De facto standard
A de facto standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market). De facto is a Latin phrase that means in fact (literally by or from fact) in the sense of "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established", as opposed to de jure.
The term de facto standard is used in contrast with obligatory standards (also known as "de jure standards"); or to express the dominant voluntary standard, when there is more than one standard available for the same use.
In social sciences, a voluntary standard that is also a de facto standard is a typical solution to a coordination problem. The choice of a de facto standard tends to be stable in situations in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions. In contrast, an enforced "de jure standard" is a solution to the prisoner's problem.
A selection of well-known and illustrative examples of de facto and de jure standards are:
- with consolidation by tradition of use:
- The driver's seat side in a given country starts as a user/industry preference, turning to a local tradition, then a traffic code local norm.
- The QWERTY system was one of several options for the layout of letters on typewriter (and later keyboard) keys. It was developed to prevent adjacent keys from jamming on early and later mechanical typewriters, often attributed to the typist's speed. It became a de facto standard because it was used on the most commercially successful early typewriters and is now used on devices which have no moving parts such as touchscreens.
- The ASCII text character set, standardized in 1963 is still in use. Document files containing ASCII usually have the TXT extension.
- The MP3 audio format started as an alternative to WAV for Internet music distribution, then replaced it — it is now supported by the vast majority of music players, audio transport, audio storage and noncommercial media. WAV and MP3 are also "de jure ISO formats".
- with consolidation by uniqueness and efficiency:
- HTML (computer file format) started as "de facto" (1993-1995) and became the "de jure" standard (1995–present day).
- PDF (computer file format) was first created in 1993 by Adobe. Adobe internal standards were part of its software quality systems, but they were neither published nor coordinated by a standards body. With the Acrobat Reader program available for free, and continued support of the format, PDF eventually became the de facto standard for printable documents. In 2005, PDF/A became a de jure standard as ISO 19005-1:2005. In 2008 Adobe's PDF 1.7 became ISO 32000-1:2008.
Examples of long-time de facto but never de jure standards (for computer file formats):
- AutoCAD DXF: a de facto ASCII format for import and export of CAD drawings and fragments in the 1980s and 1990s. In the 2000s, XML based standards emerged as de facto standards.
- Microsoft Word DOC (over all other old PC word processors): one of the best known de facto standards. Due to the market dominance of Word, it is supported by all office applications that intend to compete with it, typically by reverse engineering the undocumented file format. Microsoft has repeatedly internally changed the file specification between versions of Word to suit their own needs, while continuing to reuse the same file extension identifier for different versions.
- Most American-made spark plugs require a 13/16ths inch socket to remove or install.
- The 1⁄2-inch (13 mm) spacing of the rollers in a bicycle chain.
- The IBM Personal Computer (PC). By one year after its 1981 release, John Dvorak described the PC as rapidly becoming a "de facto standard microcomputer". With the MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems, it gained a large share of the personal computer market. Because of the great influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market, competing products like the Rainbow 100 were eventually withdrawn.
- Interpreted programming languages such as PHP that have multiple implementations tend to also have a de facto standard. In PHP's case the de facto standard is the binaries available from php.net, rather than the Phalanger implementation for example.
- Alternating current over direct current: see War of the currents.
- VHS over Betamax (see videotape format war): when the VHS format for videotape recording was introduced, other recording formats were already available in the market. Regardless of whether Betamax was superior from a technical point of view or not, the VHS format won the format war due to superior marketing tactics by its proponents. The market could not support two competing formats; VHS became the de facto standard and Betamax was eventually withdrawn.
- Blu-ray over HD DVD (see high definition optical disc format war).
Examples of standards that are "in dispute" for turns de facto:
- OASIS's OpenDocument format (a de facto standard for UNIX users (Apache OpenOffice, LibreOffice, Calligra, KOffice et al. use it as default file format)) vs Microsoft's Office Open XML format (a de facto standard for MS-Windows users).
- Adobe Flash vs Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), for vector graphics web page animations.
- Edna Ullmann-Margalit (5 March 2015). The Emergence of Norms. OUP Oxford. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-19-106458-6.
- "ISO 19005-1:2005 - Document management -- Electronic document file format for long-term preservation -- Part 1: Use of PDF 1.4 (PDF/A-1)". Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- "ISO 32000-1:2008 - Document management -- Portable document format -- Part 1: PDF 1.7". Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- "Adobe - Release PDF for Industry Standardization FAQ". Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- Zussman, John Unger (1982-08-23). "Let's keep those systems open". InfoWorld. p. 29. Retrieved 29 January 2015.