Resurrection of Jesus
The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead. It is the central tenet of Christian theology and part of the Nicene Creed: "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
In the New Testament, after the Romans crucified Jesus, he was anointed and buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea but God raised him from the dead and he appeared to many people over a span of forty days before he ascended into heaven, to sit at the right hand of God.
Paul the Apostle declared that "Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures".(1 Corinthians 15:3–4) The chapter states that such a belief in both the death and resurrection of Christ is of central importance to the Christian faith: "And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain."(1 Cor 15:14) Paul further asserted "And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile and you are still in your sins. Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ have perished. If in Christ we have hope in this life only, we are of all people most to be pitied."(1 Cor 15:17–19)
Christians celebrate the resurrection of Jesus on Easter Sunday, two days after Good Friday, the day of his crucifixion. Easter's date corresponds roughly with Passover, the Jewish observance associated with the Exodus, that is fixed for the night of the Full moon near the time of the spring equinox.
|Part of a series on|
|Death and Resurrection of Jesus|
|Portals: Christianity Bible|
- 1 Gospel harmony
- 2 Cultural background: Jewish and pagan beliefs regarding resurrection
- 3 Resurrection beliefs in the first Christian texts
- 4 Historicity and origin of the narrative
- 5 Extra-biblical accounts
- 6 Theological significance
- 7 Relics
- 8 Easter
- 9 Views of other religions
- 10 In Christian art
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Summary of gospel narratives
The authors of the four gospels are unknown, although none of them were eyewitnesses to events. All use prior sources, both written and oral, and all were extensively edited before reaching their current forms. The generally accepted dates for the four gospels, and the early communities they were written for, are:
- Mark: the first to be written, probably in Rome for a gentile Christian community about 70 CE. Mark originally ended at the empty tomb (Mark 16:7) without any post-resurrection appearances, from which it appears that narrative accounts of the resurrection were only just beginning to circulate at this time.
- Matthew: written for a Jewish-Christian community on the cusp of breaking from the Jewish community, between 80-100 CE; Matthew and Luke use Mark as the source for their lives of Jesus; as a consequence, they diverge widely after the account of the finding of the tomb.
- Luke and the Acts of the Apostles: a two-part work from the same author, written for a gentile Christian community in the period 80-100;
- John: the product of a Jewish-Christian community c.80-110 CE, in which the otherwise anonymous "beloved disciple" seems to have played a major role.
The New Testament does not include an account of the moment of resurrection, although it repeats several times that it took place three days after the Crucifixion. In the Eastern Church icons do not depict that moment, but show the myrrhbearers and depict scenes of salvation. The major elements shared by the narratives are:
- The discovery of the empty tomb by women (the identity of whom varies but always includes Mary Magdalene), and the presence of an angelic figure or figures who inform them that Jesus is risen;
- Subsequent post-resurrection appearances, including failure to recognise his identity, a shared meal, disclosure of his divine mission, and the commissioning of one or more disciples to a pastoral role;
- The gift of the Holy Spirit (John only, with an equivalent but different, post-ascension, account in Acts);
- The Ascension of Jesus to heaven (Luke only, repeated in Acts).
|Side-by-side comparison of the Resurrection narratives in the Gospels and Acts|
|Discovery of the empty tomb by women||Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome come to the tomb early on Easter Sunday morning; they find the stone rolled aside and the tomb empty and a "young man" (probably to be understood as an angel) inside; he tells them Jesus is risen and that they should tell the disciples and Peter that they will see him in Galilee as he foretold; the women flee in fear and tell no one.||Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" come to the tomb early on Easter Sunday morning; an angel comes down from heaven and rolls back the stone; soldiers guarding the tomb faint; the angel informs the women that Jesus is risen and that they should tell the disciples to meet him in Galilee; they leave in fear and joy to inform the disciples, and on the way Jesus appears to them and repeats the instruction to the disciples to meet him in Galilee.||Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James and other women come to the tomb early on Easter Sunday morning; they find the stone rolled aside and the tomb empty; two men (probably to be understood as angels) appear and tell the women that Jesus is risen; the women tell the disciples "and all the rest" but the disciples do not believe them, but Peter runs to the tomb and finds it empty.||Mary Magdalene comes to the tomb early on Easter Sunday morning; she finds the stone rolled aside and the tomb empty; she runs to inform Peter and "the disciple whom Jesus loved," who run back to the tomb and find it empty; after Peter and the other disciple leave, Mary Magdalene sees two angels inside the tomb; Jesus appears, and tells her to tell the disciples that he will ascend.|
|Appearances in Galilee||none||The eleven disciples depart at once for Galilee, where Jesus appears to them on a mountain; they worship him, though some doubt; Jesus informs them that he has been given all power in heaven and earth, and that they should spread the good news to all the nations.||none||Jesus appears to six disciples as they are fishing, and they eat together; he gives a charge of pastoral care to Peter and foretells the manner of his death, and makes an ambiguous prediction about the fate of the Beloved Disciple.|
|Appearances in Jerusalem and the Holy Spirit||none||none||On the same day as the empty tomb is discovered two followers of Jesus meet him on the road to Emmaus, and he explains to them the prophecies concerning the death and resurrection of Israel's messiah; the two return at once to Jerusalem to inform the disciples, and Jesus appears among them to inform them that all that has happened was in accordance with Scripture; he instructs them to stay in Jerusalem until the coming of the Holy Spirit after his ascension to heaven.||Prior to his appearance in Galilee, on the evening of his resurrection, Jesus comes to the disciples and breathes on them so that they receive the Holy Spirit; eight days later he comes again, so that Thomas, who was absent from the first appearance, might see and believe, "but blessed are they that have not seen, and yet believe".|
|Ascension of Jesus||none||none||Forty days after the resurrection Jesus leads the disciples to Olivet, tells them not to ask when the Kingdom will be restored and to witness to Christ throughout the world, and is taken up in a cloud to heaven.||none|
Cultural background: Jewish and pagan beliefs regarding resurrection
Jewish belief in resurrection began to develop towards the end of the Biblical period, first as a resurrection of the soul alone, later, with the sect of the Pharisees, of the body as well. Nevertheless, the idea of a resurrection of the flesh was a marginal one among the Jews; another sect, the Essenes, believed that while the soul was immortal, the body would return to dust. Daniel 12:3 speaks of the resurrected soul becoming a star, meaning an angel, for the stars were identified as heavenly beings in the court of God. This, according to the gospels, was the stance of Jesus, who defended it in an exchange with the Sadducees, a sect which did not believe in any form of resurrection: "Those who are accounted worthy ... to the resurrection from the dead ... are equal to the angels and are children of God..." (Mark 12:24-25, Luke 20:34-36). Paul's vision of the resurrected Christ falls within the general pattern of Jewish beliefs in a fleshless immortal soul. Another important Jewish understanding about resurrection was that it would be a communal event at the end of history: at the moment of Christ's resurrection, according to Matthew, "many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised ... they came out of the tombs and entered the Holy City and appeared to many" (Matthew 27:52-53): Matthew is saying that with the Resurrection of Jesus the end-time general resurrection predicted by Daniel, Hosea and other prophets had begun.
The Greeks had long held that a meritorious man could be resurrected as a god after his death (the process of apotheosis). The successors of Alexander the Great made this idea very well known throughout the Middle East, in particular through coins bearing his image – a privilege previously reserved for gods – and although originally foreign to the Romans, the doctrine was soon borrowed by the emperors for purposes of political propaganda. According to the theology of Imperial Roman apotheosis, the earthly body of the recently deceased emperor vanished, he received a new and divine one in its place, and was then seen by credible witnesses; thus, in a story similar to the Gospel appearances of the resurrected Jesus and the commissioning of the disciples, Romulus, the founder of Rome, descended from the sky to command a witness to bear a message to the Romans regarding the city's greatness ("Declare to the Romans the will of Heaven that my Rome shall be the capital of the world...") before being taken up on a cloud.
Resurrection beliefs in the first Christian texts
The "foundational creed"
The earliest evidence of belief in the resurrection of Jesus is a brief passage in Paul's Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, written around 52-55 CE. Fearing that the Corinthians are beginning to question a central element of the faith, the resurrection of Christ, he reminds them of the tradition which he has received himself from the apostles, listing, apparently in chronological order, those of Jesus' earliest followers who had witnessed the risen Christ: first Peter, then "the Twelve," then a crowd of 500, then James (presumably James the brother of Jesus), then "all the Apostles," and last Paul himself:
[W]hat I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas (Peter), and then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born. (1 Corinthians 15:3-7).
Most scholars feel that Peter and the Twelve are original to the list, but not all believe the same of the appearances to the 500, to James, and to "all the Apostles". It difficult to correlate the list with the gospel stories (although the appearance to Peter may correspond to Luke 24:34 and the Twelve to Luke 24 and John 20), and it makes no mention of the empty tomb or of the women.
Paul's letters began to appear in the 50s, and his views remain consistent throughout. He supports the historic reality of the resurrection purely on the grounds of the post-resurrection appearances, and the resurrection of Jesus is the basis for his entire faith: "Christ died for our sins" (this is one of the elements of the foundational creed); God raised Christ from the dead; and the resurrection of Christ is the first sign of the imminent coming of the Kingdom of God in which Christ will reign and death will be replaced by life. The bodies in which believers in Christ will be resurrected, he tells the Corinthians, will not be earthly bodies of flesh and blood (1 Corinthans 15:50) but heavenly bodies, made of the same substance as the sun, moon and stars (15:40-41,49). (Paul is drawing here on the ancient belief, common to both Greeks and Jews, that the stars are living but spiritual beings, made of a "fiery" substance).
In 2 Corinthians 12 Paul describes how he saw the Christ exalted in heaven: "I must go on boasting. Although there is nothing to be gained, I will go on to visions and revelations from the Lord. I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven, whether it was in the body or out of the body I do not know—God knows..." (2 Corinthians 12:1-2) Paul does not describe what this visionary Jesus looks like, but in Philippians he talks about the "glorious body" of Christ and how Christ will transform our earthly bodies into a similar glorious form; in Corinthians he insists that he does not even want to know Jesus "according to the flesh," but only the resurrected Christ who appeared to him just as he had done to Peter and James.
Paul and the first Christians experienced the resurrected Jesus in ecstatic visions in which they were carried into heaven to see Christ transformed and enthroned in glory. The stress on a physical resurrection begins with Mark, with the empty tomb and the women witnesses (Paul and the "primitive creed" of 1 Corinthians mention neither). This development can be linked to the changing make-up of the Christian community: Paul and the earliest Christ-followers were Jewish, and Second Temple Judaism emphasised the life of the soul; the gospel-writers, in an overwhelmingly Greco-Roman church, stressed instead the pagan belief in the hero who is immortalised and deified in his physical body. In this Hellenistic resurrection paradigm Jesus dies, is buried, and his body disappears (with witnesses to the empty tomb); he then returns in an immortalised physical body, able to appear and disappear at will like a god, and returns to the heavens which are now his proper home.
When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so that they might go to anoint Jesus’ body. Very early on the first day of the week, just after sunrise, they were on their way to the tomb and they asked each other, “Who will roll the stone away from the entrance of the tomb?” But when they looked up, they saw that the stone, which was very large, had been rolled away. As they entered the tomb, they saw a young man dressed in a white robe sitting on the right side, and they were alarmed. “Don’t be alarmed,” he said. “You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified. He has risen! He is not here. See the place where they laid him. But go, tell his disciples and Peter, ‘He is going ahead of you into Galilee. There you will see him, just as he told you.’” Trembling and bewildered, the women went out and fled from the tomb. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid. (Mark 16:1-8).
Matthew and Luke use Mark as their source for their lives of Jesus; they follow Mark until Mark 16:8 and the empty tomb, then each add their own different and independent post-resurrection appearance stories (Matthew's are set in Galilee at Jesus' command, while in Luke he forbids the disciples to leave Jerusalem). Matthew ends at this point, but in Acts the author of Luke continues his resurrection story, adding an account of the heavenly Ascension of Jesus and continuing with still more appearances, including among others to Stephen the Martyr, Paul on the road to Damascus, and to Peter. John draws from various sources, frequently not very well integrated into a single narrative: for example, he has appearances in both Jerusalem and Galilee, the latter seeming to show no knowledge of the former.
Historicity and origin of the narrative
As historical event
New Testament scholar and theologian E. P. Sanders argues that a concerted plot to foster belief in the Resurrection would probably have resulted in a more consistent story, and that some of those who were involved in the events gave their lives for their belief. Sanders offers his own hypothesis, saying "there seems to have been a competition: 'I saw him,' 'so did I,' 'the women saw him first,' 'no, I did; they didn't see him at all,' and so on." In defending the historicity of the resurrection, Sanders goes so far as to state, "That Jesus’ followers (and later Paul) had resurrection experiences is, in my judgment, a fact. What the reality was that gave rise to the experiences I do not know."
James D.G. Dunn writes that, whereas the apostle Paul's resurrection experience was "visionary in character" and "non-physical, non-material," the accounts in the Gospels are very different. He contends that the "massive realism'...of the [Gospel] appearances themselves can only be described as visionary with great difficulty – and Luke would certainly reject the description as inappropriate," and that the earliest conception of resurrection in the Jerusalem Christian community was physical. Conversely, Helmut Koester writes that the stories of the resurrection were originally epiphanies in which the disciples are called to a ministry by the risen Jesus and were interpreted as physical proof of the event at a secondary stage. He contends that the more detailed accounts of the resurrection are also secondary and do not come from historically trustworthy sources, but instead belong to the genre of the narrative types.
N. T. Wright argues that the account of the empty tomb and the visionary experiences point towards the historical reality of the resurrection. He suggests that multiple lines of evidence from the New Testament and the early Christian beliefs it reflects shows that it would be highly unlikely that belief in the empty tomb would simply appear without a clear basis in the memory of early Christians. In tandem with the historically certain visionary experiences of the early disciples and apostles, Jesus' resurrection as a historical reality becomes far more plausible. Wright treats the resurrection as a historical and accessible event, rather than as a 'supernatural' or 'metaphysical' event.
Summarizing its traditional analysis, the Catholic Church stated in its Catechism: "Although the Resurrection was an historical event that could be verified by the sign of the empty tomb and by the reality of the apostles' encounters with the risen Christ, still it remains at the very heart of the mystery of faith as something that transcends and surpasses history."
In his book The First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity, Thomas Sheehan argues that even Paul's account of the resurrection is not meant to be taken as referring to a literal, physical rising from the grave, and that stories of a bodily resurrection did not appear until as much as half a century following the crucifixion. Instead, Sheehan believes that Paul's understanding of the resurrection, and perhaps Peter's as well, is a metaphysical one, with the stories of Jesus's (figurative) resurrection reflecting his triumphant "entry into God's eschatological presence," and that Paul's reference to Jesus having risen "on the third day" (1 Corinthians 15:4) "is not a chronological designation but an apocalyptic symbol for God's eschatological saving act, which strictly speaking has no date in history. Thus the 'third day' does not refer to Sunday, April 9, 30 C.E., or to any other moment in time. And as regards the 'place' where the resurrection occurred, the formula in First Corinthians does not assert that Jesus was raised from the tomb, as if the raising were a physical and therefore temporal resuscitation. Without being committed to any preternatural physics of resurrection, the phrase 'he was raised on the third day' simply expresses the belief that Jesus was rescued from the fate of utter absence from God (death) and was admitted to the saving presence of God (the eschatological future)."
Doubts of historicity and other interpretations
Peter Kirby, the founder of EarlyChristianWritings.com, states that, "Many scholars doubt the historicity of the empty tomb."[a] According to Robert M. Price, Christian "apologists love to make the claims ... that the resurrection of Jesus is the best attested event in history", but "probabilistic arguments" show that "the resurrection is anything but an open-and-shut case". Robert Greg Cavin, a professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies at Cypress College, states that, "our only sources of potential evidence, the New Testament Easter traditions, fall far short of providing the kind of information necessary for establishing the resurrection hypothesis."[b]
Biblical scholar Géza Vermes analyzes this subject in his book, The Resurrection. He concludes that there are eight possible theories to explain the "resurrection of Jesus". Vermes outlines his boundaries as follows,
I have discounted the two extremes that are not susceptible to rational judgment, the blind faith of the fundamentalist believer and the out-of-hand rejection of the inveterate skeptic. The fundamentalists accept the story, not as written down in the New Testament texts, but as reshaped, transmitted, and interpreted by Church tradition. They smooth down the rough edges and abstain from asking tiresome questions. The unbelievers, in turn, treat the whole Resurrection story as the figment of early Christian imagination. Most inquirers with a smattering of knowledge of the history of religions will find themselves between these two poles.
From his analysis, Vermes presents the remaining six possibilities to explain the resurrection of Jesus account, (1) "The body was removed by someone unconnected with Jesus", (2) "The body of Jesus was stolen by his disciples", (3) "The empty tomb was not the tomb of Jesus", (4) Buried alive, Jesus later left the tomb", (5) Jesus recovered from a coma and departed Judea, and (6) the possibility that there was a "spiritual, not bodily, resurrection". Vermes states that none of these six possibilities are likely to be historical.
According to N. T. Wright in his book The Resurrection of the Son of God, "There can be no question: Paul is a firm believer in bodily resurrection. He stands with his fellow Jews against the massed ranks of pagans; with his fellow Pharisees against other Jews." And according to Gary Habermas, "Many other scholars have spoken in support of a bodily notion of Jesus’ resurrection."
Habermas also points out three facts in support of Paul's belief in a physical resurrection body. (1) Paul is a Pharisee and therefore (unlike the Sadducees) believes in a physical resurrection. (2) In Philippians 3:11 Paul says "That I may attain to the ek anastasis (out-resurrection)" from the dead, which according to Habermas means that "What goes down is what comes up". And (3) In Philippians 3:20–21 "We look from heaven for Jesus who will change our vile soma (body) to be like unto his soma (body)". According to Habermas, if Paul meant that we would change into a spiritual body then Paul would have used the Greek pneuma instead of soma.
Flavius Josephus (c. 37–c. 100), a Jew and Roman citizen who worked under the patronage of the Flavians, wrote the Antiquities of the Jews c. 93 which contains a passage known as the Testimonium Flavianum. This passage mentions John the Baptist and Jesus as two holy men among the Jews. Most modern scholars believe the original text of the work has been changed by Christian editors. The text mentions the death and resurrection of Jesus: "When Pilate, upon the accusation of the first men amongst us, condemned [Jesus] to be crucified, those who had formerly loved him did not cease [to follow him], for he appeared to them on the third day, living again, as the divine prophets foretold, along with a myriad of other marvellous things concerning him."
There are various other arguments against the historicity of the resurrection story. For example, the number of other historical figures and gods with similar death and resurrection accounts has been pointed out.[c] However the majority consensus among biblical scholars is that the genre of the Gospels is a kind of ancient biography and not myth. Robert M. Price claims that if the resurrection could, in fact, be proven through science or historical evidence, the event would lose its miraculous qualities. In a more focused argument, Carrier asserts that, "The surviving evidence legal and historical, suggests that Jesus was not formally buried Friday night," but that "it had to have been placed Saturday night in a special public graveyard reserved for convicts. On this theory, the women who visited the tomb Sunday morning mistook its vacancy."
New Testament historian Bart D. Ehrman recognizes that "Some scholars have argued that it's more plausible that in fact Jesus was placed in a common burial plot, which sometimes happened, or was, as many other crucified people, simply left to be eaten by scavenging animals." He further elaborates by saying: "[T]he accounts are fairly unanimous in saying (the earliest accounts we have are unanimous in saying) that Jesus was in fact buried by this fellow, Joseph of Arimathea, and so it's relatively reliable that that's what happened."
The Gospel of Peter
The Gospel of Peter is attributed to Apostle Peter that describes the trial and resurrection of Jesus.
The Book of Mormon
The Book of Mormon contains a 37-page account of Christ's ministry after his resurrection, in which he appears to the Nephites and Lamanites in the Americas after rising from the tomb and ascending into heaven. He appears to the people and lets them feel the prints of the nails in his hands and feet. He then preaches the gospel to them and establishes his church. Christ performs many miracles similar to those of the New Testament.
The account claims that about 2500 men, women, and children saw and heard the resurrected Jesus Christ.
In 1832, Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon wrote an account in which they both claimed to have seen the resurrected Jesus Christ. They wrote, "And now, after the many testimonies which have been given of him, this is the testimony last of all, which we give of him, that he lives; for we saw him, even on the right hand of God, and we heard the voice bearing record that he is the Only Begotten of the Father."
In Christian theology, the resurrection of Jesus is a foundation of the Christian faith.[1 Cor 15:12–20] [1 Pet 1:3] Christians, through faith in the working of God[Col 2:12] are spiritually resurrected with Jesus, and are redeemed so that they may walk in a new way of life.[Rom 6:4] As Paul the Apostle stated: "If Christ was not raised, then all our preaching is useless, and your trust in God is useless".[1 Cor 15:14] The death and resurrection of Jesus are the most important events in Christian Theology. They form the point in scripture where Jesus gives his ultimate demonstration that he has power over life and death, thus he has the ability to give people eternal life. Terry Miethe, a Christian philosopher at Oxford University, stated, " 'Did Jesus rise from the dead?' is the most important question regarding the claims of the Christian faith.' " According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead", he ascended to heaven, to the "right hand of God", and will return again[Acts 1:9–11] to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and establishment of the Kingdom of God; see also Messianism and Messianic Age.
Some modern scholars use the belief of Jesus' followers in the resurrection as a point of departure for establishing the continuity of the historical Jesus and the proclamation of the early church. Carl Jung suggests that the crucifixion-resurrection account was the forceful spiritual symbol of, literally, God-as-Yahweh becoming God-as-Job.
The apostle Paul wrote that: "If there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ has not been raised; if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain... If Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile".[1 Cor 15:13–14, 17]  Many scholars have contended that in discussion on the resurrection, the apostle Paul refers to a rabbinic style transmission of an early authoritative tradition that he received and has passed on to the church at Corinth. For this and other reasons, it is widely believed that this creed is of pre-Pauline origin. Geza Vermes writes that the creed is "a tradition he [Paul] has inherited from his seniors in the faith concerning the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus". The creed's ultimate origins are within the Jerusalem apostolic community having been formalised and passed on within a few years of the resurrection. Paul Barnett writes that this creedal formula, and others, were variants of the "one basic early tradition that Paul "received" in Damascus from Ananias in about 34 [AD]" after his conversion.
But Christ really has been raised from the dead. He is the first of all those who will rise. Death came because of what a man did. Rising from the dead also comes because of what a man did. Because of Adam, all people die. So because of Christ, all will be made alive.
Paul's views went against the thoughts of the Greek philosophers to whom a bodily resurrection meant a new imprisonment in a corporeal body, which was what they wanted to avoid—given that for them the corporeal and the material fettered the spirit. At the same time, Paul believed that the newly resurrected body would be a heavenly body; immortal, glorified, powerful and spiritual in contrast to an earthly body, which is mortal, dishonored, weak and natural. According to theologian Peter Carnley, the resurrection of Jesus was different from the Resurrection of Lazarus as: "In the case of Lazarus, the stone was rolled away so that he could walk out... the raised Christ didn't have to have the stone rolled away, because he is transformed and can appear anywhere, at any time".
According to international scholar Thorwald Lorenzen, the first Easter led to a shift in emphasis from faith "in God" to faith "in Christ". Today, Lorenzen finds "a strange silence about the resurrection in many pulpits". He writes that among some Christians, ministers and professors, it seems to have become "a cause for embarrassment or the topic of apologetics".:pp.3–4 It has been argued that many Christians neglect the resurrection because of their understandable preoccupation with the Cross. However, the belief in Jesus' physical resurrection remains the single doctrine most accepted by Christians of all denominational backgrounds.
Resurrection and redemption
In the teachings of the apostolic Church, the resurrection was seen as heralding a new era. Forming a theology of the resurrection fell to the apostle Paul. It was not enough for Paul to simply repeat elementary teachings, but as Hebrews 6:1 states, "go beyond the initial teachings about Christ and advance to maturity". Fundamental to Pauline theology is the connection between Christ's Resurrection and redemption. Paul explained the importance of the resurrection of Jesus as the cause and basis of the hope of Christians to share a similar experience.
The teachings of the apostle Paul formed a key element of the Christian tradition and theology. If His death stands at the center of Paul's theology, so does the Resurrection: unless the one died the death of all, the all would have little to celebrate in the resurrection of the one. Paul taught that, just as Christians share in Jesus' death in baptism, so they will share in his resurrection for Jesus was designated the Son of God by his resurrection.[Rom 1:4] In 1 Corinthians 15:20–22 Paul states:
But Christ really has been raised from the dead. He is the first of all those who will rise. Death came because of what a man did. Rising from the dead also comes because of what a man did. Because of Adam, all people die. So because of Christ, all will be made alive.
The Apostolic Fathers, discussed the death and resurrection of Jesus, including Ignatius (50–115), Polycarp (69–155), and Justin Martyr (100–165). Following the conversion of Constantine and the liberating Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of Resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.
Belief in bodily resurrection was a constant note of the Christian church in antiquity. And nowhere was it argued for more strongly than in North Africa. Saint Augustine accepted it at the time of his conversion in 386. Augustine defended Resurrection, and argued that given that Christ has risen, there is Resurrection of the Dead. Moreover, he argued that the death and resurrection of Jesus was for the salvation of man, stating: "to achieve each resurrection of ours, the savior paid with his single life, and he pre-enacted and presented his one and only one by way of sacrament and by way of model."
The 5th century theology of Theodore of Mopsuestia provides an insight into the development of the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of Resurrection. The crucial role of the sacraments in the mediation of salvation was well accepted at the time. In Theodore's representation of the Eucharist, the sacrificial and salvific elements are combined in the "One who saved us and delivered us by the sacrifice of Himself". Theodore's interpretation of the Eucharistic rite is directed towards the triumph over the power of death brought about by the Resurrection.
The emphasis on the salvific nature of the Resurrection continued in Christian theology in the next centuries, e.g., in the 8th century Saint John of Damascus wrote that: "... When he had freed those who were bound from the beginning of time, Christ returned again from among the dead, having opened for us the way to resurrection" and Christian iconography of the ensuing years represented that concept.
The resurrection of Jesus has long been central to Christian faith and appears within diverse elements of the Christian tradition, from feasts to artistic depictions to religious relics. In Christian teachings, the sacraments derive their saving power from the passion and resurrection of Christ, upon which the salvation of the world entirely depends.
An example of the interweaving of the teachings on the resurrection with Christian relics is the application of the concept of "miraculous image formation" at the moment of resurrection to the Shroud of Turin. Christian authors have stated the belief that the body around whom the shroud was wrapped was not merely human, but divine, and that the image on the shroud was miraculously produced at the moment of resurrection. Quoting Pope Paul VI's statement that the shroud is "the wonderful document of His Passion, Death and Resurrection, written for us in letters of blood" author Antonio Cassanelli argues that the shroud is a deliberate divine record of the five stages of the Passion of Christ, created at the moment of resurrection.
Easter, the preeminent feast that celebrates the resurrection of Jesus, is clearly the earliest Christian festival. Since the earliest Christian times, it has focused on the redemptive act of God in the death and resurrection of Christ.
Easter is linked to the Passover and Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion that preceded the resurrection. According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as he prepared himself and his disciples for his death in the upper room during the Last Supper. He identified the loaf of bread and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. 1 Corinthians states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you really are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; this refers to the Passover requirement to have no yeast in the house and to the allegory of Jesus as the Paschal lamb.
Views of other religions
Groups such as Jews, Muslims, Bahá'ís, and other non-Christians, as well as some liberal Christians, dispute whether Jesus actually rose from the dead. Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues.
Some Gnostics did not believe in a literal physical resurrection. "For the gnostic any resurrection of the dead was excluded from the outset; the flesh or substance is destined to perish. 'There is no resurrection of the flesh, but only of the soul', say the so-called Archontics, a late gnostic group in Palestine".
Christianity split with Judaism in the 1st century AD, and the two faiths have differed in their theology since. According to the Toledot Yeshu, the body of Jesus was removed in the same night by a gardener named Juda, after hearing the disciples planned to steal the body of Jesus. However, Toledot Yeshu is not considered either canonical or normative within rabbinic literature. Van Voorst states that Toledot Yeshu is a medieval document set without a fixed form which is "most unlikely" to have reliable information about Jesus. The Blackwell Companion to Jesus states that the Toledot Yeshu has no historical facts as such, and was perhaps created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity.
Muslims believe that ʿĪsā (Jesus) son of Mariam (Mary) was a holy prophet with a divine message. The Islamic perspective is that Jesus was not crucified and will return to the world at the end of times. "But Allāh raised him up to Himself. And Allāh is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise". The Quran says in Surah An-Nisa [Ch004:Verse157] "And because of their saying, "We killed Messiah ʿĪsā, son of Mariam, the Messenger of Allāh", – but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared so to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts".
`Abdu'l-Bahá taught that Christ's resurrection was a spiritual resurrection and that the accounts in the Gospels are parables. `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote: "We explain, therefore, the meaning of Christ's resurrection in the following way: After the martyrdom of Christ the Apostles were perplexed and dismayed. The reality of Christ, which consists in His teachings, His bounties, His perfections and His spiritual power, was hidden and concealed for two or three days after His martyrdom, and had no outward appearance or manifestation — indeed, it was as though it were entirely lost. For those who truly believed were few in number and even those few were perplexed and dismayed. The Cause of Christ was thus as a lifeless body. After three days the Apostles became firm and steadfast, arose to aid the Cause of Christ, resolved to promote the divine teachings and practice their Lord's admonitions, and endeavoured to serve Him. Then did the reality of Christ become resplendent, His grace shine forth, His religion find new life, and His teachings and admonitions become manifest and visible. In other words the Cause of Christ, which was like unto a lifeless body, was quickened to life and surrounded by the grace of the Holy Spirit." 
Baha'is believe the Qur'an's statement: "And because of their saying, "We killed Messiah ʿĪsā, son of Mariam, the Messenger of Allāh", – but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared so to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts". means that Jesus's Spirit didn't die on the cross, however Baha'is uphold that Jesus was actually crucified in the flesh.
In Christian art
In the Catacombs of Rome, artists just hinted at the Resurrection by using images from the Old Testament such as the fiery furnace and Daniel in the Lion's den. Depictions prior to the 7th century generally showed secondary events such as the Myrrhbearers at the tomb of Jesus to convey the concept of the Resurrection. An early symbol of the resurrection was the wreathed Chi Rho, whose origin traces to the victory of emperor Constantine I at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, which he attributed to the use of a cross on the shields of his soldiers. Constantine used the Chi Rho on his standard and his coins showed a labarum with the Chi Rho killing a serpent.
The use of a wreath around the Chi Rho symbolizes the victory of the Resurrection over death, and is an early visual representations of the connection between the Crucifixion of Jesus and his triumphal resurrection, as seen in the 4th century sarcophagus of Domitilla. in Rome. Here, in the wreathed Chi Rho the death and resurrection of Christ are shown as inseparable, and the Resurrection is not merely a happy ending tucked at the end of the life of Christ on earth. Given the use of similar symbols on the Roman standard, this depiction also conveyed another victory, namely that of the Christian faith: the Roman soldiers who had once arrested Jesus and marched him to Calvary now walked under the banner of a resurrected Christ.
The cosmic significance of the Resurrection in Western theology goes back to Saint Ambrose who in the 4th century said that "The universe rose again in Him, the heaven rose again in Him, the earth rose again in Him, for there shall be a new heaven and a new earth". This theme developed gradually in the West, and later than in the East, where the Resurrection was early linked to redemption and the renewal and rebirth of the whole world. In art this was symbolized by combining the depictions of the Resurrection with the Harrowing of Hell in icons and paintings. A good example is from the Chora Church in Istanbul, where John the Baptist, Solomon and other figures are also present, depicting that Christ was not alone in the resurrection. The depiction sequence at the 10th century Hosios Loukas shows Christ as he pulls Adam, followed by Eve from his tomb, signifying the salvation of humanity after the resurrection.
Gallery of art
- For a larger gallery, please see: Resurrection gallery
Resurrection of Christ by Hans Memling
Resurrection by Luca Giordano
Piero della Francesca, 15th century
The Resurrection of Christ, Alonso López de Herrera
Lucas Cranach, 1558
- Entombment of Christ
- Gospel harmony
- Tomb of Jesus:
- The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the ground on which the church stands is venerated by most Christians as Golgotha, the Hill of Calvary, where the New Testament says that Jesus was crucified. This tomb is venerated as the tomb of Christ by the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox churches, and Oriental Orthodox churches.
- The Garden Tomb, discovered in the 19th century, considered the actual site of Jesus' grave by some Protestant Christians.
- Talpiot Tomb, discovered in 1980, subject of the controversial documentary The Lost Tomb of Jesus
- a.^ In a note, Kirby states, "A very abbreviated list of twentieth-century writers on the NT who do not believe that the empty tomb is historically reliable: Marcus Borg, Günther Bornkamm, Gerald Boldock Bostock, Rudolf Bultmann, Peter Carnley, John Dominic Crossan, Stevan Davies, Maurice Goguel, Michael Goulder, Hans Grass, Charles Guignebert, Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Randel Helms, Herman Hendrikx, Roy Hoover, Helmut Koester, Hans Küng, Alfred Loisy, Burton L. Mack, Willi Marxsen, Gerd Lüdemann, Norman Perrin, Robert M. Price, Marianne Sawicki, John Shelby Spong, Howard M. Teeple, and John T. Theodore".
- b.^ Cavin continues "... even on the assumption of their complete historical reliability ... This assumption, of course, is rightly dismissed in light of contemporary New Testament scholarship".
- c.^ Robert M. Price points to the accounts of Adonis, Appollonius of Tyana, Asclepius, Attis, Empedocles, Hercules, Osiris, Oedipus, Romulus, Tammuz, and others.
- Updated version of the Nicene Creed added at First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD, in Norman Tanner, New Short History of the Catholic Church, page 33 (Burns & Oates, 2011). ISBN 978-0-86012-455-9
- Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31–32, Acts 3:15, Acts 3:26, Acts 4:10, Acts 5:30, Acts 10:40–41, Acts 13:30, Acts 13:34, Acts 13:37, Acts 17:30–31, 1Cor 6:14, 2Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1Pet 1:3, 1Pet 1:21
- Acts 1:1–4, Acts 1:9–11, Acts 2:32–33, Colossians 3:1
- Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Broadman Press, 1962. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7
- Tamara Prosic, The Development And Symbolism Of Passover Until 70 CE, page 65 (T & T Clark International, 2004). ISBN 0-8264-7087-4
- Burkett 2002, p. 156-157.
- Telford 1999, p. 148.
- Parker 1997, p. 125.
- Burkett 2002, p. 181-182.
- Burkett 2002, p. 195-196.
- Stagg, Evelyn and Frank. Woman in the World of Jesus. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978, p. 144–150.
- Vladimir Lossky, 1982 The Meaning of Icons ISBN 978-0-913836-99-6 page 185
- Schäfer 2003, p. 72-73.
- Endsjø 2008, p. 145.
- Finney 2016, p. 79.
- Finney 2016, p. 67.
- Tabor 2013, p. 58.
- Novakovic 2014, p. 131.
- Cotter 2001, p. 131.
- Cotter 2001, p. 133-135.
- Collins, p. 46.
- Barclay 2010, p. 91.
- Taylor 2014, p. 374.
- Barclay 2010, p. 121.
- Plevnik 2009, p. 4-6.
- Barclay 2010, p. 121-122.
- Barnett 2005, p. 76.
- Barclay 2010, p. 122.
- Burkett 2002, p. 337.
- Lehtipuu 2015, p. 42.
- Finney 2016, p. 181.
- De Conick 2006, p. 6.
- Finney 2016, p. 181-182.
- Finney 2016, p. 183.
- Finney 2016, p. 182.
- Burkett 2002, p. 145.
- Boring 2012, p. 483.
- Minard 2015, p. 486.
- Mallen 2008, p. 144.
- Smith 2016, p. 151.
- "Jesus Christ." Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 10 Jan. 2007
- Sanders, E. P. The Historical Figure of Jesus. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
- James D.G. Dunn, Jesus and the Spirit: A Study of the Religious and Charismatic Experience of Jesus and the First Christians as Reflected in the New Testament. Eerdmans, 1997. p. 115, 117.
- Helmut Koester, Introduction to the New Testament, Vol. 2: History and Literature of Early Christianity. Walter de Gruyter, 2000. p. 64-65.
- Wright, N.T. The Resurrection of the Son of God. Fortress Press.
- Catechism of the Catholic Church 647
- McClory, Robert (1989). "The Gospel According to Thomas Sheehan". The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Sheehan, Thomas (1986). The First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity. Random House. p. 111. ISBN 978-0394511986.
- Sheehan, Thomas (1986). The First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity. Random House. p. 112. ISBN 978-0394511986.
- Peter Kirby, "The Case Against the Empty Tomb," In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 233. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Robert M. Price, Robert M. Price, "The Empty Tomb: Introduction; The Second Life of Jesus." In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 13. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Robert Greg Cavin, "Is There Sufficient Historical Evidence to Establish the Resurrection of Jesus?" In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 36. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Vermes, Geza (2008). The Resurrection: History and Myth. New York: Doubleday. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-7394-9969-6.
- Vermes, Geza (2008). The Resurrection: History and Myth. New York: Doubleday. pp. 142–148. ISBN 978-0-7394-9969-6. The quoted material appeared in small caps in Vermes's book.
- Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God, 272; cf. 321
- Resurrection Research from 1975 to the Present: What are Critical Scholars Saying? Link
- From a debate with Anthony Flew on the resurrection of the Jesus. Transcript
- Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "John the Baptist" cameo, p. 268
- Josephus Jewish Antiquities 18.3.3
- Robert M. Price, "The Empty Tomb: Introduction; The Second Life of Jesus." In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 14. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Burridge, R. A. (2006). Gospels. In J. W. Rogerson & Judith M. Lieu (Eds) The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 437
- Richard C. Carrier, "The Burial of Jesus in Light of Jewish Law." In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 369. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Bart Ehrman, From Jesus to Constantine: A History of Early Christianity, Lecture 4: "Oral and Written Traditions about Jesus" [The Teaching Company, 2003].
- "3 Nephi 17".
- "3 Nephi 17:25".
- Joseph Smith—History 1:5–26; also History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter–day Saints, 1:2–8
- "Doctrine and Covenants 76:11-24".
- "Jesus the Christ Chapter 41: Personal Manifestations of God the Eternal Father and of His Son Jesus Christ in Modern Times".
- John 3:16, John 5:24, John 6:39–40, John 6:47, John 10:10, John 11:25–26, and John 17:3.
- Terry Miethe in Did Jesus Rise from the Dead? The Resurrection Debate, ed. Terry Miethe (San Francisco: Harper and Row,1987), xi. Quoted by Michael Martin, "The Resurrection as Initially Improbable". In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 44. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31–32, Acts 3:15, Acts 3:26, Acts 4:10, Acts 5:30, Acts 10:40–41, Acts 13:30, Acts 13:34, Acts 13:37, Acts 17:30–31, 1Cor 6:14, 2Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1Pet 1:3, 1 Pet 1:21
- Mark 16:19, Luke 22:69, Acts 2:33, Acts 5:31, Acts 7:55–56, Romans 8:34, Eph 1:20, Col 3:1, Hebrews 1:3, Hebrews 1:13, Hebrews 10:12, Hebrews 12:2, 1Pe 3:22
- The ‘‘Parousia’‘ is the term used in the Bible, see Strong's G3952 for details, which includes the Thayer's Lexicon definition: "In the N.T. especially of the advent, i.e.,the future, visible, return from heaven of Jesus, the Messiah, to raise the dead, hold the last judgment, and set up formally and gloriously the kingdom of God". According to the Bauer lexicon: "of Christ, and nearly always of his Messianic Advent in glory to judge the world at the end of this age".
- Reginald H. Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology (New York: Scribners, 1965), p. 11.
- Jung, Carl, The Answer to Job online excerpt
- Vermes, Geza (2008). The Resurrection: History and Myth. New York: Doubleday. p. xv. ISBN 978-0-7394-9969-6..
- Neufeld, The Earliest Christian Confessions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964) p. 47; Reginald Fuller, The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives (New York: Macmillan, 1971) p. 10; Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus—God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90; Oscar Cullmann, The Early Church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 64; Hans Conzelmann, 1 Corinthians, translated James W. Leitch (Philadelphia: Fortress 1969) p. 251; Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament vol. 1 pp. 45, 80–82, 293; R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) pp. 81, 92
- Most Fellows of the Jesus Seminar concluded that this tradition dates to before Paul's conversion, c AD 33. Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Empty Tomb, Appearances & Ascension" p. 449-495.
- Geza Vermes (2008) The Resurrection. London, Penguin: 121-2
- see Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus—God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90; Oscar Cullmann, The Early church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 66–66; R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) pp. 81; Thomas Sheehan, First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity (New York: Random House, 1986) pp. 110, 118; Ulrich Wilckens, Resurrection translated A. M. Stewart (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew, 1977) p. 2; Hans Grass, Ostergeschen und Osterberichte, Second Edition (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1962) p. 96; Grass favors the origin in Damascus.
- Barnett, Paul William (2009). Finding the Historical Christ (Volume 3 of After Jesus). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 978-0802848901.
- (as in 1 Corinthians 15:20–22)
- Meditation and Piety in the Far East by Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Sverre Holth 2004 ISBN 0-227-17235-3 page 30
- Corinthians 15:42–49 with commentary by Dale B. Martin, The Corinthian Body, Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-300-08172-3 p. 126 in particular.
- "Archbishop Peter Carnley; William Oats". Radio National.
- Lorenzen, Thorwald. Resurrection, Discipleship, Justice: Affirming the Resurrection of Jesus Christ Today. Macon, Georgia: Smyth & Helwys, 2003, p. 13.
- Warnock, Adrian, Raised With Christ, Crossway 2010
- The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology by Berard L. Marthaler 2007 ISBN 0-89622-537-2 page 361
- See resurrection of the dead, in 1 Corinthians 15:20–22
- Theology of Paul the Apostle by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN page 235
- Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0
- Ignatius makes many passing references, but two extended discussions are found in the Letter to the Trallians and the Letter to the Smyrnaeans.
- The Resurrection and the icon by Michel Quenot 1998 ISBN 0-88141-149-3 page 72
- Augustine: ancient thought baptized by John M. Rist 1996 ISBN 0-521-58952-5 page 110
- Augustine and the Catechumenate by William Harmless 1995 ISBN 0-8146-6132-7 page 131
- Augustine De doctrina Christiana by Saint Augustine, R. P. H. Green 1996 ISBN 0-19-826334-1 page 115
- The Trinity by Saint Augustine (Bishop of Hippo.), Edmund Hill, John E. Rotelle 1991 ISBN 0-911782-96-6 page 157
- Adventus Domini: eschatological thought in 4th-century apses and catecheses by Geir Hellemo 1997 ISBN 90-04-08836-9 page 231
- Vladimir Lossky, 1982 The Meaning of Icons ISBN 978-0-913836-99-6 page 189
- The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milic Lochman, Geoffrey William Bromiley, John Mbiti 2008 ISBN 0-8028-2417-X page 490
- Charles S. Brown, 2007 Bible "Mysteries" Explained ISBN 0-9582813-0-0 page 193
- Peter Rinaldi 1972, The man in the Shroud ISBN 0-86007-010-7 page 45
- Antonio Cassanelli, 2001 The Holy Shroud: a comparison between the Gospel narrative of the five stages of the Passion ISBN 0-85244-351-X page 13
- Foundations of Christian Worship by Susan J. White 2006 ISBN 0-664-22924-7 page 55
- Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 224
- John, Revelation, 1 Peter 1:19, 1 Peter 1:2, and the associated notes and Passion Week table in Barker, Kenneth, ed. (2002). Zondervan NIV Study Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 1520. ISBN 0-310-92955-5.
- Kurt Rudolph, Gnosis: The Nature & History of Gnosticism, page 190 (T & T Clark Ltd, 1970, second and expanded edition, 1980; 1998). ISBN 0-567-08640-2
- Michael J. Cook, "Jewish Perspectives on Jesus", in Delbert Burkett (editor), The Blackwell Companion to Jesus, pages 221–223 (Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2011). ISBN 978-1-4051-9362-7
- Gary R. Habermas, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ, page 205 (Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2008). ISBN 0-89900-732-5
- Dan, Joseph (2006). "Toledot Yeshu". In Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 20 (2nd ed.) pp. 28–29
- Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence WmB Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 page 128
- Michael J. Cook Jewish Perspectives on Jesus Chapter 14 in the "The Blackwell Companion to Jesus" edited by Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 978-1-4443-2794-6
- Qur'an, Sura 4:158
- Qur'an, Sura 4:157
- "Bahá'í Reference Library - Some Answered Questions".
- Understanding early Christian art by Robin Margaret Jensen 2000 ISBN 0-415-20454-2 page 149
- Cross and Crucifix in the Christian Assembly – Part I (The Early Christian Period: Crux Invicta, Crux Gemmata)
- The passion in art by Richard Harries 2004 ISBN 0-7546-5011-1 page 8
- Ambrose, On the Belief in the Resurrection, 102
- Images of redemption: art, literature and salvation by Patrick Sherry 2005 ISBN 0-567-08891-X page 73
- Heaven on Earth: art and the Church in Byzantium by Linda Safran 1998 ISBN 0-271-01670-1 page 133
- Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. pp. 256–257. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Robert M. Price, "The Empty Tomb: Introduction; The Second Life of Jesus". In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. pp. 14–15. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Barclay, John (2010). "I Corinthians". In Barton, John; Muddiman, John. The Pauline Epistles. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191034664.
- Barnett, Paul William (2005). The Birth of Christianity: The First Twenty Years. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802827814.
- Burkett, Delbert (2002). An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521007207.
- Charlesworth, James H. (2008). The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9781426724756.
- Chester, Andrew (2007). Messiah and Exaltation: Jewish Messianic and Visionary Traditions and New Testament Christology. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 9783161490910.
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- Cotter, Wendy (2001). "Greco-Roman Apotheosis Traditions and the Resurrection in Matthew". In Thompson, William G. The Gospel of Matthew in Current Study. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802846730.
- De Conick, April D. (2006). Paradise Now: Essays on Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism. SBL. ISBN 9781589832572.
- Endsjø, D. (2009). Greek Resurrection Beliefs and the Success of Christianity. Springer. ISBN 9780230622562.
- Finney, Mark (2016). Resurrection, Hell and the Afterlife: Body and Soul in Antiquity, Judaism and Early Christianity. Routledge. ISBN 9781317236375.
- Lehtipuu, Outi (2015). Debates Over the Resurrection of the Dead: Constructing Early Christian Identity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198724810.
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- Minard, Antoine (2015). Jesus in History, Legend, Scripture, and Tradition. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610698047.
- Novakovic, Lidija (2014). Raised from the Dead According to Scripture. A&C Black. ISBN 9780567480859.
- Parker, D.C. (1997). The Living Text of the Gospels. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521599511.
- Pate, C. Marvin (2013). Apostle of the Last Days: The Life, Letters and Theology of Paul. Kregel Academic.
- Perkins, Pheme (2014). "Resurrection of Jesus". In Evans, Craig A. The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus. Routledge.
- Plevnik, Joseph (2009). What are They Saying about Paul and the End Time?. Paulist Press.
- Quast, Kevin (1991). Reading the Gospel of John: An Introduction. Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809132973.
- Schäfer, Peter (2003). The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World. Routledge. ISBN 9781134403165.
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- Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). "Eternal Life". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.
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