|City of Dearborn|
Ford Motor Company World Headquarters in Dearborn, known as the Glass House
|Motto: "Home Town of Henry Ford"|
Location in Michigan
|• Type||Strong Mayor-Council|
|• Mayor||John B. O'Reilly, Jr.|
|• Total||24.5 sq mi (63.3 km2)|
|• Land||24.4 sq mi (63.1 km2)|
|• Water||0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)|
|Elevation||591 ft (180 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||95,884|
|• Density||4,050.9/sq mi (1,564.1/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0624432|
|Website||City of Dearborn|
Dearborn is a city in the State of Michigan. It is located in Wayne County and is part of the Detroit metropolitan area. Dearborn is the eighth largest city in the State of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 98,153. First settled in the late 18th century by French farmers in a series of ribbon farms along the Rouge River and the Sauk Trail, the community grew with the establishment of the Detroit Arsenal on the Chicago Road linking Detroit and Chicago. It later grew into a manufacturing hub for the automotive industry.
The city was the home of Henry Ford and is the world headquarters of the Ford Motor Company. It has a campus of the University of Michigan as well as Henry Ford Community College. Dearborn has The Henry Ford, the United States' largest indoor-outdoor museum complex and Metro Detroit's leading tourist attraction.
Dearborn residents are primarily of European or Middle Eastern heritage, descendants of 19th and 20th-century immigrants. German, Polish, Irish and Italian are the primary European ethnicities. Middle Eastern ancestries make up the largest ethnic grouping with Lebanese, Yemeni, Iraqi, Syrian and Palestinian groups present.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Education
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 Politics
- 8 Media
- 9 Notable people
- 10 Free speech controversy
- 11 Historical timeline
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
The area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying indigenous peoples. Historical tribes belonged mostly to the Algonquian-language family, although the Huron were Iroquoian speaking. French colonists had a trading post and developed Detroit during the colonial period, trading with numerous regional tribes. This settlement was ceded to Britain in 1763 after its victory in the Seven Years' War.
The Dearborn area was settled permanently by Europeans in 1786, after the American Revolutionary War. Population growth led to Dearborn Township being formed in 1833 and the village of Dearbornville within it being established in 1836, both named after patriot Henry Dearborn, a General in the American Revolution and Secretary of War under President Thomas Jefferson. The town of Dearborn was incorporated in 1893.
In 1927 it was established as a city. Its current borders result from a 1928 consolidation vote that merged Dearborn and neighboring Fordson (previously known as Springwells), which feared being absorbed into Detroit.
The area between the two towns was, and still remains in part, undeveloped. Once farm land, this was bought by Henry Ford for his estate, Fair Lane, and the Ford Motor Company World Headquarters. Later developments in this corridor were the Ford airport (later converted to the Dearborn Proving Grounds), other Ford administrative and development facilities, The Henry Ford (the region's leading tourist attraction containing a reconstructed historic village and museum), the Henry Ford Centennial Library, the super-regional shopping mall Fairlane Town Center, and the Dearborn Civic Center. The open land is planted with sunflowers and often with Henry Ford's favorite soybeans. The crops are never harvested.
The Arab American National Museum (AANM) opened in Dearborn in 2005, the first museum in the world devoted to Arab-American history and culture. Most of the Arab Americans in Dearborn and the Detroit area are ethnic Lebanese, Christians who immigrated in the early twentieth century to work in the auto industry, as did many European immigrants to the area. They have been joined by more recent Arab immigrants from other nations.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.5 square miles (63 km2), of which 24.4 square miles (63 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) (0.37%) is water. The Rouge River runs through the city with an artificial waterfall/low head dam on the Henry Ford estate to power his powerhouse. The Upper, Middle, and Lower Branches of the river come together in Dearborn. The river is widened and channeled near the Rouge Plant to allow lake freighter access.
Fordson Island (River Rouge. Fordson Island is the only major island in a tributary to the Detroit River. The island was created in 1922 when engineers dug a secondary trench to reroute the River Rouge to increase navigability for shipping purposes. The island is privately owned, and public access is prohibited. The island is part of the city of Dearborn, which has no frontage along the Detroit River.) is an 8.4 acre (33,994 m²) island about three miles (5 km) inland from the Detroit River on the
Dearborn is among a small number of municipalities that own property in other cities. It owns the 626-acre (2.53 km2) Camp Dearborn in Milford, Michigan, which is located 35 miles (56 km) from Dearborn. Dearborn is among an even smaller number that hold property in another state: the city owns the "Dearborn Towers" apartment complex in Clearwater, Florida. These holdings are considered part of the city of Dearborn, and revenues generated by camp admissions and rent collected are used to bolster the city's budget.
|Allen Park, Melvindale|
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the 2010 census the population of Dearborn was 98,153. The racial and ethnic composition was 89.1% Whites, 4.0% black or African-American, 0.2% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.2% Non-Hispanics of some other race, 4.0% reporting two or more races and 3.4% Hispanic or Latino. 41.7% were of Arab ancestry (categorized as "White" in Census collection data).
Dearborn has a large community of descendants of ethnic European immigrants from the 19th and 20th centuries, whose ancestors generally first settled in Detroit: Irish, German, and Polish. It is a center of Maltese American settlement, from the Mediterranean island of Malta. They were also attracted to jobs in the auto industry and some were among immigrant Maltese who first settled in Corktown.
In Census 2000, 61.9% spoke only English, while 29.3% spoke Arabic, 1.9% Spanish, and 1.5% Polish. There were 36,770 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.1% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.42.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $44,560, and the median income for a family was $53,060. Males had a median income of $45,114 versus $33,872 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,488. About 12.2% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 and over.
As of the 2012 estimate, Dearborn's population was thought to have fallen to 96,474, a decrease of 1.7% since 2010. Over the same period, though, SEMCOG, the local statistics agency of Metro Detroit Council of Governments, has estimated the city to have grown to 99,001, or an increase of 1.2% since 2000. SEMCOG's July 2014 estimate listed Dearborn with a population of 102,566.
The city's population includes 40,000 Arab Americans. Arab Americans own many shops and businesses, offering services in both English and Arabic. In the 2010 census, Arab Americans comprised 40% of Dearborn's population; many are from families who have been in the city since the early 20th century. The city has the largest proportion of Arab Americans in the United States. As of 2006 Dearborn has the largest Lebanese American population in the United States.
The first Arab immigrants came in the early-to-mid-20th century to work in the automotive industry and were chiefly Lebanese Christians (Maronites). Other immigrants from the Mideast in the early twentieth century included a large Armenian community, who are also Christian. Assyrians/Chaldeans/Syriacs have also immigrated to the area. Since then, Arab immigrants from Yemen, Iraq and the Palestine territories, most of whom are Muslim, have joined them. Lebanese Americans comprise the largest group of ethnic Arabs. The Arab Muslim community has built the Islamic Center of America, the largest mosque in North America, and the Dearborn Mosque. More Iraqi refugees have come, fleeing the continued war in their country since 2003.
Warren Avenue has the commercial center of the Arab-American community. The Arab American National Museum is located in Dearborn. The museum was opened in January 2005 to celebrate the Arab American community's history, culture and contributions to the United States.
Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn. In addition its Dearborn campus contains many research, testing, finance and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford, including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses, such as the Fairlane Town Center shopping mall. DFCU Financial, the largest credit union in Michigan, was created for Ford and related companies' employees.
One of the largest employers in Dearborn is Oakwood Healthcare System. Other major employers include auto suppliers like Visteon, education facilities such as Henry Ford Community College and museums such as The Henry Ford. Other businesses which are headquartered in Dearborn include Carhartt (clothing), Eppinger[disambiguation needed] (fishing lures), AAA Michigan (insurance), and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the largest employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|2||Oakwood Health System||5,833|
|3||AK Steel Dearborn Works||4,900|
|7||Dearborn Board of Education||2,032|
|8||Auto Club of Michigan||1,664|
|9||United Technologies Auto||1,200|
|10||Henry Ford Community College||1,000|
Colleges and universities
University of Michigan–Dearborn and Henry Ford Community College are located in Dearborn on Evergreen Road and are adjacent to each other.Concordia University Dearborn Center, and Central Michigan University both offer classes in Dearborn. Career training schools include Kaplan Career Institute, ITT Tech, and Sanford Brown College.
Primary and secondary schools
Dearborn residents, along with a small portion of Dearborn Heights residents attend Dearborn Public Schools, which operates 34 schools including 3 major high schools. Divine Child High School and Elementary School are in Dearborn as well; the high-school is the largest private coed high school in the area. Dearborn Schools operated the Clara B. Ford High School inside Vista Maria, a non-profit residential treatment agency for girls in Dearborn Heights. Clara B. Ford High School became a charter school in the 2007–08 school year.
Dearborn Public Library includes the Henry Ford Centennial Library, the main library, and the Bryant and Esper branches.
The Bryant Branch, which opened in November 1924, was Dearborn's first public library. It served as the main library until the Ford library opened in 1969, and 1970 Bryant (then known as the Mason branch) became a branch library. The library was renamed in 1977 after Katharine Wright Bryant, who developed a plan for the library and campaigned for it.
Around April 1963 the Ford Motor Company granted the City of Dearborn $3,000,000 to build a library as a memorial to Henry Ford. Ford Motor Company deeded 15.3 acres (6.2 ha) of vacant land for the public library to the city on July 30, 1963, the centennial or 100th anniversary of Henry Ford's birth. The Ford Foundation later granted the library an additional $500,000 for supplies and equipment. On November 25, 1969 the library was dedicated. Library employees occupied the building since its opening; originally only the library had offices in the building. In 1979 the library staff gave up the western side's meeting rooms, and the City of Dearborn Health Department occupied those rooms.
The Esper Branch, the smallest branch, is located in what is known as the Arab residential quarter of the city. The library has about 35,000 books, entertainment and educational videocasettes, music CDs, children's music cassettes, audio books, and magazines. Newspapers are available there. It features many Arabic-language books, newspapers, and videocasettes for its Arabic-speaking residents. It was dedicated on October 12, 1953. Originally named the Warren Branch, the library had replaced the Northeast Branch, which opened in a storefront in 1944. In October 1961 it was named after city councilman Anthony M. Esper.
Sports facilities include the Dearborn Ice Skating Center.
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Dearborn, operating its Wolverine three times daily in each direction between Chicago, Illinois and Pontiac, Michigan via Detroit. Baggage cannot be checked at this location; however, up to two suitcases in addition to any "personal items" such as briefcases, purses, laptop bags, and infant equipment are allowed on board as carry-ons. There are two rail stops in Dearborn: the ordinary Amtrak station and a rarely used station at Greenfield Village. Amtrak operates on Norfolk Southern's (NS) "Michigan Line". This track runs from Dearborn to Kalamazoo, Michigan. Most of the freight traffic on these rails is related to the automotive industry. Norfolk Southern's Dearborn Division offices are also located in Dearborn.
Dearborn is served by buses of both the Detroit Department of Transportation (DDOT) and the Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) systems.
From 1924 to 1947, Dearborn was the site of Ford Airport, with the world's first concrete runway and the first scheduled U.S. passenger service.
As of 2014, the city council president of Dearborn, Susan Dabaja, is a Muslim Arab-American and the majority of the council members are Arab.
The metropolitan area newspapers are The Detroit News and the Detroit Free Press. The Dearborn & Dearborn Heights Press and Guide publishes local news for Dearborn and the neighboring Dearborn Heights. The The Arab American News is published in Dearborn.
- David Burtka - chef and actor, married to Neil Patrick Harris
- Garrett Clayton - actor
- Jim Cummins, NHL player
- John Dingell - dean of the U.S. House of Representatives, longest-serving Congressman
- Agnes Dobronski - Michigan educator and legislator
- Chad Everett - actor, Medical Center, The Last Challenge, Made in Paris, Airplane II: The Sequel
- Rima Fakih - Miss Michigan USA 2010, Miss USA 2010,
- Henry Ford - iconic automaker, founder of Ford Motor Company
- Edsel Ford - Henry Ford's son, second president of Ford Motor and co-namesake of Fordson
- Dan Gheesling - winner of Big Brother 10 (U.S.) and runner-up on Big Brother 14 (U.S.)
- George Z. Hart - Michigan state senator
- Orville L. Hubbard - Mayor of Dearborn from 1942 to 1978
- Al Iafrate - NHL defenseman
- John C. Kornblum, diplomat, former Ambassador to Germany
- Derek Lowe - Major League Baseball pitcher, 2004 World Series champion with Boston Red Sox
- Don Matheson - actor, Land of the Giants
- Nancy Milford - author and biographer
- Alan Mulally - CEO of Ford Motor Company
- Johnny Pacar - actor, Flight 29 Down, Make It or Break It, Now You See It...
- George Peppard - actor, Breakfast at Tiffany's, How the West Was Won, The A-Team, Banacek
- Brian Rafalski - NHL defenseman (New Jersey Devils, Detroit Red Wings)
- Doug Ross - college ice hockey coach
- Soony Saad - soccer player
- Scott Sanderson - All-Star Major League Baseball pitcher in 19 Major League seasons for seven teams
- Suzanne Sena - host of Independent Film Channel program Onion News Network and former Fox News anchor
- Serena Shim - Lebanese-American journalist
- Windy & Carl
Free speech controversy
Four members of the Christian group "Acts 17 Apologetics" were arrested and prosecuted for breach of the peace in 2010. All the charges, except one of failure to obey a police order, were thrown out by a jury. During the festival, four other people from Apologetics were blocked from handing out Arabic-English copies of the Gospel of John on a public street. Police ordered them to stop filming the incident, to provide identification, and to move at least five blocks from the border of the fair.
A Tea Party Senatorial candidate in Nevada, Sharron Angle, suggested that Dearborn was contributing to a non-widespread "militant terrorist situation," and said that the city was enforcing Islamic law. Angle was sharply criticized by the Mayor Jack O'Reilly, who called her comments "shameful." "He said they were based on distorted Tea Party accounts of the arrest of members of an anti-Islam group at an Arab festival." Angle was defeated in the election by Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid.
Preacher Terry Jones planned a protest in 2011 outside the Islamic Center of America. Local authorities required him either to post a $45,000 "peace bond" to cover Dearborn's cost if Jones incited violence or to go to trial. Jones contested that requirement, and the jury voted on April 22 to require the posting of a $1 "peace bond", but Jones and his co-pastor Wayne Sapp continued to refuse to pay. They were held briefly in jail, while claiming violation of First Amendment rights. That night Jones was released by the court. The ACLU had filed an amicus brief in support of Jones's protest plans.
On November 11, 2011, Wayne County Circuit Court Judge Robert Ziolkowski vacated the “breach of peace” ruling against Terry Jones and Wayne Sapp on the grounds that they were denied due process.
Terry Jones led a rally at City Hall and then planned to speak at the annual Festival on June 18, 2011, but on his way there he was blocked by protesters, six of whom were arrested. Police said they did not have enough officers present to maintain safety. Christian missionaries accompanied Jones with their own signs of protest; they were alleged by festivalgoers and protesters to have yelled insults at Arabs, Muslims, Islam, and Catholics.
On April 7, 2012 Terry Jones led a protest in front of the Islamic Center of America, Dearborn, speaking about Islam and Free Speech. The mosque was placed on lock down. 30 police cars were there to block traffic and prevent a counter protest.
||This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (July 2012)|
European exploration and colonization
- 1603 French lay claim to unidentified territory in this region, naming it New France.
- July 24, 1701 Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and his soldiers first land at what is now Detroit.
- November 29, 1760 The British take control of the area from France.
- 1780 Pierre Dumais clears farm near what is today's Morningside Street in Dearborn's South End.
Early U.S. history
- 1783 – By terms of the Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain cedes territory south of the Great Lakes to the United States, although the British retain practical control of the Detroit area and several other settlements until 1797.
- 1786 – Agreed year of first permanent settler in present-day Dearborn.
- 1787 – Territory of the US north and west of the Ohio River is officially proclaimed the Northwest Territory.
- December 26, 1791 – Detroit environs become part of Kent County, Ontario.
- 1795 – James Cissne becomes first settler in what is now west Dearborn.
- 1796 – Wayne County is formed by proclamation of the acting governor of the Northwest Territory. Its original area is 2,000,000 square miles (5,200,000 km2), stretching from Cleveland, Ohio, to Chicago, Illinois, and northwest to Canada.
- May 7, 1800 – Indiana Territory, created out of part of Northwest Territory, although the eastern half of Michigan including the Dearborn area, was not attached to Indiana Territory until Ohio was admitted as a state in 1803.
- January 11, 1805 – Michigan Territory officially created out of a part of the Indiana Territory.
- June 11, 1805 – Fire destroys most of Detroit.
- November 15, 1815 – Current boundaries of Wayne County drawn, county split into 18 townships.
- January 5, 1818 – Springwells Township established by Gov. Lewis Cass.
- October 23, 1824 – Bucklin Township created by Gov. Lewis Cass. The area ran from Greenfield to approximately Haggerty and from Van Born to Eight Mile.
- 1826 – Conrad Ten Eyck builds Ten Eyck Tavern at Michigan Avenue and Rouge River.
- 1827 – Wayne County's boundaries changed to its current 615 square miles (1,593 km2).
- April 12, 1827 – Springwells and Bucklin townships formally organized and laid out by gubernatorial act.
- October 29, 1829 – Bucklin Township split along what is today Inkster Road into Nankin (west half) and Pekin (east half) townships.
- March 21, 1833 – Pekin Township renamed Redford Township.
- March 31, 1833 – Greenfield Township created from north and west sections of Springwells Township, including what is now today east Dearborn.
- April 1, 1833 – Dearborn Township created from southern half of Redford Township south of Bonaparte Avenue (Joy Road).
- 1833 – Detroit Arsenal built.
- October 23, 1834 – Dearborn Township renamed Bucklin Township.
- March 26, 1836 – Bucklin Township renamed Dearborn Township.
- January 26, 1837 – Michigan admitted to the Union as the 26th state. Stevens T. Mason is first governor.
- 1837 – Michigan Central Railroad extended through Springwells Township. Hamlet of Springwells rises along railroad.
- April 5, 1838 – Village of Dearbornville incorporates. Village later unincorporated on May 11, 1846.
- 1849 Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Brooklyn Street.
- April 2, 1850 – Greenfield Township annexes another section of Springwells Township.
- February 12, 1857 – Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Grand Boulevard.
- March 25, 1873 – Springwells Township annexes back section of Greenfield Township south of Tireman
- May 28, 1875 – Postmaster general changes name of Dearbornville post office to Dearborn post office, hence changing the city's name.
- 1875 – Detroit Arsenal closed.
- 1875 – Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
- 1876 – William A. Nowlin writes The Bark Covered House in honor of country's 100th birthday.
- June 20, 1884 – Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Livernois.
- 1889 – First telephone installed in Dearborn at St. Joseph's retreat.
Incorporation as village
- March 24, 1893 Village of Dearborn incorporates.
- 1906 Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
- 1916 Detroit annexes more of Springwells Township, forming Dearborn's eastern boundary.
- 1917 Rouge "Eagle" Plant opens.
- November 1, 1919 The first house numbering ordinance in Dearborn starts. Residents required to place standard plate number on right side of the main house entrance five feet up.
- December 9, 1919 Springwells Township incorporates as village of Springwells.
- October 16, 1922 Springwells Township annexes small section of Dearborn Township east of present-day Greenfield Road.
- December 27, 1923 Voters approve incorporation of Springwells as a city. It officially became a city April 7, 1924.
- September 9, 1924 Village of Warrendale incorporates.
- November 1924 Ford Airport opens.
- April 6, 1925 Warrendale voters and residents of remaining Greenfield Township approve annexation by Detroit.
- May 26, 1925 Village of Dearborn annexes large portion of Dearborn Township.
- December 23, 1925 Springwells changes name to city of Fordson.
- February 15, 1926 First U.S. airmail delivery made, going from Ford Airport in Dearborn to Cleveland.
- September 14, 1926 Election approves incorporation of village of Inkster. Unincorporated part of Dearborn Township split into two unconnected sections.
- October 11, 1926 Only dirigible to ever moor in Dearborn docks at Ford Airport.
Reincorporation as city
- February 14, 1927 Village of Dearborn residents approve vote to become a city.
- June 12, 1928 Voters in Dearborn, Fordson and part of Dearborn Township vote to consolidate into one city.
- January 9, 1929 Clyde Ford elected as first mayor of Dearborn.
- 1929 Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village opens.
- July 1, 1931 Dearborn Inn opens as one of first airport hotels in world.
- March 7, 1932 Ford Hunger March crosses Dearborn city limits. Four marchers are shot to death by police and Ford service men.
- 1936 John Carey becomes mayor of Dearborn.
- June 19, 1936 Montgomery Ward opens in Dearborn.
- May 26, 1937 Harry Bennett's Ford "service" men beat United Auto Workers (UAW) official Richard Frankensteen in the Battle of the Overpass
- June 21, 1941 Ford Motor Company signs its first union contract.
- 1939 The Historic Springwells Park Neighborhood is established by Edsel B. Ford to provide company executives and auto workers with upscale housing accommodations.
- January 6, 1942 Orville L. Hubbard takes office as mayor of Dearborn for first time.
- April 7, 1947 Henry Ford dies.
- October 20, 1947 Dearborn City Council approves purchase of land near Milford, Michigan for what would become Camp Dearborn. First section of camp opens following year.
- October 21, 1947 Ford Airport officially closes.
- 1950 First Pleasant Hours senior citizen group formed.
- 1950 Dearborn Historical Museum formally established.
- January 1952 Oakwood Hospital formally opened and dedicated.
- April 22, 1958 Election held to annex part of South Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
- 1959 University of Michigan (Dearborn Campus) opens.
- April 6, 1959 Election held to annex part of North Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
- 1962 St. Joseph's retreat closed and razed
- 1962 New Henry Ford Community College campus dedicated.
- November 9, 1962 Ford Rotunda burns down
- 1967 Dearborn Towers in Clearwater, Florida opens.
- March 2, 1976 Fairlane Town Center opens.
- 1978 John B. O' Reilly, Sr. becomes mayor of Dearborn
- November 6, 1981 Cable Television reaches first home in Dearborn, on Abbot Street.
- December 16, 1982 Orville Hubbard dies.
- 1986 Michael Guido becomes mayor of Dearborn.
- 1993 Michael Guido is the first mayor to run unopposed.
- 2006 Michael Guido dies at the age of 52 during his 6th term, the only mayor to die in office.
- 2006 John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is to become temporary Mayor. O'Reilly's father was the mayor who had preceded Mayor Guido.
- 2007 John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is elected mayor of Dearborn winning 93.97% of the vote.
- 2008 John B. O'Reilly, Sr. dies at the age of 89; he was Mayor of Dearborn (1978–1985) and also served as Chief of Police for 11 years.
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- Hill, Eric J. and John Gallagher (2002). AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3120-3.
- Rignall, Karen (graduate student). "Building an Arab-American Community in Dearborn." University of Michigan. Volume 5, Issue 1, Fall 1997.
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