Death and state funeral of Kim Jong-il

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Death and funeral of Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong il Portrait.jpg
Official portrait of Kim Jong-il
Date17–29 December 2011
LocationPyongyang, North Korea

The death of Kim Jong-il was reported by North Korean state television news on 19 December 2011.[1] The presenter Ri Chun-hee announced that he had died on 17 December at 8:30 am of a massive heart attack while travelling by train to an area outside Pyongyang. Reportedly, he had received medical treatment for cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases. During the trip though, he was said to have had an "advanced acute myocardial infarction, complicated with a serious heart shock".[2][3]

His son Kim Jong-un was announced as North Korea's next leader with the title of "The Great Successor" during the same newscast. Jong-il's funeral was held on 28 December in Pyongyang, with a mourning period lasting until the following day.[3]

Announcement[edit]

North Korean State media did not report Kim Jong-il's death until 51 hours after it occurred, apparently due to the political jockeying and discussions that surrounded the official version of Jong-il's legacy, as well as agreeing upon the membership of the Funeral Committee of Kim Jong-il.[4] On the morning of 19 December, all work units, schools, government agencies, and military personnel were informed of a major announcement to take place at noon. At noon, Ri Chun-hee, a Korean Central Television news anchor, clad in full black traditional Korean clothing, announced the death of Kim Jong-il to a shocked nation. She was the long time announcer of many important news stories during his tenure as Supreme Leader, and was part of the broadcast team that covered Kim Il-sung's state funeral in 1994, as well as a friend of the late Chon Hyong-kyu, a KCTV news presenter who was the one who made the announcement of Kim Il-sung's death 17 years past. During the announcement, a portrait of a smiling, idealized image of Kim Jong-il was released, continuing the tradition of issuing official posthumous portraits of supreme leaders of North Korea after their death.

Following the official notice, a male news anchor wearing a suit and black tie proceeded to announce the entire funeral committee of Kim Jong-il in order of the rankings established by the authorities. The committee had 233 names; Kim Jong-un was ranked first.[5]

However, it was reported in December 2012 by South Korean media that he had died in a fit of rage over construction faults in a crucial power plant project at Huichon in Chagang Province.[6]

Speculation by South Korea[edit]

The head of South Korea's National Intelligence Service said surveillance footage revealed that Kim's personal train, on which he is said to have died, did not move over the weekend. This implied that the train was stationary when North Korean authorities claimed he had died.[7][8] According to editors of The Chosun Ilbo newspaper, it was reported circumstances surrounding Kim's death were inconsistent with what would be generally expected during official business trips: specifically inclement weather conditions were present and the time of day when Kim was supposedly travelling conflicted with his usual circadian rhythm. Furthermore, a low number of witnesses observed the events.[9]

Reactions[edit]

Many countries, organizations, and individuals issued reactions to the death. According to CNN, reactions were "somewhat muted" in comparison to deaths of other world leaders. Just a few countries reacted immediately after Kim's death was announced on North Korea's KCTV. Some countries, like the United States, took the opportunity to comment on their relationship with South Korea.[10] South Korea decided not to offer official condolences, mirroring both worsened relations after the ROKS Cheonan sinking and the bombardment of Yeonpyeong and its position after the death of Kim Il-sung in 1994.[11] The Chinese Foreign Ministry called Kim a "great leader" and added that Beijing would continue to offer its support. Japan expressed condolences and said it hoped Kim's death would not affect the region adversely.[12] Reactions in Europe were "a mix of hope and watchfulness".[13] In North Korea, the official reaction was grief and support for the succession of Kim Jong-un.[14]

Funeral committee[edit]

North Korea announced a 232-member[15] funeral committee headed by Kim Jong-un that planned and oversaw Jong-il's funeral, which took place on 28 December.[16] Observers believe the order of names on the list gives clues to the rankings of individuals in the regime's power structure with Kim Jong-un's position on top a further indication that he is Jong-il's successor as supreme leader.[17][18] According to Kim Keun-sik of Kyungnam University, "The list is in the order of members of the standing committee of the Politburo, then members and candidate members. It shows that the party will be stronger power than the military," because Kim Jong-il's brother-in-law Jang Song-taek or O Kuk-ryol, the vice-chairman of the National Defense Commission, are listed further down."[17]

The National Funeral Committee released the following details on 19 December 2011:

[The National Funeral Committee] notifies that it decided as follows so that the whole party, army, and people can express the most profound regret at the demise of leader Kim Jong Il and mourn him in deep reverence:

His bier will be placed at the Kumsusan Memorial Palace.
Mourning period will be set from Dec. 17 to 29, Juche 100 (2011) and mourners will be received from December 20 to 27.
A farewell-bidding ceremony will be solemnly held in Pyongyang on December 28.
A national memorial service for Kim Jong Il will be held on December 29.
Mourning guns will be boomed in Pyongyang and in provincial seats timed to coincide with the national memorial service in Pyongyang and all the people will observe three minutes’ silence and all locomotives and vessels will blow sirens all at once.
All institutions and enterprises across the country will hold mourning events during the mourning period and all provinces, cities and counties will hold memorial services timed to coincide with the national memorial service in Pyongyang.
The institutions and enterprises will hoist flags at half-mast and musical and all other entertainments will be refrained.
Foreign mourning delegations will not be received.
— Korean Central News Agency, 19 December 2011[19]

Members[edit]

The 232 members of the funeral committee were:[20]

  1. Kim Jong-un
  2. Kim Yong-nam
  3. Choe Yong-rim
  4. Ri Yong-ho
  5. Kim Yong-chun
  6. Jon Pyong-ho
  7. Kim Kuk-thae
  8. Kim Ki-nam
  9. Choe Thae-bok
  10. Yang Hyong-sop
  11. Kang Sok-ju
  12. Pyon Yong-rip
  13. Ri Yong-mu
  14. Kim Kyong-hui
  15. Kim Yang-gon
  16. Kim Yong-il
  17. Pak To-chun
  18. Choe Ryong-hae
  19. Jang Song-thaek
  20. Ju Kyu-chang
  21. Kim Rak-hui
  22. Thae Jong-su
  23. Kim Phyong-hae
  24. Kim Jong-gak
  25. U Tong-chuk
  26. Kim Chang-sop
  27. Mun Kyong-dok
  28. Ri Thae-nam
  29. O Kuk-ryol
  30. Kim Chol-man
  31. Ri Ul-sol
  32. Jon Ha-chol
  33. Kang Nung-su
  34. Ro Tu-chol
  35. Jo Pyong-ju
  36. Han Kwang-bok
  37. Paek Se-bong
  38. Ri Yong-su
  39. Choe Hui-jong
  40. O Il-jong
  41. Kim Jong-im
  42. Chae Hui-jong
  43. Kim Ki-ryong
  44. Jang Pyong-gyu
  45. Kim Pyong-ryul
  46. Hong In-bom
  47. Ri Man-gon
  48. Ju Yong-sik
  49. Kwak Pom-gi
  50. O Su-yong
  51. Ro Pae-gwon
  52. Pak Thae-dok
  53. Kim Hi-thaek
  54. Kang Yang-mo
  55. Rim Kyong-man
  56. Kim Kyong-ok
  57. Kim Myong-guk
  58. Kim Won-hong
  59. Hyon Chol-hae
  60. Han Tong-gun
  61. Jo Kyong-chol
  62. Pak Jae-gyong
  63. Pyon In-son
  64. Yun Jong-rin
  65. Jong Myong-do
  66. Ri Pyong-chol
  67. Choe Sang-ryo
  68. Kim Yong-chol
  69. Kang Phyo-yong
  70. Kim Hyong-ryong
  71. Ri Yong-hwan
  72. Kim Chun-sam
  73. Choe Kyong-song
  74. Ri Myong-su
  75. Jon Hui-jong
  76. Ri Yong-gil
  77. Hyon Yong-chol
  78. Choe Pu-il
  79. Yang Tong-hun
  80. Ri Pong-juk
  81. Kim Song-chol
  82. Pak Kwang-chol
  83. Ri Pyong-sam
  84. Jon Chang-bok
  85. O Kum-chol
  86. Kim In-sik
  87. Kim Song-dok
  88. Ryo Chun-sok
  89. Pak Sung-won
  90. Ri Yong-chol
  91. Pak Ui-chun
  92. Kim Hyong-sik
  93. Kim Thae-bong
  94. Jon Kil-su
  95. Ri Mu-yong
  96. An Jong-su
  97. Ri Ryong-nam
  98. Ryu Yong-sop
  99. Pak Myong-chol
  100. Kim Yong-jin
  101. Jang Chol
  102. Song Ja-rip
  103. Kim Jong-suk
  104. Kang Tong-yun
  105. Kim Pyong-ho [ko]
  106. Cha Sung-su
  107. Ryang Man-gil
  108. Yun Tong-hyon
  109. Ko Pyong-hyon
  110. Ri Pong-dok
  111. Pak Jong-gun
  112. Choe Yong-dok
  113. Jong In-guk
  114. Jon Ryong-guk
  115. Ri Hyong-gun
  116. Hwang Sun-hui
  117. Paek Kye-ryong
  118. Kim Tong-il
  119. Kim Tong-i
  120. Ri Jae-il
  121. Pak Pong-ju
  122. Jong Myong-hak
  123. Kang Kwan-il
  124. Hwang Pyong-so
  125. Kwon Hyok-bong
  126. Hong Sung-mu
  127. Kim U-ho
  128. Han Chang-sun
  129. Ri Chun-il
  130. Ri Thae-sop
  131. Jo Song-hwan
  132. Tong Yong-il
  133. Ri Chang-han
  134. Ko Su-il
  135. Ri Kuk-jun
  136. Sin Sung-hun
  137. Ri Thae-chol
  138. Yang In-guk
  139. Ri Hi-su
  140. Ri Chol
  141. Hyon Sang-ju
  142. Ri Myong-gil
  143. Ro Song-sil
  144. Tong Jong-ho
  145. Kang Min-chol
  146. Kim Hui-yong
  147. Jo Yong-chol
  148. Hwang Hak-won
  149. An Tong-chun
  150. Paek Ryong-chon
  151. Hong Kwan-sun
  152. Ri Su-yong
  153. Kim Yong-ho
  154. Pang Ri-sun
  155. Choe Chun-sik
  156. Ri Je-son
  157. Ri Sang-gun
  158. Ri Hong-sop
  159. Cha Yong-myong
  160. Kang Kwan-ju
  161. Thae Hyong-chol
  162. Kim Pyong-hun
  163. Kim Kye-gwan
  164. Han Chang-nam
  165. Kim Chang-myong
  166. Jon Chang-rim
  167. O Chol-san
  168. Son Chong-nam
  169. Jong Un-hak
  170. Cha Kyong-il
  171. Kang Ki-sop
  172. Choi Tae-il
  173. Choe Yong-do
  174. Ri Yong-ju
  175. Jon Kwang-rok
  176. Ri Chan-hwa
  177. So Tong-myong
  178. Jon Song-ung
  179. Ji Jae-ryong
  180. Kim Yong-jae
  181. Ri Yong-ho
  182. Hong So-hon
  183. Kim Tong-il
  184. Kim Tong-un
  185. Kim Pong-ryong
  186. Jo Jae-yong
  187. Choe Chan-gon
  188. Ryom In-yun
  189. Kim Chon-ho
  190. Jang Ho-chan
  191. Song Kwang-chol
  192. Ri Ki-su
  193. Ri Jong-sik
  194. Choe Hyon
  195. Jang Myong-hak
  196. Kang Hyong-bong
  197. Kim Chung-gol
  198. Kim Yong-gwang
  199. Choe Kwan-jun
  200. Jang Yong-gol
  201. Kim Myong-sik
  202. Ho Song-gil
  203. No Kwang-chol
  204. Jong Pong-gun
  205. Pak Chang-bom
  206. Choe Pong-ho
  207. Jong Mong-phil
  208. Jon Kyong-son
  209. Ri Song-gwon
  210. Choe Yong
  211. Kim Thae-mun
  212. Kim Yong-suk
  213. Cha Jin-sun
  214. Ri Min-chol
  215. Ri Il-nam
  216. Kim Chang-su
  217. Pak Myong-sun
  218. Choe Pae-jin
  219. Kim Chol
  220. Sim Chol-ho
  221. O Ryong-il
  222. Kye Yong-sam
  223. Ryu Hyon-sik
  224. Ko Myong-hui
  225. Pang Yong-uk
  226. Jang Jong-ju
  227. Ho Kwang-uk
  228. Ji Tong-sik
  229. Jong Pong-sok
  230. Choe Kwon-su
  231. Kim Yong-dae
  232. Ryu Mi-yong

Lying in state[edit]

On 20 December, Jong-il's embalmed body lay in state in a glass coffin at the Kumsusan Memorial Palace, where his father Kim Il-sung is also interred, for an 11-day mourning period prior to the funeral.[21][22] Like his father, Kim's body was covered in a red flag and surrounded by blossoms of his namesake flowers, red kimjongilia. It is expected that the body will be placed next to his father's bier following the funeral and mourning period. As solemn music played, Kim Jong-un entered the hall to view his father's bier, surrounded by military honour guards. He observed a moment of solemn silence, then circled the bier, followed by other officials.[23]

On Saturday 24 December Kim Jong-un made a third visit to the palace where his father's body is lying in state. At this broadcast, Jang Sung-taek, whom South Korean intelligence assumed would play larger roles supporting the heir, stood with military uniform near young Kim, who wept this time, as he paid respects to Kim Jong-il's body lying in state.[citation needed]

Funeral and memorial service[edit]

External video
video icon North Korea holds state funeral for 'dear leader' Kim Jong-il, from The Guardian

The funeral itself occurred on 28 December. The 40-kilometre (25 mi), 3-hour funeral procession was covered in snow (which local newscasters described as "heaven's tears") as soldiers beat their chests and called out "Father, Father." A Lincoln Continental limousine[24] carried a giant portrait of Jong-il. Jong-il's casket, draped by the Korean Workers' Party flag, was carried on top of another Lincoln Continental hearse while Kim Jong-un and his uncle Jang Sung-taek were immediately behind. Army chief of the general staff Ri Yong-ho and defence minister Vice-Marshal Kim Yong-chun walked along the opposite side of the vehicle during the procession segments in the Kumsusan Memorial Palace.[25][26] The procession returned to Kumsusan Palace where Jong-un stood flanked by the top party and military officials who are expected to be his inner circle of advisers as rifles fired 21 times, then saluted again as goose-stepping soldiers carrying flags and rifles marched by the palace square.[27] Reportedly, Jong-il's body will be embalmed and put on display indefinitely in the manner of Kim Il-sung and other Communist leaders such as Lenin, Mao, and Ho Chi Minh.[28]

The convoy during the funeral procession was composed of lead patrol cars, the funeral hearse and its escorts, military escorts, motorised colour guards, an OB van of Korean Central Television, various cars (including a fleet of black Mercedes), and trucks carrying wreaths and five military bands from the KPA.

On the day of the memorial service, 29 December, Chairman of the Presidium, Kim Yong-nam, gave an address to mourners gathered in Kim Il-sung Square.[29]

Kim Young-nam told mourners that "The great heart of comrade Kim Jong-il has ceased to beat... such an unexpected and early departure from us is the biggest and the most unimaginable loss to our party and the revolution," and that North Korea would "transform the sorrow into strength and courage 1,000 times greater under the leadership of comrade Kim Jong-un."[29]

The chairman also affirmed Kim Jong-un's position as his father's successor saying "Respected Comrade Kim Jong-un is our party, military and country’s supreme leader who inherits great comrade Kim Jong-il’s ideology, leadership, character, virtues, grit and courage".[30]

General Kim Jong-gak addressing the memorial service on behalf of the military, saying "Our people's military will serve comrade Kim Jong-un at the head of our revolutionary troops and will continue to maintain and complete the Songun accomplishments of great leader Kim Jong-il". Songun refers to Kim Jong-il's policy of prioritising the "military first" in economic decisions.[29]

Kim Jong-un did not make an address but stood with his head bowed, watching from a balcony of the Grand People's Study House, overlooking the square. He was flanked by his aunt, Kim Kyong-hui, her husband, Jang Sung-taek,[31] and senior party and military officials.[30]

After the speeches, and a nationwide observance of three-minute silence, a row of heavy artillery guns were fired off in a 21-gun salute followed by a cacophony of sirens, horns and whistles sounded off simultaneously from trains and ships across the country to mark the end of the mourning period.[29][32][33] The assembly concluded with a military band playing The Internationale.[34] State television then broadcast a military choir and wind band performing The Song of General Kim Jong Il to formally conclude.[35]

Kim Jong-un's elder brothers, Kim Jong-nam and Kim Jong-chol, are not known to have been in attendance either at the lying in state or on either date, the funeral or the memorial service.[26][29][30]

The funeral showcased seven officials who are believed to be mentors or major aides to Kim Jong-un: Jang Song-taek, Mr. Kim's uncle and a vice-chairman of the National Defense Commission; Kim Ki-nam, North Korea's propaganda chief; Choe Tae-bok, the party secretary in charge of external affairs; Vice Marshal Ri Yong-ho, head of the military's general staff; Kim Yong-chun, the defence minister; Kim Jong-gak, a four-star general whose job is to monitor the allegiance of other generals; and U Dong-chuk, head of the North's secret police and spy agency.[36]

On 1 January 2012 the Japanese daily Yomiuri Shimbun reported that Kim Jong-Nam secretly flew to Pyongyang from Macau on 17 December 2011, after learning about his father's death that day and is presumed to have accompanied Kim Jong-Un when paying his last respects to their father. He left after a few days to return to Macau and was not in attendance at the funeral in order to avoid speculation about the succession.[37]

According to Daily NK, anyone who did not participate in the organised mourning sessions or did not seem genuine enough in their sorrow has been sentenced to at least six months in a labour camp.[38] Mourners were also barred from wearing hats, gloves or scarves even though the temperature that day was −2.4 °C (27.7 °F)—presumably so authorities could check to make sure they were displaying sufficient grief.[39] North Korea angrily denied this accusation, blaming it on "reptile media" in the pay of the South Korean government.[40] A photo slideshow from The Los Angeles Times does show multiple mourners with gloves and scarves.[41]

Reports of mourning[edit]

The Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) claimed that strange natural phenomena occurred in North Korea around the time of Kim Jong-il's death.[42] In the past, the North Korean government has been known to encourage stories of miraculous deeds and supernatural events credited to Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il.[citation needed] KCNA also claimed that more than five million North Koreans, more than 25% of the national population, had shown up to mourn Kim Jong-il.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wober, Rafael (19 December 2011). "North Korea mourns Kim Jong Il; son is 'successor'". Deseret News. Associated Press. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  2. ^ "North Korea's Kim Had 'Serious Heart Shock' Following Long Illness: Text". Bloomberg. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  3. ^ a b "North Korean leader Kim Jong-il dies 'of heart attack'". BBC News. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011. died on Saturday
  4. ^ "Succession in North Korea: Grief and fear". The Economist. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  5. ^ "National Funeral Committee Formed". Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  6. ^ "Late North Korean leader Kim Jong Il died 'in a fit of rage' over damages at crucial power plant project: report". New York Daily News. 31 December 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2012. South Korea media reports the 'Supreme Commander' suffered a heart attack after learning that a hydroelectric dam had suffered a major leak.
  7. ^ Glionna, John (21 December 2011). "South Korea questions story of Kim Jong Il's death". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  8. ^ Nelson, Dean (21 December 2011). "Kim Jong-il's death 'may have been stage managed'". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  9. ^ "Did Kim Jong-il Really Die on a Train?". The Chosun Ilbo. 21 December 2011. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  10. ^ "World reacts to Kim Jong Il's death". CNN. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  11. ^ Snyder, Scott A. (19 December 2011). "Kim Jong-il in Death as in Life: Sowing Divisions in South Korea". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  12. ^ "World Reacts to Death of Kim Jong Il". Fox News. Associated Press. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  13. ^ Bryant, Lisa (18 December 2011). "Europe Cautious in Reaction to Kim Jong-Il's Death". Voice of America. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  14. ^ McCurry, Justin (19 December 2011). "North Koreans' reaction to Kim Jong-il's death is impossible to gauge". the Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  15. ^ "N. Korean leader dies at 69 after decades of iron-fist rule". Yonhap News Agency. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  16. ^ Fackler, Martin (19 December 2011). "Young Heir Faces Uncertain Transition in North Korea". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  17. ^ a b "Clues from Kim Jong-il Funeral List". The Chosunilbo. 23 December 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  18. ^ Branford, Becky (21 December 2011). "Powers behind N Korea's new 'general'". BBC News. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  19. ^ "Notice of National Funeral Committee". Korean Central News Agency. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  20. ^ "KJI Funeral Rankings comparison" (XLSX). NK News. December 2011. Ranking. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  21. ^ Wober, Rafael (20 December 2011). "Kim Jong Il body displayed, NKorea media hail son". Associated Press. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  22. ^ "North Korea mourns Kim Jong Il; son is 'successor'". Retrieved 19 December 2011.[dead link]
  23. ^ Kim Jong-un pays respects to Kim Jong-il's body as it is displayed in North Korea, The Telegraph
  24. ^ Americans Are Prominent at the Funeral of Kim Jong-il
  25. ^ "North Korea holds two-day state funeral for Kim Jong-il". BBC News. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  26. ^ a b Salmon, Andrew; Blair, David (28 December 2011). "Kim Jong-il funeral: Kim Jong-un steps up as nation mourns". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  27. ^ Thousands mourn at N. Korean leader’s funeral The Associated Press Posted : Wednesday 28 December 2011 8:48:57
  28. ^ Salmon, Andrew (28 December 2011). "Kim Jong-il: a lavish North Korean funeral beneath a leaden sky". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  29. ^ a b c d e "North Korea holds memorial service for Kim Jong-il". BBC News. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  30. ^ a b c "Kim Jong Il son declared 'supreme leader' of North Korea's people, party and military". Washington Post. 28 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  31. ^ "North Korea Calls Kim Jong Un 'Supreme Leader'". Associated Press. 29 December 2011. Archived from the original on 29 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  32. ^ Mullen, Jethro (29 December 2011). "Thousands of North Koreans gather for Kim Jong Il memorial". CNN. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  33. ^ "Farewell ceremony held in Pyongyang". Xinhnua News Agency. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  34. ^ "Corée du Nord : Kim Jong-un nommé " leader suprême "". Radio-Canada. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  35. ^ "N. Korea Ends Mourning With Eulogies Heralding 'Kim Jong Un Era'". Business Week. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  36. ^ North Korea Declares Kim Jong-un Supreme Leader (NYT)
  37. ^ "Kim's eldest in 'secret visit' to see body (AFP, January 1, 2012)". News.com.au. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  38. ^ Choi Song Min (11 January 2012). "Harsh Punishments for Poor Mourning". Daily NK. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
  39. ^ Lee Seok Young (3 January 2012). "No Hats, No Scarves, No Gloves!". Daily NK. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  40. ^ Jiyeon Lee; Jethro Mullen (16 January 2012). "North Korea denies punishing citizens for not mourning enough". CNN. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  41. ^ Martin, Marc (19 December 2011). "North Korea's Kim Jong Il dead at 69". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original (Photo Slideshow) on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  42. ^ "Natural Wonders Observed". Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.

External links[edit]