Dead or Alive (video game)
|Dead or Alive|
European arcade flyer
|Series||Dead or Alive|
|Platform(s)||Arcade, Sega Saturn, PlayStation|
November 26, 1996
October 16, 1998 (++)
|Mode(s)||Up to 2 players simultaneously|
|Arcade system||Sega Model 2|
|Display||Raster, 496 x 384 pixels (horizontal), 8192 colors|
Dead or Alive (Japanese: デッドオアアライブ Hepburn: Deddo Oa Araibu) is a 1996 fighting game by Tecmo and the first entry in Team Ninja's long-running Dead or Alive series. It was released first in arcades, followed by home ports for the Sega Saturn in Japan, and later for the PlayStation in all regions.
Capitalizing on the success of Sega's Virtua Fighter fighting game series at the time, Dead or Alive takes influence from Virtua Fighter while adding unique gameplay elements of its own. The game also attracted attention for its presentation, which was more provocative than other mainstream 3D fighting games at the time.
Dead or Alive was a commercial success, helping Tecmo overcome their financial problems. The success of the game helped turn the series into a franchise, including several sequels and numerous spinoffs.
The gameplay of Dead or Alive was unique at the time of its debut because it featured different choices in gameplay than other early 3D fighting games. Its most defining features were its speed and countering system. Dead or Alive put an emphasis on speed, and relied more on simplistic commands and quick reaction time.
Furthermore, its countering system was the first in the fighting genre to utilize different commands that corresponded to each type of attack. There are two kinds of holds, an Offensive Hold and a Defensive Hold; the latter are executed by holding back or forward on the directional pad along with the guard input to either force away or counter-damage an opponent.
The game also introduced an environmental system of the "Danger Zones" that surround the outer edges of the fighting arena (depending on the options, it can also completely consume it) and can send an affected character in the air so the opposing player can execute a juggling air combo. However, this can be avoided with a defensive roll.
- Bayman, a Russian mercenary
- Gen Fu, an old Chinese martial arts master
- Jann Lee, a Chinese fighter modeled on Bruce Lee
- Kasumi, a Japanese female ninja who is the series' main protagonist
- Leifang, a young Chinese female martial artist
- Raidou, an evil ninja exiled from Kasumi's clan
- Ryu Hayabusa, a Japanese ninja hero originally from Ninja Gaiden
- Tina Armstrong, an American female wrestler
- Zack, a flamboyant African-American kickboxer
A runaway kunoichi known as Kasumi enters the Dead or Alive tournament to seek revenge against her uncle Raidou, who was responsible for crippling her brother Hayate. Kasumi eventually defeats and kills Raidou, but her decision to leave the village violates the strict laws of the ninja society, and as a result she becomes a hunted fugitive.
Development and release
During the mid 1990s, Japanese gaming company Tecmo was in financial trouble. Seeing how popular Sega's Virtua Fighter series was in Japan at the time, the management asked Tomonobu Itagaki to create a game similar to Virtua Fighter. Itagaki was a fan of Virtua Fighter, but he wanted Dead or Alive to stand out among the competition. This included a stronger an emphasis on being provocative, as Itagaki believed entertainment needed both sexuality and violence to truly be entertainment. All the animations in the game were created using motion capture.
The original game, which runs on the Sega Model 2 arcade board, the same arcade board that Virtua Fighter 2 ran on, had polygonal modeled backgrounds. Dead or Alive was unveiled alongside Jaleco's Super GT 24h at the February 1996 AOU show as part of Sega's announcement that they were licensing their Model 2 hardware to third-party companies.
In comparison to other 3D fighters, such as Tekken (which gained a substantial market base in Japan and North America), DOA introduced a countering system unique to the genre and an added emphasis on speed, as well as a rich graphics engine that lacked many jaggies and incorporated very smooth surfaces.
A Nintendo 64 port was rumored, but did not come to fruition. It was later ported to the Sega Saturn exclusively for the Japanese market in 1997. Acclaim intended to bring the Saturn version to the UK, but plans were shelved for unknown reasons. When released for the Saturn, the game sacrificed quality in the character models and used pre-rendered images for background stages. The Saturn conversion uses bitmaps and parallax scrolling in the same fashion as the Saturn version of Virtua Fighter 2.
In 1998, Tecmo released Dead or Alive for the PlayStation in all regions. This version included two new characters, a different graphics engine, a slightly revamped fighting engine, and new background music. Tecmo also released an upgrade titled Dead or Alive++ for the arcades in Japan which was based on the PlayStation version. This version was based on the PlayStation version with an even slight updated gameplay that later expanded for the sequel, Dead or Alive 2.
Dead or Alive was a commercial success, helping Tecmo pull in a profit of 9.2 million dollars in 1996 and saving the company from bankruptcy. The Saturn version would go on to sell more than 161,000 copies in Japan.
The game was also successful critically as well. Sega Saturn Magazine described it as "an incredible beat 'em up both technically and visually, even getting close to beating Sega's own-brand Virtua Fighter games." Computer and Video Games stated it was "an essential buy for import Saturn gamers." GamesRadar included it in their list of best Sega Saturn games, stating that "the games high-speed, rock-paper-scissors style of play was a quick hit with arcade players." In 2011, Complex ranked it as the seventh best fighting game of all time.
In 2004, Tecmo released Dead or Alive Ultimate, a package that featured revamps of the first two DOA games, on the Xbox. The remake of the first game was based on the Sega Saturn version, as it was Itagaki's preferred version. It featured smoother graphics, sound updated from stereo to surround, and adds Xbox Live online gaming. Both Dead or Alive 1 Ultimate and Dead or Alive 2 Ultimate were among one of the first fighting games with online play.
- "デッド オア アライブ まとめ [アーケード] / ファミ通.com". Famitsu.com. 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "デッド オア アライブ＋＋（プラスプラス） まとめ [アーケード] / ファミ通.com". Famitsu.com. 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Video Games Daily | Tomonobu Itagaki: The Kikizo Interview 2005 with Team Ninja Boss". Archive.videogamesdaily.com. 2005-02-15. Archived from the original on 2016-03-19. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "The History Of TECMO - Dead or Alive". YouTube. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- "Wanted: Dead or Alive". Maximum: The Video Game Magazine. Emap International Limited (7): 86–87. June 1996.
- "The History of Dead or Alive". IGN. 2004-08-02. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
- "Model 3: Sega Affirms Arcade Supremacy". Next Generation. No. 17. Imagine Media. May 1996. pp. 15–16.
- "Tecmo's Fighter: Dead Or Alive on N64?". IGN.com. 1997-08-06. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "File:CVG UK 193.pdf - Sega Retro". segaretro.org. Retrieved 2016-03-18.
- "DOA analysis at Hardcore Gaming 101". Hardcore Gaming 101. 2005.
- "Dead or Alive news and update". IGN. 1998.
- "Dead or Alive for Saturn". GameRankings. 1997-09-10. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
- "Dead or Alive for PlayStation". GameRankings. 1998-03-31. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
- "Dead or Alive for PlayStation Reviews". Metacritic. 1998-03-31. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
- "Dead or Alive for SEGA Saturn (1997) MobyRank". MobyGames.com. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Dead or Alive for PlayStation (1998) MobyRank". MobyGames.com. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- Williamson, Colin (2014-12-11). "Dead or Alive - Review - allgame". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on December 11, 2014. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- Williamson, Colin (2014-12-10). "Dead or Alive - Review - allgame". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on December 10, 2014. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- House, Michael L. "Dead or Alive - Review". Allgame. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "Computer and Video Games - Issue 193 (1997-12)(EMAP Images)(GB)". Archive.org. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Computer and Video Games - Issue 200 (1998-07)(EMAP Images)(GB)". Archive.org. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- Electronic Gaming Monthly, 1999 Video Game Buyer's Guide, page 122.
- "デッド オア アライブ まとめ [PS] / ファミ通.com". Famitsu.com. 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- GameFan, volume 5, issue 12 (December 1997), pages 24 & 112-113.
- GamePro, issue 114 (March 1998), page 100.
- GamePro, issue 116 (May 1998), page 82.
- "Dead or Alive - PlayStation". Web.archive.org. 1999-09-15. Archived from the original on September 15, 1999. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Dead or Alive - IGN". Uk.ign.com. 1998-03-27. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
- Jeff Gerstmann (2013-10-10). "Dead or Alive (1997) Review". GameSpot. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
- MacDonald, Ryan. "Dead or Alive Review". GameSpot. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- Consoles +, issue 71, pages 180-181.
- Sega Saturn Magazine, issue 30, page 67.
- "The History Of TECMO - Dead or Alive". YouTube. 2011-02-15. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Sega Saturn Japanese Ranking". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "File:SSM UK 30.pdf". Sega Retro. 2015-10-17. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- Peter Rubin, The 50 Best Fighting Games of All Time, Complex.com, March 15, 2011