Death, also known as the Grim Reaper, is a common element in culture and history. As a personified force it has been imagined in many different ways. The popular depiction of Death as a skeletal figure carrying a large scythe and clothed in a black cloak with a hood first arose in 14th century England, while the title "the Grim Reaper" is first attested in 1847.
In some mythologies, the Grim Reaper causes the victim's death by coming to collect him. In turn, people in some stories try to hold on to life by avoiding Death's visit, or by fending Death off with bribery or tricks. Other beliefs hold that the Spectre of Death is only a psychopomp, serving to sever the last ties between the soul and the body, and to guide the deceased to the afterlife, without having any control over when or how the victim dies. In many mythologies, Death is personified in male form, while in others, Death is perceived as female (for instance, Marzanna in Slavic mythology).
- 1 By region
- 2 In Abrahamic religions
- 3 In popular culture
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 External links
Mot (lit. "Death") was personified to Canaanites as a god of death. He was considered a son of the king of the gods, El. His contest with the storm god Baʿal forms part of the myth cycle discovered in the 1920s in the ruins of Ugarit. Lacunae obscure some of the details, but Mot apparently consumes Baʿal before being split open and mutilated by that god's sister, the warrior ‘Anat. After a time, both gods are restored and resume battle before the sun goddess Shapash prompts a truce by warning Mot that, if forced to, El would intervene on Baʿal's behalf. The Phoenicians also worshipped death under the name Mot and a version of Mot later became Maweth, the devil or angel of death in Judaism.
Ancient Greece found Death to be inevitable, and therefore, he is not represented as purely evil. He is often portrayed as a bearded and winged man, but has also been portrayed as a young boy. Death, or Thanatos, is the counterpart of life, death being represented as male, and life as female. He is the twin brother of Hypnos, the god of sleep. He is typically shown with his brother and is represented as being just and gentle. His job is to escort the dead to the underworld, Hades. He then hands the dead over to Charon, who mans the boat that carries them over the river Styx, which separates the land of the living from the land of the dead. It was believed that if the ferryman did not receive some sort of payment, the soul would not be delivered to the underworld and would be left by the riverside for a hundred years. Thanatos' sisters, the Keres, were the spirits of violent death. They were associated with deaths from battle, disease, accident, and murder. The sisters were portrayed as evil, often feeding on the blood of the body after the soul had been escorted to Hades. They had fangs and talons, and would be dressed in bloody garments.
Breton folklore shows us a spectral figure portending death, the Ankou. Usually, the Ankou is the spirit of the last person that died within the community and appears as a tall, haggard figure with a wide hat and long white hair or a skeleton with a revolving head who sees everyone, everywhere. The Ankou drives a deathly wagon or cart with a creaking axle. The cart or wagon is piled high with corpses and a stop at a cabin means instant death for those inside.
In Ireland there was a creature known as a dullahan, whose head would be tucked under his or her arm (dullahans were not one, but an entire species), and the head was said to have large eyes and a smile that could reach the head's ears. The dullahan would ride a black horse or a carriage pulled by black horses, and stop at the house of someone about to die, and call their name, and immediately the person would die. The dullahan did not like being watched, and it was believed that if a dullahan knew someone was watching them, they would lash that person's eyes with their whip, which was made from a spine; or they would toss a basin of blood on the person, which was a sign that the person was next to die.
In Scottish folklore there was a belief that a black, dark green or white dog known as a Cù Sìth took dying souls to the afterlife.
In Poland, Death, or Śmierć, has an appearance similar to the traditional Grim Reaper, but instead of a black robe, Death has a white robe. Also, due to grammar, Death is a female (the word śmierć is of feminine gender), mostly seen as an old skeletal woman, as depicted in 16th century dialogue "Rozmowa Mistrza Polikarpa ze Śmiercią" (Latin: "Dialogus inter Mortem et Magistrum Polikarpum").
In the Netherlands, the personification of Death is known as Magere Hein ("Meager Hein"). Historically, he was sometimes simply referred to as Hein or variations thereof such as Heintje, Heintjeman and Oom Hendrik ("Uncle Hendrik"). Related archaic terms are Beenderman ("Bone-man"), Scherminkel (very meager person, "skeleton") and Maaijeman ("mow-man", a reference to his scythe).
The concept of Magere Hein was pre-Christian and tied to Pagan beliefs, but it was Christianized and likely gained its modern name and features (scythe, skeleton, black robe etc.) during the Middle Ages. The designation "Meager" comes from its portrayal as a skeleton. This largely influenced by the Christian Dance of Death (Dutch: dodendans) theme that was prominent in Europe during the late Middle Ages. "Hein" was a Middle Dutch name originating as a short form of Heinric (see Henry (given name)). Its use was possibly related to the comparable German concept of "Freund Hein". Notable is that many of the names given to Death can also refer to the Devil, showing how his status a feared and "evil" being led to him being merged into the concept of Satan.
In Scandinavia, in Norse mythology death was personified in the shape of Hel, the goddess of death and ruler over the realm of the same name, where she received a portion of the dead. In the times of the Black Plague, Death would often be depicted as an old woman known by the name of Pesta, meaning "plague hag". She wore a black hood. She would go into a town carrying either a rake or a broom. If she brought the rake, some people would survive the plague; if she brought the broom, however, everyone would die.
Later, Scandinavians adopted the classic Grim Reaper with a scythe and black robe.
Lithuanians named Death Giltinė, deriving from word gelti ("to sting"). Giltinė was viewed as an old, ugly woman with a long blue nose and a deadly poisonous tongue. The legend tells that Giltinė was young, pretty and communicative until she was trapped in a coffin for seven years. The goddess of death was a sister of the goddess of life and destiny, Laima, symbolizing the relationship between beginning and end.
Lithuanians later adopted the classic Grim Reaper with a scythe and black robe.
The Sanskrit word for death is mrityu (cognate with Latin mors and Polish śmierć), which is often personified in Dharmic religions.
In Hindu scriptures, the lord of death is called King Yama (यम राज, Yama Rājā). He is also known as the King of Karmic Justice (Dharmaraja) as one's karma at death was considered to lead to a just rebirth. (Yudhishthira, eldest of the pandavas and a personification of justice, was born through Kunti's prayers to Yama.) Yama rides a black buffalo and carries a rope lasso to carry the soul back to his home, called Naraka, pathalloka, or Yamaloka. There are many forms of reapers, although some say there is only one who disguises himself as a small child. His agents, the Yamadutas, carry souls back to Yamalok. There, all the accounts of a person's good and bad deeds are stored and maintained by Chitragupta. The balance of these deeds allows Yama to decide where the soul has to reside in its next life, following the theory of reincarnation. Yama is also mentioned in the Mahabharata as a great philosopher and devotee of the Supreme Brahman.
Buddhist scriptures also mention Mara, much in the similar way.
Yama was introduced to Chinese mythology through Buddhism. In Chinese, he is known as King Yan (t 閻王, s 阎王, p Yánwáng) or Yanluo (t 閻羅王, s 阎罗王, p Yánluówáng), ruling the ten gods of the underworld Diyu. He is normally depicted wearing a Chinese judge's cap and traditional Chinese robes and appears on most forms of hell money offered in ancestor worship. From China, Yama spread to Japan as the Great King Enma (閻魔大王, Enma-Dai-Ō), ruler of Jigoku (地獄); Korea as the Great King Yŏmna (염라대왕), ruler of Jiok (지옥); and Vietnam as Diêm La Vương, ruler of Địa Ngục or Âm Phủ
Separately, the Kojiki relates that the Japanese goddess Izanami was burnt to death giving birth to the fire god Hinokagutsuchi. She then entered a realm of perpetual night called Yomi-no-Kuni. Her husband Izanagi pursued her there but discovered his wife was no longer as beautiful as before. After an argument, she promises she will take a thousand lives every day, becoming a goddess of death. There are also death gods called shinigami (死神), which are closer to the Western tradition of the Grim Reaper; while common in modern Japanese arts and fiction, they were essentially absent in traditional mythology.
In Korean mythology, the equivalent of the Grim Reaper is the "Netherworld Emissary" (저승사자). He is depicted as a stern and ruthless bureaucrat in Yŏmna's service. A psychopomp, he escorts all—good or evil—from the land of the living to the netherworld when the time comes.
La Santa Muerte (Saint Death) is a sacred figure and feminine skeletal folk saint venerated primarily in Mexico and the United States in Folk Catholicism. As a figure made holy by popular belief, the saint of death developed through syncretism between Mesoamerican indigenous and Spanish Catholic beliefs and practices. Since the pre-Columbian era Mexican culture has maintained a certain reverence towards death, which can be seen in the widespread commemoration of the syncretic Day of the Dead. Elements of that celebration include the use of skeletons to remind people of their mortality. It is more commonly known as La Catrina.
San La Muerte (Saint Death) is a skeletal folk saint that is venerated in Paraguay, the Northeast of Argentina and southern Brazil. As the result of internal migration in Argentina since the 1960s the veneration of San La Muerte has been extended to Greater Buenos Aires and the national prison system as well. Saint Death is depicted as a male skeleton figure usually holding a scythe. Although the Catholic Church in Mexico has attacked the devotion of Saint Death as a tradition that mixes paganism with Christianity and is contrary to the Christian belief of Christ defeating death, many devotees consider the veneration of San La Muerte as being part of their Catholic faith. The rituals connected to and powers ascribed to San La Muerte are very similar to Santa Muerte.
In the Brazilian religion Umbanda, the orixá Omolu personifies sickness and death, and also the cure. The image of the death is also associated with Exu, lord of the crossroads, who rules the midnight and the cemeteries.
In Aztec mythology, Mictecacihuatl is Queen of Mictlan, the underworld, ruling over the afterlife with Mictlantecuhtli, another deity who is designated as her husband. Her role is to keep watch over the bones of the dead. She presided over the ancient festivals of the dead, which evolved from Aztec traditions into the modern Day of the Dead after synthesis with Spanish cultural traditions. She is said now to preside over the contemporary festival as well. Mictecacihuatl is known as the Lady of the Dead, since it is believed that she was born, then sacrificed as an infant. Mictecacihuatl was represented with a defleshed body and with jaw agape to swallow the stars during the day.
In Abrahamic religions
The "Angel of the Lord" smites 185,000 men in the Assyrian camp (II Kings 19:35). When the Angel of Death passes through to smite the Egyptian first-born, God prevents "the destroyer" (shâchath) from entering houses with blood on the lintel and side posts (Exodus 12:23). The "destroying angel" (mal'ak ha-mashḥit) rages among the people in Jerusalem (II Sam. 24:16). In I Chronicles 21:15 the "angel of the Lord" is seen by King David standing "between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem." The biblical Book of Job (33:22) uses the general term "destroyers" (memitim), which tradition has identified with "destroying angels" (mal'ake Khabbalah), and Prov. 16:14 uses the term the "angels of death" (mal'ake ha-mavet). Azra'il is sometimes referred as the Angel of Death as well.
Jewish tradition also refers to Death as the Angel of Dark and Light, a name which stems from Talmudic lore. There is also a reference to "Abaddon" (The Destroyer), an Angel who is known as the "Angel of the Abyss". In Talmudic lore, he is characterized as archangel Michael.
The memitim are a type of angel from biblical lore associated with the mediation over the lives of the dying. The name is derived from the Hebrew word mĕmītǐm (מְמִיתִים - "executioners", "slayers", "destroyers") and refers to angels that brought about the destruction of those whom the guardian angels no longer protected. While there may be some debate among religious scholars regarding the exact nature of the memitim, it is generally accepted that, as described in the Book of Job 33:22, they are killers of some sort.
In Hebrew scriptures, Death ("Maweth") is sometimes personified as a devil or angel of death (e.g., Habakkuk 2:5; Job 18:13). In both the Book of Hosea and the Book of Jeremiah, Maweth/Mot is mentioned as a deity to whom Yahweh can turn over Judah as punishment for worshiping other gods.
Form and functions
According to the Midrash, the Angel of Death was created by God on the first day. His dwelling is in heaven, whence he reaches earth in eight flights, whereas Pestilence reaches it in one. He has twelve wings. "Over all people have I surrendered thee the power," said God to the Angel of Death, "only not over this one which has received freedom from death through the Law." It is said of the Angel of Death that he is full of eyes. In the hour of death, he stands at the head of the departing one with a drawn sword, to which clings a drop of gall. As soon as the dying man sees Death, he is seized with a convulsion and opens his mouth, whereupon Death throws the drop into it. This drop causes his death; he turns putrid, and his face becomes yellow. The expression "the taste of death" originated in the idea that death was caused by a drop of gall.
The soul escapes through the mouth, or, as is stated in another place, through the throat; therefore, the Angel of Death stands at the head of the patient (Adolf Jellinek, l.c. ii. 94, Midr. Teh. to Ps. xi.). When the soul forsakes the body, its voice goes from one end of the world to the other, but is not heard (Gen. R. vi. 7; Ex. R. v. 9; Pirḳe R. El. xxxiv.). The drawn sword of the Angel of Death, mentioned by the Chronicler (I. Chron. 21:15; comp. Job 15:22; Enoch 62:11), indicates that the Angel of Death was figured as a warrior who kills off the children of men. "Man, on the day of his death, falls down before the Angel of Death like a beast before the slaughterer" (Grünhut, "Liḳḳuṭim", v. 102a). R. Samuel's father (c. 200) said: "The Angel of Death said to me, 'Only for the sake of the honor of mankind do I not tear off their necks as is done to slaughtered beasts'" ('Ab. Zarah 20b). In later representations, the knife sometimes replaces the sword, and reference is also made to the cord of the Angel of Death, which indicates death by throttling. Moses says to God: "I fear the cord of the Angel of Death" (Grünhut, l.c. v. 103a et seq.). Of the four Jewish methods of execution, three are named in connection with the Angel of Death: Burning (by pouring hot lead down the victim's throat), slaughtering (by beheading), and throttling. The Angel of Death administers the particular punishment that God has ordained for the commission of sin.
A peculiar mantle ("idra"-according to Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb." i. 32, a sword) belongs to the equipment of the Angel of Death (Eccl. R. iv. 7). The Angel of Death takes on the particular form which will best serve his purpose; e.g., he appears to a scholar in the form of a beggar imploring pity (The beggar should receive Tzedakah.)(M. Ḳ. 28a). "When pestilence rages in the town, walk not in the middle of the street, because the Angel of Death [i.e., pestilence] strides there; if peace reigns in the town, walk not on the edges of the road. When pestilence rages in the town, go not alone to the synagogue, because there the Angel of Death stores his tools. If the dogs howl, the Angel of Death has entered the city; if they make sport, the prophet Elijah has come" (B. Ḳ. 60b). The "destroyer" (saṭan ha-mashḥit) in the daily prayer is the Angel of Death (Ber. 16b). Midr. Ma'ase Torah (compare Jellinek, "B. H." ii. 98) says: "There are six Angels of Death: Gabriel over kings; Ḳapẓiel over youths; Mashbir over animals; Mashḥit over children; Af and Ḥemah over man and beast."
Scholars and the Angel of Death
Talmud teachers of the 4th century associate quite familiarly with him. When he appeared to one on the street, the teacher reproached him with rushing upon him as upon a beast, whereupon the angel called upon him at his house. To another, he granted a respite of thirty days, that he might put his knowledge in order before entering the next world. To a third, he had no access, because he could not interrupt the study of the Talmud. To a fourth, he showed a rod of fire, whereby he is recognized as the Angel of Death (M. K. 28a). He often entered the house of Bibi and conversed with him (Ḥag. 4b). Often, he resorts to strategy in order to interrupt and seize his victim (B. M. 86a; Mak. 10a).
The death of Joshua ben Levi in particular is surrounded with a web of fable. When the time came for him to die and the Angel of Death appeared to him, he demanded to be shown his place in paradise. When the angel had consented to this, he demanded the angel's knife, that the angel might not frighten him by the way. This request also was granted him, and Joshua sprang with the knife over the wall of paradise; the angel, who is not allowed to enter paradise, caught hold of the end of his garment. Joshua swore that he would not come out, and God declared that he should not leave paradise unless he was absolved from his oath; if not absolved, he was to remain. The Angel of Death then demanded back his knife, but Joshua refused. At this point, a heavenly voice (bat ḳol) rang out: "Give him back the knife, because the children of men have need of it" (Ket. 77b; Jellinek, l.c. ii. 48-51; Bacher, l.c. i. 192 et seq.).
The Rabbis found the Angel of Death mentioned in Psalm 134:45 (it should be noted that Psalms 134 only has 3 verses in all English translations)(A. V. 48), where the Targum translates: "There is no man who lives and, seeing the Angel of Death, can deliver his soul from his hand." Eccl. 8:4 is thus explained in Midrash Rabbah to the passage: "One may not escape the Angel of Death, nor say to him, 'Wait until I put my affairs in order,' or 'There is my son, my slave: take him in my stead.'" Where the Angel of Death appears, there is no remedy (Talmud, Ned. 49a; Hul. 7b). If one who has sinned has confessed his fault, the Angel of Death may not touch him (Midrash Tanhuma, ed. Buber, 139). God protects from the Angel of Death (Midrash Genesis Rabbah lxviii.).
By acts of benevolence, the anger of the Angel of Death is overcome; when one fails to perform such acts the Angel of Death will make his appearance (Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa, viii.). The Angel of Death receives his order from God (Ber. 62b). As soon as he has received permission to destroy, however, he makes no distinction between good and bad (B. Ḳ. 60a). In the city of Luz, the Angel of Death has no power, and, when the aged inhabitants are ready to die, they go outside the city (Soṭah 46b; compare Sanh. 97a). A legend to the same effect existed in Ireland in the Middle Ages (Jew. Quart. Rev. vi. 336).
In Roman Catholicism, the archangel Michael is viewed as the good Angel of Death (as opposed to Samael, the controversial Angel of Death), carrying the souls of the deceased to Heaven (cf. his invocation in the traditional offertory of the requiem Mass). In Mexico, the Angel of Death is also seen as a saint, known as Santa Muerte, and as San La Muerte in Argentina and Paraguay, but these local folk cults are not acknowledged by the Catholic Church. Death is also one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse portrayed in the Book of Revelation. Revelation 6:7-8
In Islam, Azrail (Malak al-Maut) is the angel of Death. He pulls the souls out of the body, and guides them through the journey of the afterlife. His appearance depends on the person's deed and actions, with those that did good seeing a beautiful being, and those that did wrong seeing a horrific monster.
In popular culture
- Death is an important reoccurring character in DC comic book series, The Sandman (1989–1996) by Neil Gaiman. She is depicted as one of The Endless, a group of beings who embody powerful forces or aspects of the universe.
- Death is a character in Marvel Comics who often appears in the form of a humanoid female, and is the object of the affections of Thanos and Deadpool.
- Archangel also known as "Death" appears as one of the servants of the mutant Apocalypse in Marvel Comics.
- In Ingmar Bergman's film The Seventh Seal (1957), a knight returning from the Crusades during a time of plague plays chess with Death, ostensibly in a hopeless attempt to keep his life, but in fact to distract Death from other people for a time. This portrayal of Death has often been referenced or parodied, for example in The Dove (1968), Bill and Ted's Bogus Journey (1991), and Last Action Hero (1993).
- Death is the main character in the 1934 film Death Takes a Holiday, in which he is voiced and played in human form by Fredric March. The film served as inspiration for the 1998 film Meet Joe Black. In this version, Death is played by Brad Pitt. He takes the form of a recently deceased man.
- Death is the central antagonist of the Final Destination franchise (2000-2011). In the series, Death kills people (often in a brutal manner) in the order seen in a protagonist's premonitions.
- Death appears in Monkeybone (2001) portrayed by Whoopi Goldberg. She is the boss of the Grim Reapers who resides in the Land of Death and has Exit Passes given to anyone that she grants another chance to, who are lingering in Downtown. Death is also depicted as a relative of Hypnos: God of Sleep.
- Death is present in most of the Castlevania games, exceptions being Haunted Castle, Castlevania: The Adventure, and Castlevania II: Belmont's Revenge.
- Death appears in the video game Darksiders II (2012) as the main protagonist.
- Death appears as a character in The Sims where he comes to take away deceased Sims characters. With some effort, it is possible to befriend Death and even have it appear without the need to take anyone away.
- Death appears in Dante's Inferno voiced by Dee Bradley Baker and Richard Moll. He appears as the first boss the player encounters.
- Death is featured in Runescape and first appeared for the annual Halloween Events but is now part of the lore of the game.
- Death appears in Diablo III under the name Malthael as the main antagonist.
- In the video game Grim Fandango, the protagonist, Manny Calavera, begins as a grim reaper working for the Department of Death.
- In the video game League of Legends one of the playable characters is Kindred, who acts as the personification of death. They are a pair of spirits: Lamb, who represents accepting death and dying peacefully, and Wolf, who represents rejecting death and dying painfully.
- In the video game Deadbolt, the player controls a grim reaper.
- In Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, the Ghost of Christmas Yet To Come is described as "a solemn Phantom, draped and hooded ... in a deep black garment". The character is often associated with Death because it shows Scrooge the events surrounding his own demise.
- The Black Rabbit of Inlé represents Death in Richard Adams' Watership Down, its film adaptation, and its television adaptation.
- Death is the main character in book On a Pale Horse (1983) by Piers Anthony. Death is also a recurring character in the other 7 books of Anthony's Incarnations of Immortality series.
- The Grim Reaper mystery series by Judy Clemens, American novelist.
- Death is a character in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series and a parody of several other personifications of death.
- The plot of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (2007), the final book in J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, centers around a fairy tale in which Death encounters three Wizard brothers and gives them each gifts, hoping to claim them. The story, The Tale of the Three Brothers, is told through animation in the book's film adaptation and also appears in the companion storybook The Tales of Beedle the Bard.
- Death is the narrator in Markus Zusak's book The Book Thief (2005) and in the film adaptation.
- Angel of Death is a character in Touched by an Angel portrayed by John Dye.
- Death personified makes appearances in Rod Serling's 1959 TV series The Twilight Zone in episodes "One for the Angels" (portrayed by Murray Hamilton), "The Hitch-Hiker" (portrayed by Leonard Strong), and "Nothing in the Dark" (portrayed by Robert Redford).
- Death is a recurring character in the American TV series Family Guy voiced by Norm Macdonald in the first appearance and by Adam Carolla in later episodes.
- The Grim Reaper is a main character in The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy voiced by Greg Eagles.
- Death is a character in Adventure Time voiced by Miguel Ferrer.
- Death is a character in Regular Show voiced by Julian Holloway.
- Death is a character in the anime Soul Eater. Referred to as "Lord Death", he is the head of an academy for young witch hunters and demon hunters.
- Death is featured in the American TV series, Supernatural. Rather than a single entity, it takes the form of shapeshifting beings known as Reapers that come to people who are about to die.
- The main characters in the Showtime program "Dead Like Me" were all Grim Reapers who lived and worked in Seattle.
- Death is a very common icon and symbolism in extreme metal. Particularly, death metal and its subgenres, deathcore, doom metal, and occasionally, black metal.
- Melodic death metal band Children of Bodom has the Grim Reaper as its mascot, affectionately nicknamed "Roy the Reaper". Roy makes an appearance on the cover of every major studio album they've made to date.
- Blue Öyster Cult's Some Enchanted Evening and Don't Fear the Reaper: The Best of Blue Öyster Cult showcase the Grim Reaper as a major centerpiece of the album art.
- A male personification of Death is depicted as a major character in the musical "Elisabeth", chronicling the life and death of the Empress of Austria-Hungary. In this depiction, after meeting the teenage Elisabeth when she nearly dies from an accident, Death is struck by her beauty and cannot bring himself to collect her soul. Smitten with the girl, Death instead allows her to live and follows her throughout her life, with disastrous consequences for Elisabeth, her family and the empire itself. Death is also accompanied in certain scenes by assistant "Death Angels", who aid in his work.
- List of death deities
- Beak doctor costume
- Danse Macabre
- Cassuto, U. (1962). "Baal and Mot in the Ugaritic Texts". Israel Exploration Journal 12 (2): 81–83. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- See, e.g., Hab. 2:5 & Job 18:13.
- Anatole Le Braz : Légende de la Mort
- Stoett, Frederik August (c. 1923). "Scharminkel (Scherminkel)". Nederlandse spreekwoorden, spreekwijzen, uitdrukkingen en gezegden [Dutch proverbs, idioms, expressions and sayings] (in Dutch).
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- Lemma: Hein, INL
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- "The Korean National Encyclopedia of Ethnic Practices (Page in Korean)". 18.104.22.168. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
- Bunson, Matthew, (1996). Angels A to Z : Who's Who of the Heavenly Host. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-517-88537-9.
- Olyan, S.M., A Thousand Thousands Served Him: Exegesis and the Naming of Angels in Ancient Judaism, page 21.
- Gordon, M.B., Medicine among the Ancient Hebrews, page 472.
- Cassuto, U. (1962). "Baal and Mot in the Ugaritic Texts". Israel Exploration Journal 12 (2): 81–83. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Handy, Lowell (1995). The Appearance of the Pantheon in Judah in The Triumph of Elohim. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA: Eerdmans. p. 40. ISBN 0-8028-4161-9.
- Midrash Tanhuma on Genesis 39:1
- Talmud Berakhot 4b
- Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer 13
- Midrash Tanhuma on Exodus 31:18
- Talmud Avodah Zarah 20b; on putrefaction see also Pesikta de-Rav Kahana 54b; for the eyes compare Ezekiel 1:18 and Revelation 4:6
- Jewish Quarterly Review vi. 327
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- Dillmann, August (1895). Handbuch der alttestamentlichen Theologie. Leipzig: S. Hirzel.
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