De Zeven Provinciën-class frigate
|Name:||De Zeven Provinciën class|
|Builders:||Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding|
|Operators:||Royal Netherlands Navy|
|Cost:||€600 million ($816 million) per unit|
|In commission:||26 April 2002 – present|
|Type:||Air-defense and command frigate|
|Displacement:||6,050 tonnes (full load)|
|Length:||144.24 m (473.2 ft)|
|Beam:||18.80 m (61.7 ft)|
|Draught:||5.18 m (17.0 ft)|
|Installed power:||4 × Wärtsilä-Deutz D620 V12 diesel-generators, 1,680 kW (2,250 hp) each|
|Speed:||30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph)|
|Range:||4,000 nmi (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph)|
|Complement:||30 officers, 202 ratings|
|Sensors and |
|Electronic warfare |
|Aircraft carried:||1 × NH-90 helicopter|
|Aviation facilities:||Hangar and flight deck for 1 medium sized helicopter|
De Zeven Provinciën-class frigates are highly advanced air-defence and command frigates in service with the Royal Navy of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Marine). This class of ships is also known as LCF (Luchtverdedigings- en commandofregat, air defense and command frigate). The ships are similar to the German Sachsen-class frigates in role and mission.
These ships were optimized for antiaircraft warfare. For this role the ships are equipped with an advanced sensor and weapons suite. The primary sensors for this role are the long range surveillance radar SMART-L and the multifunction radar APAR. The SMART-L and APAR are highly complementary, in the sense that SMART-L is a D band radar providing very long range surveillance while APAR is an I band radar providing precise target tracking, a highly capable horizon search capability, and missile guidance using the Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination (ICWI) technique, thus allowing guidance of 32 semi-active radar homing missiles in flight simultaneously, including 16 in the terminal guidance phase. The primary antiaircraft weapons are the point defence Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile and the area defence RIM-66 Standard Missile (SM-2) Block IIIA. The Mk 41 Vertical Launch System is used to house and launch these missiles. 32 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile and 32 Standard Missile SM-2 Block IIIA are carried.
Ballistic missile defence
The Navy is investigating the use of these ships for the role of Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD). During tests carried out by HNLMS Tromp in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii, experimental modifications to the SMART-L to allow even longer range were proven. A study by the Koninklijke Marine, the Netherlands Defence Material Organization, Thales Nederland, Raytheon Missile Systems, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and Lockheed Martin has been conducted to establish the feasibility of modifying the De Zeven Provinciën class to provide it the capability to intercept ballistic missiles. In particular, the study examined the feasibility of integrating the SM-3 Block IB missile with the SMART-L and APAR radars. The study concluded that – with certain modifications to the SMART-L and APAR, as well as to the ship's Combat Management System and the missile itself – BMD with the De Zeven Provinciën class could be achieved. During a 2015 very large NATO exercise the BMD capabilities were proven, the sensor suite discovered ballistic targets, and the ship destroyed them using both its own SAM missiles, as well as using a U.S. Navy destroyer's missiles, by providing target data and missile guidance.
A contract was awarded for the radar modification in June 2012, operational tests & life firing show the performance to exceed expectations.
The De Zeven Provinciën-class ships will get the new SMART-L Mk2 radar that can detect ballistic missiles at a range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi). The Dutch minister promised also that the APAR radar will have a bigger range than 400 km (250 mi) as the Netherlands is the first country to participate as an active missile shield for NATO.
In late 2011, the Ministry of Defence announced a modernization program to upgrade the SMART-L early-warning radar so that De Zeven Provinciën-class frigates can detect and track ballistic missiles at extended range. In 2018 plans were announced to acquire the BMD-capable SM-3 surface-to-air missiles as the ships are provisioned for an extra 8-cell vertical launch module, De Zeven Provinciën-class frigates can pass on the tracking and detection data to other sea-based or land-defense BMD assets, including U.S. Navy's warships, that can deal with a ballistic missile threat. This modernization program is scheduled for completion by late 2017 for the entire De Zeven Provinciën class.
On 3 May 2018 the Dutch Secretary of Defence, Barbara Visser, informed the Dutch national parliament that the evolved sea sparrow missile (ESSM) aboard the De Zeven Provinciën-class frigates will be upgraded from block 1 to block 2. This upgrade will be completed by 2024 and will allow the frigates to deal with the growing threat of modern anti-ship missiles. ESSM Block 2 allows the four frigates to defend against missiles that have greater speed, agility and perform unexpected movements. The current Harpoon surface-to-surface missile (SSM) will also be replaced with a new SSM by 2024. Furthermore, the 127mm-cannon will be replaced with a new similar cannon. The current cannons are over 50 years old and originate from Canadian ships. The new cannon must be able to fire multiple types of ammunition, including in the future precision-guided ammunition. The project costs between € 100 million and € 250 million, and will be take place between 2018 and 2023. Lastly, the Goalkeepers will be upgraded to a new version and all ships will have two installed as originally designed, they will eventually be replaced after 2025 by a new system.
Surface and subsurface warfare
As noted above, these ships were optimized for antiaircraft warfare, but they also have weapons on-board capable of attacking surface and submarine targets, for example: the RGM-84F Harpoon missile and Mk. 46 torpedoes. In a new defense Study published by the Dutch government in March 2018, it was stated the frigates will receive a new surface-to-surface missile to succeed the Harpoon Block 1D.
Live missile firings
In November 2003, some 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the Azores, the missile guidance capabilities were tested with live firings for the first time. The firings involved the firing of a single ESSM and a single SM-2ER Block IIIA. These firings were the first ever live firings involving a full-size ship-borne active electronically scanned array (i.e., APAR) guiding missiles using the ICWI technique in an operational environment. As related by Jane's Navy International:
During the tracking and missile-firing tests, target profiles were provided by Greek-built EADS/3Sigma Iris PVK medium-range subsonic target drones. [...] According to the RNLN, ... APAR immediately acquired the missile and maintained track until destruction". [...] These ground-breaking tests represented the world's first live verification of the ICWI technique.
Further live firings were performed in March 2005, again in the Atlantic Ocean some 180 nautical miles (330 km) west of the Azores. The tests involved three live-firing events including firing a single SM-2 Block IIIA at an Iris target drone at long range, a single ESSM at an Iris target drone, and a two-salvo launch (with one salvo comprising two SM-2 Block IIIAs and the other comprising two ESSMs) against two incoming Iris target drones. The long-range SM-2 engagement apparently resulted in an intercept at a range of greater than 100 km (62 mi) from the ship, with a missile-target miss distance of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) (the warhead's proximity fuse having been disabled for the purposes of the test).
Ships of the De Zeven Provinciën class have been involved in counter-piracy operations off the Horn of Africa. The untraditional target set (i.e., small slow-moving or even static surface targets) can apparently be challenging for doppler radars designed to take on "high end" threats. However, according to Jane's International Defence Review:
[The RNLN has] reported great success using tailored surface-search software for the APAR sets fitted to the De Zeven Provinciën-class frigates deployed on antipiracy roles. By sacrificing some of APAR's high-end antiaircraft warfare capabilities, which were deemed unnecessary for the antipiracy role, its performance and resolution were improved in the surface-search role.
On November 30, 2017 Alion Canada submitted a proposal based on the De Zeven Provinciën class for the Canadian Single Class Surface Combatant Project. Damen Group, as builder of the De Zeven Provincien class frigates, was part of Alion's team in this proposal.
List of ships
|Pennant number||Name||Namesake||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Status|
|F802||De Zeven Provinciën||The seven provinces of the Dutch republic
Flagship of admiral de Ruyter
|1 September 1998||8 April 2000||26 April 2002||In service|
|F803||Tromp||Luitenant-Admiraal Maarten Tromp
Luitenant-Admiraal-Generaal Sir Cornelis Tromp, Bt
|3 September 1999||7 April 2001||14 March 2003||In service|
|F804||De Ruyter||Luitenant-Admiraal-Generaal Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter||1 September 2000||13 April 2002||22 April 2004||In service|
|F805||Evertsen||Luitenant-Admiraal Johan Evertsen
Luitenant-Admiraal Cornelis Evertsen de Oude
Schout-bij-nacht Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge
Schout-bij-nacht Cornelis Evertsen de Jongste
|3 September 2001||19 April 2003||10 June 2005||In service|
- Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate, Spain
- Sachsen-class frigate, Germany
- FREMM multipurpose frigate, French/Italian collaboration
- Fridtjof Nansen-class frigate, Norway
- Iver Huitfeldt-class frigate, Denmark
- Type 26, an equivalent British design
- Jane's Navy International, October 2005, "Live firing tests rewrite the guiding principles"
- Jane's Defence Weekly, 5 January 2011, "Aiming high"
- "SMART-L For Smart Defense?". aviationweek.com. Archived from the original on Oct 20, 2013.
- Wertheim, Eric (January 2012). "Combat Fleets". Proceedings: 90. ISSN 0041-798X. Retrieved 2012-01-13.
- "Marine vernieuwt volledige wapenarsenaal fregatten". The Hague: Dutch Ministry of Defence. 3 May 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- "Trouw, Laatste nieuws (Novum/ANP)- novum_laatstenieuws – Defensie ziet af van Tomahawks".
- Jane's International Defence Review, February 2004, "Active phased array multifunction radars go live for missile firings"
- Jane's International Defence Review, September 2010, "Fighting the hydra: multinational piracy operations move inshore"
- CSC: Alion Submits Proposal based on De Zeven Provinciën-class Frigate, Navy Recognition, 2017-12-08, retrieved 2017-12-15
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to De Zeven Provinciën class frigates.|
- De Zeven Provinciën-class Air-defence and Command Frigate (LCF) – Royal Netherlands Navy website of the Netherlands Ministry of Defence
- De Zeven Provincien Class Air Defence and Command Frigate @ naval-technology.com
- Netherlands – De Zeven Provincien Class Destroyer @ AMI International
- De Zeven Provinciën class (Private page)