Deane, Greater Manchester
Deane Parish Church
|OS grid reference|
|• London||173 mi (278 km) SE|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||North West England|
Historically a part of Lancashire, the Parish of Deane was one of eleven parishes within the hundred of Salford and covered roughly half of the present Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. The Church of St Mary on which the parish was centred was in the township of Rumworth.
The name Deane derives from the Old English word "denu" - meaning valley. In earlier times Deane was written without the final "e". The stream running in the valley to the west of the church was named the Kirkbroke - meaning Church Brook from the Saxon. The valley is also referred to as Deane Clough, "cloh" is Old English for a ravine or deep valley.
Early church history
Since Anglo-Saxon times there has been a chapel at Deane in the township of Rumworth, the earliest record is from the year 1100. This chapel of ease dedicated to St Mary the Virgin was sometimes referred to as St Mariden i.e. St Mary's, Deane in old documents. Deane chapelry in the ancient parish of Eccles was mentioned in 13th-century deeds and became a parish in its own right in 1541. St Mary's Church, on the site of the original chapel, dates from 1452 replacing an earlier structure, the tower and north door are older than the rest of the building. The church has been altered at various times and was restored in about 1880.
The Protestant martyr, George Marsh, a farmer's son, was born in Deane in 1515. When Edward VI became King in 1547, Marsh's study of the New Testament led to his appointment as a preaching minister. When Edward VI died in 1553, his half-sister Mary I became Queen. She sought to re-establish Roman Catholicism, Marsh became victim to her persecution of the reformers. He appeared before Justice Barton at Smithills Hall accused of preaching false doctrines. Imprisoned at Chester, he refused to deny his beliefs, was tried, convicted, and burnt at the stake on April 24, 1555. A memorial was erected in the churchyard in 1893, it is a Grade II listed structure.
Lying within the boundaries of the historic county of Lancashire since the early 12th century, Deane was originally the northern half of the ancient parish of Eccles, but in 1541 it became a civil and ecclesiastical parish in its own right. As with many large parishes in the north of England, Deane was divided into the ten townships of Horwich, Halliwell, Heaton, Rumworth (where Deane Parish Church is situated), Westhoughton, Over Hulton, Middle Hulton, Little Hulton, Farnworth and Kearsley. Under provisions of the Poor Relief Act 1662, the ten townships became separate autonomous local authorities, replacing the civil parish of Deane as the main unit of local administration, although the ecclesiastical parish still remained under the authority of the vicar of Deane.
In 1837, Rumworth along with neighbouring townships (or civil parishes) became part of the Bolton Poor Law Union which took responsibility for the administration and funding of the Poor Law in that area. In the 19th century many of the Deane townships became independent civil parishes and were merged into the Municipal Borough of Bolton or formed they own urban districts. In 1872, part of Rumworth township became part of Bolton Municipal Borough, the remainder of Rumworth (which included Deane Parish Church) was renamed Deane township in 1894 and became part of the Bolton Rural District, but in 1898 it too was merged into the County Borough of Bolton.
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- Rumworth Township Map, genuki.org, retrieved 16 January 2010
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- The Parish of St Mary the Virgin, Deane, lan-opc.org, retrieved 7 January 2010
- Farrer, William; Brownbill, J, eds. (1911), "The parish of Deane", A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 5, British History Online, pp. 1–5, retrieved 7 January 2010
- Historic England, "Deane St Mary's (476083)", Images of England, retrieved 7 January 2010
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- Historic England, "George Marsh Memorial (476085)", Images of England, retrieved 30 January 2010
- Salford hundred: The parish of Deane. British History Online. Retrieved on 15 March 2009.
- "Local Authority Records: Townships And Civil Parishes". Bolton Museum and Archive Service. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- BoltonPLU, workhouses.org.uk, archived from the original on 5 June 2011, retrieved 28 November 2009
- Deane C.of E. Parish
- GENUKI - Deane
- Virtual Drive around Deane
- A Vision of Britain - Deane
- BBC History Trail - Deane
- Heatons of Deane