DeLorean DMC-12

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DeLorean DMC-12
Delorean DMC-12 side.jpg
1983 DeLorean DMC-12
Overview
Manufacturer DeLorean Motor Company
Production 8,583[1]
Model years 1981–1983
Assembly
  • Northern Ireland: DeLorean Motor Cars Limited (DMCL) Dunmurry
  • United States: DeLorean Motor Company (DMCH) Houston, Texas
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style 2-door gullwing coupé
Layout RR layout
Powertrain
Engine 2,849 cc PRV ZMJ-159 V6
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,413 mm (95.0 in)[2]
Length 4,216 mm (166.0 in)
Width 1,857 mm (73.1 in)
Height 1,140 mm (44.9 in) doors closed
1,961 mm (77.2 in) doors open
Curb weight 1,230 kg (2,712 lb)

The DeLorean DMC-12 (commonly referred to simply as "the DeLorean", as it was the only model ever produced by the company) is a sports car originally manufactured by John DeLorean's DeLorean Motor Company for the American market from 1981 to 1983. The car features gull-wing doors and an innovative fiberglass body structure with a steel backbone chassis, along with external brushed stainless-steel body panels. It became widely known and iconic for its appearance, and because a modified DMC-12 was immortalized as the DeLorean time machine in the Back to the Future media franchise.

The first prototype appeared in October 1976. Production officially began in 1981 in Dunmurry, a suburb of southwest Belfast, Northern Ireland, where the first DMC-12 rolled off the production line on January 21. Over the course of production, several features of the car were changed, such as the hood style, wheels, and interior. About 9,000 DMC-12s were made before production halted in early 1983.[3]

The DMC-12 was the only model produced by the company, which was later liquidated as the US car market went through its largest slump since the 1930s. In 2007, about 6,500 DeLorean Motor cars were thought to still exist.[4]

In 1995, Stephen Wynne, a British entrepreneur from Liverpool, created a separate company based in Texas using the "DeLorean Motor Company" name. Wynne acquired the trademark on the stylized "DMC" logo shortly thereafter, along with the remaining parts inventory of the original DeLorean Motor Company. The company builds new cars at its suburban Humble, Texas location from new old stock (NOS) parts, original equipment manufacturer (OEM), and reproduction parts on a "made to order" basis using existing vehicle identification number (VIN) plates.[5]

On January 27, 2016, DMC in Texas announced that it planned to build about 300–325 replica 1982 DMC-12 cars, each projected to cost just under US$100,000.[6]

History[edit]

A DeLorean DMC-12 with the gull-wing doors closed.
A DeLorean DMC-12 from the front with the gull-wing doors open.

In October 1976, the first prototype DeLorean DMC-12 was completed by American automotive chief engineer William T. Collins, formerly chief engineer at Pontiac. Originally, the car was intended to have a centrally-mounted Wankel rotary engine. The engine selection was reconsidered when Comotor production ended, and the favored engine became Ford's "Cologne V6". Eventually the French/Swedish PRV (Peugeot-Renault-Volvo) fuel-injected V6 was selected. Also the engine location moved from the mid-engined location in the prototype to a rear-engined installation in the production car. The chassis was initially planned to be produced from a new and untested manufacturing technology known as elastic reservoir moulding (ERM), which would lighten the car while presumably lowering its production costs. This new technology, for which DeLorean had purchased patent rights, was eventually found to be unsuitable.[citation needed]

These and other changes to the original concept led to considerable schedule pressures. The entire car was deemed to require almost complete re-engineering, which was turned over to engineer Colin Chapman, founder and owner of Lotus Cars. Chapman replaced most of the unproven material and manufacturing techniques with those then employed by Lotus, like the steel backbone chassis.[citation needed]

In an interview with James Espey of the new incarnation of the DeLorean Motor Company of Texas, a drawing surfaced showing that the car originally had the potential to be named "Z Tavio". John DeLorean's middle name and his son's first name were both Zachary, while Tavio was his father's name and his son's middle name. Due to only sporadic documentation, there is little more that is currently known about the Z Tavio name and why it was ultimately rejected in favor of the DMC-12.[7]

DeLorean required US$175 million to develop and build the motor company.[8] Convincing Hollywood celebrities such as Johnny Carson and Sammy Davis, Jr. to invest in the firm,[9][10] DeLorean eventually built the DMC-12 in a factory in Dunmurry, Northern Ireland, a neighborhood a few miles from Belfast city center.[citation needed]

The company had originally intended to build the factory in Puerto Rico,[11][12] but changed its plans when the Northern Ireland Development Agency offered £100 million towards it,[13] despite an assessment by consultants hired by the NIDA that the business had only a 1-in-10 chance of success.[12]

Construction on the factory began in October 1978, and although production of the DMC-12 was scheduled to start in 1979, engineering problems and budget overruns delayed production until early 1981.[citation needed]

By the time production actually began in 1981, the unemployment rate was high in Northern Ireland, and local residents lined up to apply for jobs at the factory. The workers were largely inexperienced, but were paid premium wages and supplied with the best equipment available. Most quality issues were solved by 1982, and the cars were sold from dealers with a one-year, 12,000-mile (19,000 km) warranty and an available five-year, 50,000-mile (80,000 km) service contract.[citation needed]

DeLorean interior.

The DeLorean Motor Company went bankrupt in late 1982 following John DeLorean's arrest in October of that year on drug-trafficking charges. He was later found not guilty, but it was too late for the DMC-12 to remain in production. Approximately 100 partially assembled DMCs on the production line were completed by Consolidated International (now known as Big Lots). The remaining parts from the factory stock, the parts from the US Warranty Parts Center, as well as parts from the original suppliers that had not yet been delivered to the factory were all shipped to Columbus, Ohio in 1983–1984. A company called KAPAC sold these parts to retail and wholesale customers by mail order. In 1997, DeLorean Motor Company of Texas acquired this inventory.[14] There had also been a long-standing rumor that the body stamping dies were dumped into the ocean to prevent later manufacture. Evidence later emerged that the dies were used as anchors for nets at a fish farm in Ards Bay, Connemara, Ireland.[15]

About 9,200 DMC-12s were produced between January 1981 and December 1982.[16] Almost a fifth of these were produced in October 1981. About a thousand 1982 models were produced between February and May 1982, and all of these cars had the VINs changed after purchase by Consolidated to make them appear as 1983 models. There are the 15XXX, 16XXX, and 17XXX VINs, which were originally 10XXX, 11XXX, and 12XXX VINs. Only a dozen 12XXXX VIN cars still exist. These are the Wooler-Hodec right-hand-drive cars (see below).[citation needed]

Construction[edit]

The DMC-12 features a number of unusual construction details, including gull-wing doors, unpainted stainless-steel body panels, and a rear-mounted engine.

Body[edit]

1981 DeLorean that was displayed at the National Motor Museum, Birdwood South Australia, in October 2011.

The body design of the DMC-12 was a product of Giorgetto Giugiaro of Ital Design and is panelled in brushed SS304 stainless steel. Except for three cars plated in 24-karat gold, all DMC-12s left the factory uncovered by paint or clearcoat.[17] Painted DeLoreans do exist, although these were all painted after the cars were purchased from the factory. Several hundred DMCs were produced without stainless panels, for training workers, and are referred to as "black cars" or "mules", in reference to their black fiberglass panels instead of stainless, although these were never marketed. Small scratches in the stainless-steel body panels can be removed with a non-metallic scouring pad (since metal pads can leave iron particles embedded in the stainless steel, which can give the appearance of the stainless "rusting"), or even sandpaper.[18] The stainless-steel panels are fixed to a fiberglass underbody. The underbody is affixed to a steel double-Y frame chassis, derived from the Lotus Esprit platform.[citation needed]

The unpainted stainless body creates challenges during restoration of the cars. In traditional automotive body repair, the panel is repaired to be as original ("straight") as possible, and imperfections are sculpted back to form with polyester body filler like Bondo or lead (body solder). This poses no problem (aside from originality) with most cars, as the filler will be hidden by the car's paint (for example, most new cars have filler hiding the seam where the roof meets the quarter panel). With an unpainted stainless body, the stainless steel must be reworked to exactly the original shape, contour, and grain, which is a tremendously difficult job on regular steel (a dented or bent panel is stretched, and a shrinking hammer or other techniques must be used to unstretch the metal) and even more difficult with stainless due to its tendency to work-harden. Furthermore, it is exceedingly difficult to paint stainless steel due to difficulties with paint adhesion. DeLorean envisioned that damaged panels would simply be replaced rather than repaired; each DeLorean service center today has at least one experienced body-repair person on staff, and there are decades worth of new stainless panels still available in most instances.[citation needed]

The gull-wing doors on the De-Lorean DMC-12 were a distinctive feature.

Another distinctive feature of the DMC-12 is its gull-wing doors. The common problem of supporting the weight of gull-wing doors was solved by other manufacturers with lightweight doors in the Mercedes-Benz 300SL and a hydraulic pump in the Bricklin SV-1, although these designs had structural or convenience disadvantages. The DMC-12 features heavy doors supported by cryogenically preset torsion bars and gas-charged struts.[19] These torsion bars were developed by Grumman Aerospace (and built by Unbrako in the UK, a division of SPS Technologies of Jenkintown, PA) to withstand the stresses of supporting the doors.[20] A popular misconception of the DMC-12's gull-wing doors is that they require far more side clearance to open relative to ordinary side-hinge doors, such as when parked in a parking lot. In fact, the opposite is true: the DMC-12 requires far less clearance than side-hinge doors, and this can be physically demonstrated. This misconception of side clearance may stem from a misunderstood location of the hinge point of the doors by persons unfamiliar with DMC-12s. These doors, when opening, only require 11 inches (28 cm) clearance outside the line of the car, making opening and closing the doors in crowded spaces relatively easy. Much like the doors fitted to the Lamborghini Countach, the DMC-12 doors featured small cutout windows, because full-sized windows would not be fully retractable within the short door panels. Additionally, the doors featured red and amber "safety" lights around the perimeter. These lights illuminated when the door was open and could be seen from the front, rear or side of the vehicle at night or in low-light situations.[21][22]

Engine and drivetrain[edit]

The engine is a Peugeot-Renault-Volvo (PRV) 2.85 L (2,849 cc) V6, rated at 130 hp (132 PS; 97 kW) @ 5500 rpm and 207 N⋅m (153 lb⋅ft) @ 2750 rpm [23] [24], that was designed and built under special contract with the DeLorean Motor Company. These PRVs were a development of the 2.7-litre V6 in the Renault 30 and were built in the PRV Factory in Douvrin, Northern France. The 5-speed manual transmission, also designed by PRV, was built at the Renault facility near Caen in Normandy. The engines and gearboxes were shipped weekly by sea from the PRV factories to the DMC factory.

Suspension[edit]

The suspension of the DMC-12 is a four-wheel independent suspension, coil springs, and telescopic shock absorbers. The front suspension uses double wishbones, while the rear is a multi-link setup. In its original development stages, the car is said to have handled quite well. Design drawings clearly show that the design met NHTSA minimum bumper and headlight heights of the time.[25][26] Many owners have subsequently replaced or modified the front springs to return the front height to the original design specification.[27]

Steering is rack and pinion, with an overall steering ratio of 14.9:1, giving 2.65 turns lock-to-lock and a 35-foot (11 m) turning circle. DMC-12s are fitted with cast alloy wheels, measuring 14 inches (360 mm) in diameter by 6 inches (150 mm) wide on the front and 15 inches (380 mm) in diameter by 8 inches (200 mm) wide on the rear. These were fitted with Goodyear NCT steel-belted radial tires. The DeLorean is a rear-engine vehicle with a 35%–65% front–rear weight distribution.[28]

The DMC-12 features power-assisted disc brakes on all wheels, with 10-inch (250 mm) rotors front and 10.5-inch (270 mm) rear. [29]

Performance[edit]

DeLorean's comparison literature noted that the DMC-12 could achieve 0–60 miles per hour (0–97 km/h) in 8.8 seconds, when equipped with a manual transmission. When equipped with an automatic transmission, the DeLorean would accelerate from 0 to 60 miles per hour (0 to 97 km/h) in 10.5 seconds as tested by Road & Track magazine. The car's top speed is 110 miles per hour (177 km/h).[30]

Pricing and options[edit]

The car was named the DMC-12 because of its intended price of US$12,000. Upon release in 1981, a DMC-12 had a suggested retail price of US$25,000 ($650 more when equipped with an automatic transmission); this is equivalent to approximately US$67,295 in 2017.[31]. MSRP would increase in 1982 to $29,825[32] and again in 1983 to $34,000[33]. At the outset, there were extensive waiting lists of people willing to pay up to $10,000 above the list price; however, after the collapse of the DeLorean Motor Company, unsold cars could be purchased for less than the retail price.[34]

The DMC-12 was only available with two factory options; a no-cost manual transmission or automatic transmission and the choice of a grey or black interior. Several dealer options were available, including a car cover; floor mats; black textured accent stripes; grey scotch-cal accent stripes; a luggage rack and a ski-rack adapter. The standard feature list included stainless-steel body panels; gull-wing doors with cryogenically treated torsion bars; leather seats; air conditioning; an AM/FM cassette stereo system; power windows, locks and mirrors; a tilt and telescopic steering wheel; tinted glass; body side moldings; intermittent/constant windshield wipers; and an electric rear-window defogger.[35][36]

1982 DMC-12 window sticker
DeLorean clearance advertisement
1982 DMC-12 window sticker & 1983 DeLorean clearance advertisement

Production changes[edit]

Although there were no typical "yearly" updates to the DeLorean, several changes were made to the DeLorean during production.[2] John DeLorean believed that model years were primarily a gimmick used by automobile companies to sell more cars. Instead of making massive changes at the end of the model year, he implemented changes mid-production, which has become more common in car manufacturing.[citation needed]) This resulted in no clear distinction between the 1981, 1982, and 1983 model years, but with subtle changes taking place almost continuously throughout the life of the DeLorean. The most visible of these changes related to the hood style.[citation needed]

Hood styles[edit]

The original hood of the DeLorean had grooves running down both sides. It included a tank flap to simplify fuel filling. The flap was built so that the trunk could be added to the total cargo area of the DeLorean. These cars typically had a locking cap to prevent fuel theft by siphoning. In August 1981, the hood flap was removed from the hood of the cars (although the hood creases stayed). This style was retained well into 1982.[37] Based on production numbers for all three years, this hood style is probably the most common. After the supply of locking caps was exhausted, the company switched to a non-locking version (resulting in at least 500 cars with no flap, but with locking caps). The final styling for the hood included the addition of a DeLorean name badge and the removal of the grooves, resulting in a completely flat hood. According to senior personnel who worked at the Dunmurry factory, initial elimination of flapped hoods has a simple if unglamorous explanation; Chuck Benington, managing director, did not like the design.[38]

Early 1981 hood
1983 hood
Side-by-side comparison of an early 1981 DMC-12 hood (left) vs. a later model 1983 hood (right)

Other changes[edit]

Early pull strap.
Later-style one-piece bolster.
Mid-1981 silver wheel.

John DeLorean was 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) tall, and he designed the car to comfortably fit someone of his stature.[39] For shorter people, the addition of a pull strap made closing the doors much easier from the inside. Pull straps were manufactured as an add-on for earlier vehicles in November 1981. These attach to the existing door handle. Late-model 1981 cars, and all cars from 1982 and 1983, have doors with integrated pull straps.[40]

The side bolstering in the DeLorean was originally separate from the main interior pieces. In cars with this construction, is a tendency to place pressure on this piece when entering and exiting the vehicle, which eventually causes the bolstering to separate from the trim panel. To solve this problem, cars built in and after late 1981 have one solid trim piece with the bolster permanently attached.[citation needed]

As an addition to later cars, a foot rest, or "dead" pedal, (in the form of an unusable pedal) was added to the cars to help prevent fatigue while driving. This is one of the few changes that is directly tied to a model year. These were built into only a few of the late-1981 vehicles and were added to all cars starting with 1982 production.[40]

Although the styling of the DeLorean's wheels remained unchanged, the wheels of early-model 1981 vehicles were painted grey. These wheels sported matching grey centre caps with an embossed DMC logo. Early into the 1981 production run, these were changed to a polished silver look, with a contrasting black center cap. The embossed logo on the center caps was painted silver to add contrast.[citation needed]

In 1981, the DeLorean came stocked with a Craig radio; this was a standard 1980s tape radio with dual knob controls. Since the Craig did not have a built-in clock, one was installed in front of the gear shift. DeLorean switched to an ASI stereo in the middle of the 1982 production run. Since the ASI radio featured an on-board clock, the standard DeLorean clock was removed at the same time.[citation needed]

The first 2,200 cars produced used a windshield-embedded antenna. This type of antenna proved to be unsuitable with poor radio reception. Oftentimes the radio would continually "seek", attempting to find a signal. A standard whip antenna was added to the outside of the front right fender. While improving radio reception, this resulted in a hole in the stainless steel, and an unsightly antenna. As a result, the antenna was again moved, this time to the rear of the car. Automatic antennas were installed under the grills behind the rear driver's-side window. While giving the reception quality of a whip antenna, these completely disappear from view when not in use.[citation needed]

The small sun visors on the DeLorean have vinyl on one side and headliner fabric on the other side. Originally these were installed such that the headliner side would be on the bottom when not in use. Later on in 1981, they were reversed so that the vinyl side would be on the bottom.[41][42]

The original Ducellier alternator supplied with the early-production DMC-12s could not provide enough current to supply the car when all lights and electrical options were on; as a result, the battery would gradually discharge, leaving the driver stranded on the road. Additional battery drainage problems were caused by faulty or improperly adjusted door jamb switches. This switch activated the "safety" lights located around the door perimeter when it was open. When the door was closed, the door seals prevented the light from being seen. Due to the faulty switches the lights remained on, further draining the battery. This happened to DeLorean owner Johnny Carson shortly after he was presented with the vehicle. Later cars were fitted from the factory with a higher-output Motorola alternator, which solved this problem. This also is believed[by whom?] to be the reason behind the improvement in the sound quality of the horn. Earlier models emitted a weak sound, not loud or strong enough to be effective in normal traffic.[citation needed]

Right-hand-drive models[edit]

DMC-12s were primarily intended for the American market. All production models were therefore left-hand-drive. Evidence survives from as early as April 1981, however, that the DeLorean Motor Company was aware of the need to produce a right-hand-drive version to supply to world markets such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, India, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan.[citation needed]

The company faced the choice of building right-hand-drive models from scratch or performing a post-production conversion exercise. Given the cost of new body molds, tooling, and a host of specific parts that a factory-built right-hand-drive configuration would require, the company opted to investigate the idea of a post-production conversion using a company based in Hampshire called Wooler-Hodec Ltd.[citation needed]

RHD DeLorean.

Only 16 right-hand-drive factory-authorised DeLoreans were ever produced.[43] These cars can be divided into two distinct groups:

  1. The first batch, known by enthusiasts as the "Wooler-Hodec cars", were converted by the UK company of that name. Evidence still exists in the form of a DMC factory memo, which orders 20 cars to be converted to right-hand drive. Due to the factory's closure, this order was never completed, and today a total of 13 cars survive, carrying the VINs 510, 12171–12181 and 12199. VIN 510 is understood to be the first of this batch of cars converted and was later sold at the factory auction in 1984. The other 12 cars were auctioned off by the receivers in early 1983. As a result, several of these cars were registered at the same time and have the Northern Irish registration (license) number "SIJ xxxx". All of this first batch of cars had a black interior and all had manual transmission, except VIN 12175. This car is the only factory-authorized right-hand-drive black-interior automatic car and is owned by Andrew Withers, former editor of the UK DeLorean Owners Club.
  2. The second batch were registered and used by the factory in Northern Ireland, with registration numbers (license plates), AXI 1697, AXI 1698, AXI 1699 and are referred to by enthusiasts as the "AXI cars". These three cars (VINs 5565, 5592 and 5638) differ from the first Wooler-Hodec cars in several ways. These 3 cars all had roof-mounted radio antennas, indicator repeater lights, no side marker lights, white forward-facing door lights, fog-light switch, and textured body rubstrips on the stainless panels. No catalytic converters or lambda equipment were fitted, as British legislation did not require them. VIN 5565 with the registration number AXI 1697 was a fully UK homologated example, which would have been shown at the British motor show at Birmingham, UK in October 1982. It includes a unique rearward-facing twin exhaust, no catalytic converters and the UK-specification engine as used by Volvo, but retaining the usual Renault ancillaries. The transmission final drive was also set at 3.88:1 versus the standard 3.44:1. Attention was paid to other unique details such as correctly offset wing mirrors.[citation needed]

A common misconception surrounding the factory-authorized right-hand-drive DeLoreans is that they were all fitted with different, so-called "Euro-spec", tail lights[44] as part of the right-hand-drive conversion program. This is not the case. Due to the nature of these cars as prototypes, they were not officially type-approved for use in the UK. Owners who bought these cars at auction in the early 1980s encountered difficulty in registering them as new vehicles in the UK. At this point a former DeLorean Motor Cars executive offered to modify and register the cars so that they could be used in the UK. These modifications included:

  • Different seat-belt units fitted.[45]
  • The fitting of Rubbolite tail light clusters with a built-in foglight function.[44] The foglight is a legal requirement in the UK.
  • The fitting of a foglight switch to one of the center-console dummy switches.[45]
  • A custom-made tail light surround and number (license) plate bezel.[46]
  • Swapping the front turn signal lenses for ones of a different, more rounded style.[47]
  • Swapping the rear side marker lenses for amber ones.[48]

Over half of the 16 right-hand-drive cars had these modifications carried out. In recent years several owners of these cars have replaced the Rubbolite lights with original federal-style tail lights in an effort to return the cars to their original specification. Some owners have also fitted federal-style license-plate bezels on their cars.[citation needed]

There were a number of official alterations made to the right-hand-drive cars' lights. The extent of these modifications varies between the first batch of "Wooler-Hodec" cars and the later "AXI" cars:

All of the 13 Wooler-Hodec cars were modified to the OEM front turn-signal lens fixing method in order to make them fit flush with the front fascia.[49] The cars' headlights were also changed for right-hand-drive spec lights that incorporate a UK sidelight feature. The rest of the lights appear to have been left untouched by Wooler-Hodec during the conversion process.

By contrast, the 3 "AXI" cars had further modifications to the amber front door lights, which were exchanged for clear lenses of the same style.[50] Perhaps the most significant alteration on the "AXI" cars is the deletion of the front and rear side markers. These are replaced by a single small round European-style indicator side repeater, situated on the front wing (fender). The body rubstrips are also of a different configuration in order to cover the areas that would otherwise have had federal side marker lenses fitted.[51]

Special DMC-12s[edit]

Back to the Future[edit]

A DMC-12 "time machine" from the Back to the Future trilogy exhibited at Universal Studios Florida

Several special-edition DMC-12 cars have been produced over the years, and the car is most notably featured as the time machine in the Back to the Future film trilogy. Six DeLorean chassis were used during the production, along with one manufactured out of fiberglass for scenes where a full-size DeLorean was needed to "fly" on-screen; only three of the cars still exist, with one that was destroyed at the end of Back to the Future Part III, two additional were abandoned, and the fiberglass replica was scrapped. Universal Studios owns two of the remaining cars, occasionally putting them on display or using them for other productions, and the last resides in a private collection after having been extensively restored.[52] The official Back to the Future DeLorean can be viewed at the Petersen Automotive Museum.[53]

A number of production DeLoreans have been modified by the aftermarket into Back to the Future time machine replicas, whose bodies and interiors are modified to mirror the appearance and functions of the film cars.[54]

Prototypes and pilot cars[edit]

Only one of two DeLorean prototypes still exists.[55] Proto 1 received a complete restoration and is now on display at the DeLorean Motor Company of Florida (DMCFL). Proto 2 was sent to Lotus Cars for development and evaluation in 1978. It was reported to have been destroyed in the 1990s.[56]

There were several mules that were fiberglass-bodied cars used by Lotus during development and engineering. None are known to exist today.

An estimated 28 known pilot cars were built by DMC. The pilot cars are best identified by the subtly different interiors and sliding side windows. These cars, used for evaluation and regulatory testing of the DeLorean, were previously thought to have been destroyed. However, there have been major finds in the last few years[57][58] of the pilot cars. The test car featured on the front cover of Autocar in 1981 announcing the DeLorean to the world was found in 2003 in a barn in Northern Ireland; it is currently[when?] undergoing restoration.[citation needed] There are an estimated 4-5 pilot cars known to still exist today.

Visioneering car[edit]

With the 1980 NADA meeting approaching, DMC planned to show a final “production” version of the DeLorean DMC 12, however there were no production cars ready at the time or even any production stainless steel panels.

In 1979, the revised Giugiaro styling mock-up was shipped to Visioneering, a Detroit based company, to create data needed to make the stamping dies for the stainless panels. This project would expand to create dies used to create a “production” car for the NADA show.

Using a prototype chassis supplied by Lotus, Visioneering completed the assembly of this car at a cost of $750,000. The car was presented at the 1980 NADA show and was later used for engineering development and technical training as well as press photos. The Visioneering car would eventually be sold at the bankruptcy auction in late 1984. Today, the car is in a private collection.[59]

Legend turbo cars[edit]

It was determined that the DeLorean needed additional power when automotive magazine road tests showed 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) times for the DMC-12 between 9.5 and 10.5 seconds, while its rivals were in the 7.5–8.5 second range. There had been interest in turbocharging the DeLorean early on, but the DMC engineering staff was busy with other projects, so DeLorean decided to go outside to develop a turbocharged version of the DeLorean.[60]

Having had previous success with turbocharging Fiat Spiders, DeLorean entered into a contract with Legend Industries, based in Hauppauge, New York. DMC wanted to increase power without sacrificing fuel efficiency. DMC wanted a wide power band and did not want a surge of power similar to the Porsche 930 Turbo. Legend used twin IHI RHB52 turbos along with twin intercoolers. The results were an engine capable of accelerating smoothly in fifth gear from 1,500 rpm to full turbo boost at 2,500 rpm, reaching 150 mph (240 km/h) at 6,500 rpm.[60]

In addition, Legend Industries developed a single turbocharged setup that was never finished. The company converted a total of four DeLoreans and two Renault Alpines, which were the first development cars.[61] VIN 530 was written in numerous press articles as the fastest production car of its era.[citation needed]

In a test run of VIN 530 at Bridgehampton Raceway in 1981, the twin-turbo DeLorean was quicker than a Ferrari 308 and a Porsche 928. It has been a misconception for many years that VIN 502 was at Bridgehampton and used in testing; however, evidence from pictures, along with information from a Legend employee published by PJ Grady,[citation needed] indicates that 530 was used with the aspirated VIN 558. By the time of Bridgehampton, Legend had perfected modular boosting, which the earlier prototypes did not have installed apart from one of the Alpine mules and VIN 530. This has also been proven by a Legend Engineer who actually worked on the cars.[citation needed]

VIN 530 tested 0–60 mph in 5.8 seconds and the 14 mile (400 m) in 14.7 seconds. DeLorean was so impressed with the engine, he committed to ordering 5,000 engines from Legend Industries. DeLorean planned to offer a turbocharged engine as a $7,500 option in 1984 (presumably to compete with the newly redesigned 1984 Corvette). Before any of the 5,000 cars could be put into production, DMC had declared bankruptcy, which drove Legend Industries, as well as other suppliers, into bankruptcy.[62]

Legend Twin Turbo setup from VIN 530
VIN Configuration Last known location Comments
502 Twin New Zealand Original prototype
528 Single Czech Republic[63]
530 Twin United Kingdom Sister Twin Turbo
558 Single Unknown

Gold-plated[edit]

A gold-plated DeLorean in Reno, Nevada.

For Christmas 1980, a DeLorean/American Express promotion planned to sell 100 24K-gold-plated DMC-12s for US$85,000 each to its gold-card members, but only two were sold.[64] One of these was purchased by Roger Mize, president of Snyder National Bank in Snyder, Texas. VIN #4301 sat in the bank lobby for over 20 years before being loaned to the Petersen Automotive Museum of Los Angeles. It has a black interior and an automatic transmission.[65]

The second gold-plated American Express DMC-12 was purchased by Sherwood Marshall, an entrepreneur and former Royal Canadian Naval Officer. Marshall donated his DeLorean to the William F. Harrah Foundation/National Automobile Museum in Reno, Nevada. This car, VIN #4300, is the only one of the three existing gold-plated cars to be equipped with a manual transmission. It has a saddle-brown interior and, like its golden siblings, is a low-mileage vehicle with only 1,442 miles (2,321 km) on the odometer.[66]

A third gold-plated car exists with 636 miles (1,024 km) on the odometer; it carries the VIN plate for the last DeLorean, #20105, although final assembly was actually completed in Columbus, Ohio in 1983.[67] This car was assembled with spare parts that were required by American Express in case one of the other two that were built were damaged and all necessary gold-plated parts were on hand, with the exception of one door. Thus the car was assembled after another door was gold-plated, though the added door does not precisely match the rest of the car in color and grain. The car was first acquired by the winner of a Big Lots store raffle. Consolidated International, which owned the department store, had purchased 1374 DMC-12s during the DeLorean Company's financial troubles, acquiring the remaining stock after the company went into receivership. Now held by a private owner in La Vale, Maryland, this third and last gold-plated DeLorean was for sale online at a price of US$250,000, but remains unsold.[67] After being offered for sale for over a decade, it is unclear whether it has sold.[68] This car and the example in Reno have saddle-brown leather interiors, a color scheme which was intended to become an option on later-production cars, however, these two cars were the only DeLoreans to ever be equipped with these factory parts.[citation needed]

A gold-plated DeLorean was reproduced privately by an enthusiast.[69]

DMC Texas[edit]

All-electric model DMCev in Milan (2012).

DMC Texas (based in Humble, Texas) announced on July 30, 2007 that the car would be returning into very limited production (about 20 cars a year) in 2008.[70] They were subsequently sued by John DeLorean's widow for illegally licensing the family name. DMC Texas settled this lawsuit in September 2015 by paying his widow an undisclosed sum and in turn received rights to use the name, images, and trademark in the future.[71]

The cars were announced to have a new stainless-steel frame; with optional extras such as GPS, an enhanced "Stage 2" engine, and possibly a new modern interior. Given that the cars were made with 80% old parts,[72] the term "return to production" is something of a misnomer; the cars are constructed on DeLorean underbodies built by the original company in the 1980s and retaining their VINs. The cars' titles show the year of the underbody's manufacture. They are, therefore, not new DeLoreans, but complete rebuilds of the car from the underbody with enhancements. In 2009, the price of a refurbished DeLorean from DMC Texas started at US$57,500, and the project was featured in an episode of Modern Marvels.[73]

On October 18, 2011, it was announced that an all-electric model would be available for sale by 2013. It was said to have a 200-horsepower (150 kW) motor, accelerate from 0 to 60 miles per hour (0 to 97 km/h) in 8 seconds, and sell for US$90,000.[74][75][76] Initial test drives revealed that the prototype had a range of 70 miles (110 km), approaching the 100 miles (160 km) that was announced.[77] However, 2014 saw criticism from fans who tried to buy the electric DeLorean only to learn that it was still unavailable.[78]

Due to the passage of the Low Volume Vehicle Manufacturing Act, DMC Texas announced that they would be producing replica DeLoreans with an expected release date in 2017. DMC anticipates to build approximately 50 vehicles per year over the next 6 years with an estimated retail price of US$100,000.[79][80] In October 2016, DMC announced that they are expecting to build 12 units in the first production year with as many as 50 in the second year of production.[81] In February 2018, it was reported that production should start in January 2019.[82]

Publicly exhibited DMC-12s[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • DeLorean, John Z.; Schwarz, Ted (1985). DeLorean. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-37940-7. 
  • Lamm, John (2003). DeLorean Stainless Steel Illusion (2nd ed.). Fort Jones, CA: Red Lion Press. ISBN 0-9744141-0-7. 
  • Clarke, R. M. (1995). DeLorean: 1977–1995 Gold Portfolio. Cobham: Brooklands. ISBN 1-85520-331-6. 
  • Espey, James (2014). The Illustrated Buyer's Guide to DeLorean Automobiles (2nd ed.). the DeLorean Garage. ISBN 978-0-9856578-1-9. 
  • DeLorean Celebrating the Impossible (2015) Chris Parnham & And Withers. DeLorean Motor Cars (1978) Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9928594-0-4.
  • DeLorean DMC-12, The Essential Buyers Guide (2018) Published by Veloce publishing. Author: Chris Williams ISBN 978-1-787112-32-2

External links[edit]