Airlines 211 3 Samoa, Mount Vaea bad weather controlled flight into terrain between Pago Pago and Apia while diverting to Faleolo Airport 2
24 Mar 2001 Air Caraïbes 19 French West Indies, Saint Barthélemy crashed near Gustaf III Airport, killing one on ground.[58]
9 Aug 2007 Air Moorea Flight 1121 20 French Polynesia, near Moorea Airport bound for Tahiti, crashed shortly after takeoff[59]
6 May 2007 French Air Force 9 Egypt, Sinai Peninsula crashed while supporting the Multinational Force and Observers[60]
8 Oct 2008 Yeti Airlines Flight 103 18 Nepal, Lukla Airport destroyed on landing[61] 1
2 Aug 2009 Merpati Nusantara 9760 16 Indonesia, near Oksibil crashed about 22 km (14 mi) north of Oksibil.[62]
11 Aug 2009 Airlines PNG Flight 4684 13 Papua New Guinea crashed on a mountain whilst en route from Port Moresby to Kokoda.[63]
15 Dec 2010 Tara Air 22 Nepal, Bilandu Forest 2010 Okhaldhunga Twin Otter crash[64]
20 Jan 2011 Ecuadorian Air Force 6 Ecuador, El Capricho En route from Pastaza-Shell Mera Airport to Tena Airport[65]
22 Sep 2011 Arctic Sunwest Charters 2 Canada, NT, Yellowknife float plane crashed in the street, injuring seven.[66]
23 Jan 2013 Kenn Borek Air 3 Antarctica, Mount Elizabeth skiplane lost en route from the South Pole to Terra Nova Bay.[67][68][69][70]
10 Oct 2013 MASwings Flight 3002 2 Malaysia, Kudat Airport crashed on landing[71] 14
16 Feb 2014 Nepal Airlines 18 Nepal, Arghakhanchi District on the way to Jumla from Pokhara.[72]
20 Sep 2014 Hevilift 4 New Guinea, near Port Moresby crashed on landing[73] 5
2 Oct 2015 Aviastar 7503 10 Indonesia, Luwu Regency the pilot deviated from its route to Makassar
24 Feb 2016 Tara Air 23 Nepal, Pokhara crashed after takeoff[74]
30 Aug 2018 Ethiopian Air Force 18 Ethiopia, near Mojo from Dire Dawa, crashed at a place called Nannawa[75]

Specifications[edit]

Series 100[76] 300[76] 400[77]
Cockpit crew 1–2
Seating 20 19
Length 15.09m (49 ft 6in) 51 ft 9 in (15.77 m)
Height 19 ft 6 in / 5.94 m
Wing 65 ft 0 in (19.81 m) span, 420 sq ft (39 m2) area (10.05 AR)
Empty weight 5,850l lb / 2,653 kg 7,415  lb / 3,363 kg 7,100 lb / 3,221 kg (no accommodation)
MTOW 4763 kg / 10,500 lb 12,500 lb / 5,670 kg[a]
payload 975 kg (2150 lb) over 1344 km (727nmi) 1135 kg (2500 lb) over 1297 km (700 nm)
860 kg (1900 lb) over 1705 km (920 nm)[b]
4,061 lb / 1,842 kg over 100 nmi (185 km)
3,031 lb / 1,375 kg over 400 nmi (741 km)
Fuel capacity 378 US gal / 1466 L,[b] 2,590 lb / 1,175 kg
Turboprops (×2) P&WC PT6A-20 PT6A-27 PT6A-34
Unit Power 431 kW / 578shp 460 kW / 620shp 750 hp (559 kW)
Max. Cruise 297 km/h / 160kn 338 km/h / 182kn 182 kn (337 km/h) (FL100)
Takeoff to 50 ft 1,200 ft / 366 m
Landing from 50 ft 1,050 ft / 320 m
Ferry Range 771 nmi / 1,427 km 799 nmi / 1480 km[c]
Endurance 6.94 h[c]
Ceiling 25,000 ft / 7,620 m
Climb rate 1,600 ft/min (8.1 m/s)
FL100 fuel burn
146 kn (270 km/h)
468.2 lb (212.4 kg)/hour
0.311 nmi/lb (1.27 km/kg)
Power/mass 0.11 hp/lb (0.18 kW/kg) 0.1 hp/lb (0.16 kW/kg) 0.12 hp/lb (0.20 kW/kg)
  1. ^ military −400: 14,000 lb / 6350 kg
  2. ^ a b 89 US Gal / 336 L optional wingtip tank for 3,190 lb 1,447 kg of fuel
  3. ^ a b 989 nmi / 1832 km ferry range or 8.76 h of endurance with optional wingtip tanks
Orthographically projected diagram of the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter.

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

Notes
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  3. ^ "Airliner price index". Flight International. 10 August 1972. p. 183. 
  4. ^ Fred George (May 2017). "2017 Business Airplanes Purchase Planning Handbook" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Penton. p. 91. 
  5. ^ "Viking Acquires De Havilland Type Certificates." Archived 2006-08-24 at the Wayback Machine. aiabc.com, February 24, 2006. Retrieved: May 15, 2010.
  6. ^ "Viking restarts Twin Otter production." flightglobal.com, April 2, 2007. Retrieved: May 15, 2010.
  7. ^ Sarsfield, Kate. "Viking Twin Otter Series 400 certification approaches." Flightglobal', February 3, 2010. Retrieved: May 15, 2010.
  8. ^ a b "News releases." Archived 2010-09-08 at the Wayback Machine. Viking Air. Retrieved: May 15, 2010.
  9. ^ "Twin Otter – Zimex Aviation." Archived 2008-05-01 at the Wayback Machine. zimex.ch. Retrieved: May 15, 2010.
  10. ^ Jang, Brent (2010-05-14). "The rebirth of a Canadian icon". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2012-08-08. 
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  14. ^ North American Official Airline Guide (OAG), Feb. 1976 edition
  15. ^ "index". Departedflights.com. 2017-04-14. Retrieved 2017-04-26. 
  16. ^ http://www.timetableimages.com, airline system timetables
  17. ^ http://www.departedflights.com, airline system timetables & OAG flight guides
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  19. ^ "2001—Doctor Evacuated from the South Pole." Archived 2006-03-15 at Archive.is www.70south.com. Retrieved: May 15, 2010.
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  33. ^ Padfield, R. Randall and Matt Thurber. "Revived Twin Otter Makes First Flight." Archived 2008-10-11 at the Wayback Machine. ainonline.com, October 8, 2008. Retrieved: May 15, 2010.
  34. ^ "Twin Otter Series 400 completes maiden sortie." flightglobal.com, February 17, 2010. Retrieved: May 15, 2010.
  35. ^ "Viking Readies 100th Production Series 400 Twin Otter for Delivery" (Press release). Viking Air. Jul 12, 2016. 
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  37. ^ "New Twin Otter Seaplane launched". Pilot. Archant Specialist. April 2016. p. 8. 
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  58. ^ "Accident survenu le 24 mars 2001 sur l’île de Saint-Barthélemy (971) au DHC-6-300 « Twin-Otter » immatriculé F-OGES exploité par Caraïbes Air Transpor" (in French). Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile, October 7, 2001.
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Bibliography
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