Dead air

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Dead air is an unintended period of silence that interrupts a broadcast during which no audio or video program material is transmitted.[1]

Radio and television[edit]

Dead air occurs in radio broadcasting when no audio program is transmitted for an extended period of time, usually more than a few seconds. In television broadcasting, the term denotes the absence of both audio and video program material. Technically, a carrier wave may be still be being transmitted; in radio, the result is silence, and in television, the result is a silent black image.[2][3][1]

Although television directors may use the command "fade to black" or "to black" to indicate a momentary transition to a completely black image,[4] the term "dead air" is most often used in cases where program material comes to an unexpected halt, either through operator error or technical malfunction. Among professional broadcasters, dead air is considered one of the worst things that can occur.[5] Moreover, dead air could affect advertising revenue if it affects the airplay of paid commercials.[6]

The term "dead air" does not refer to a broadcast transmitter that is intentionally shut down, i.e. "closed", "signed off" or "off the air", by a control operator.[7][8]

Broadcast regulations[edit]

In the US, dead air, if prolonged and occurring without permission, is an actionable offense that can result in fines from the FCC.[9]

Broadcast stations can use programmable devices known as "silence sensors", "off air alarms" or "silence monitors" that will sound an alarm and alert personnel if dead air persists more than a few seconds.[10][7]

Examples[edit]

On September 11, 1987, Dan Rather walked off the set of the CBS Evening News when a late running U.S. Open tennis match threatened to delay the start of his news broadcast. The match then ended sooner than expected but Rather was gone. The network broadcast six minutes of dead air before Rather was found and returned to the studio.[11] CBS affiliates criticized Rather for the incident.[12]

One significant case of dead air occurred during Super Bowl LII in 2018, when the NBC television broadcast experienced 26 seconds of dead air during a commercial break. The network blamed "a brief equipment failure",[13] and stated that no commercial advertising was lost.[6] Prior to Super Bowl XLV, Green Bay radio station WCHK-FM announced that it would intentionally go to dead air during the game, since the hometown Packers were playing in the game.[14]

When British Virgin Radio host Chris Evans did not arrive for work on time resulting in Vanessa Feltz filling in for 30 minutes until Evans took the microphone, The Guardian characterized it as a promotional stunt that forced Feltz "to fill the dead air with jokes".[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Dead air". Oxford Dictionaries (online). Oxford, OXF, GBR: Oxford University Press. 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  2. ^ "Modulation and Radio Building Blocks: How does modulation work?". Radio Academy. Retrieved 7 June 2017. 
  3. ^ "Dead air". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition (online). Springfield, MA, USA: Merriam-Webster. 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  4. ^ Desi Bognar (8 September 2017). International Dictionary of Broadcasting and Film. Taylor & Francis. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-1-136-05401-3. 
  5. ^ Susan Tyler Eastman; Douglas A. Ferguson; Robert Klein (20 June 2014), Media Promotion & Marketing for Broadcasting, Cable & the Internet, CRC Press, pp. 128–, ISBN 978-1-136-02482-5 
  6. ^ a b Stelter, Brian. "NBC blames 'equipment failure' for brief blackout during Super Bowl". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2018-02-05. 
  7. ^ a b National Association of Broadcasters Engineering Handbook: NAB Engineering Handbook. Taylor & Francis; 26 April 2013. ISBN 978-1-136-03410-7. p. 2007–.
  8. ^ Harry Henderson. Communications and Broadcasting: From Wired Words to Wireless Web. Infobase Publishing; December 2006. ISBN 978-0-8160-5748-1. p. 84–.
  9. ^ "Maryland radio station punished for silence". Radio & Television Business Report - January 2015. Streamline RBR, Inc. Retrieved 30 June 2018. 
  10. ^ Jonathan Kern. Sound Reporting: The NPR Guide to Audio Journalism and Production. University of Chicago Press; July 2008. ISBN 978-0-226-43178-9. p. 339–.
  11. ^ Boyer, Peter J. "Rather Walked Off Set of CBS News". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2018. 
  12. ^ Sharbutt, Jay. "Rather Criticized For His Cbs News 'Walkout'". The Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 February 2018. 
  13. ^ Campuzano, Eder. "Super Bowl 2018: And the most talked-about commercial is ... dead air". Oregon Live. Retrieved 2018-02-05. 
  14. ^ "Green Bay Packers fan "Chuck FM" will play "nothing during the game" Sunday". Radio-Info.com. 2011-02-04. Archived from the original on 2012-01-08. 
  15. ^ "Chris Evans 'buying a new alarm clock' after tardy arrival for Radio 2 show". The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 5 February 2018.