Death of James Dean

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Death of James Dean
Date September 30, 1955; 62 years ago (1955-09-30)
Location At the junction of California State Route 46 and California State Route 41 near Cholame, California
Cause Car crash
Deaths James Dean

The death of Hollywood actor James Dean occurred on September 30, 1955, near Cholame, California. Dean had previously competed in several auto racing events, and was traveling to a sports car racing competition when his car crashed at the junction of California State Route 46 (former 466) and California State Route 41. He was 24 years old.

Racing career background[edit]

In April 1954, after securing the co-starring role of Cal Trask in East of Eden, James Dean purchased a 1955 Triumph Tiger T110 650 cc motorcycle and, later, a used red 1953 MG TD Midget sports car.[1] In March 1955, Dean traded the MG for a new 1955 Porsche Super Speedster purchased from Competition Motors in Hollywood, California. He traded the Triumph T110 for a 1955 Triumph TR5 Trophy three days after filming wrapped on East of Eden.[1] Just before filming began on Rebel Without a Cause, Dean competed in the Palm Springs Road Races with the Speedster on March 26–27. He finished first overall in Saturday's novice class, and second overall in the Sunday main event. Dean also raced the Speedster at Bakersfield on May 1–2, finishing first in class and third overall. His final race with the Speedster was at Santa Barbara on Memorial Day, May 30, where he started in the eighteenth position, worked his way up to fourth, before over-revving his engine and blowing a piston. He did not finish the race.[2]

Dean and his Porsche Speedster 23F at Palm Springs Races March 1955

During the filming of Giant from June through mid-September, Warner Brothers had barred Dean from all racing activities. In July, Dean put down a deposit on a new Lotus Mark IX sports racer with Jay Chamberlain, a dealer in Burbank. Dean was told that the Lotus delivery would be delayed until autumn. On September 21, as Dean was finishing Giant, he suddenly traded in his Speedster at Competition Motors for a new, more powerful and faster 1955 Porsche 550 Spyder and entered the upcoming Salinas Road Race event scheduled for October 1–2. He also purchased a new 1955 Ford Country Squire station wagon to use for towing the "Little Bastard" to and from the races on an open wheel car trailer.[3]

According to Lee Raskin, Porsche historian and author of James Dean: At Speed, Dean asked custom car painter and pinstriper Dean Jeffries to paint "Little Bastard" on the car:

"Dean Jeffries, who had a paint shop next to [George] Barris, did the customizing work which consisted of: painting '130' in black non-permanent paint on the front hood, doors and rear deck lid. He also painted "Little Bastard" in script across the rear cowling. The red leather bucket seats and red tail stripes were original. The tail stripes were painted by the Stuttgart factory, which was customary on the Spyders for racing ID."[4]

Purportedly, Dean had been given the nickname "Little Bastard" by Bill Hickman, a Warner Bros. stunt driver who Dean befriended. Hickman was part of Dean's group driving to the Salinas Road Races on September 30, 1955. Hickman says he called Dean "little bastard", and Dean called Hickman "big bastard." Another version of the "Little Bastard" origin — corroborated by two of Dean's close friends, Phil Stern and Lew Bracker — is that Warner Bros. president Jack L. Warner had once referred to Dean as a little bastard after he refused to vacate his temporary East of Eden trailer on the studio's lot. And Dean wanted to get "even" with Warner by naming his race car "Little Bastard" and defiantly show that despite the racing ban during all filming, Dean would be racing the "Little Bastard" in between projects.[5] When Dean introduced himself to British actor Alec Guinness outside the Villa Capri restaurant in Hollywood, he asked him to take a look at the Spyder. Guinness thought the car appeared "sinister" and told Dean: "If you get in that car, you will be found dead in it by this time next week." This encounter took place on September 23, 1955, seven days before Dean's death.[6][7]

Accident[edit]

Junction of state highways 46 (former 466) and 41 as it looked in 2007

On September 30, 1955, Dean and his Porsche factory-trained mechanic, Rolf Wütherich, were at Competition Motors in Hollywood preparing the "Little Bastard" for the weekend sports car races at Salinas. Dean originally intended to tow the Porsche behind his Ford station wagon, driven by Hickman and accompanied by professional photographer Sanford H. Roth who was planning a photo story of Dean at the races for Collier's magazine. Because the Spyder did not have enough "break-in" miles prior to the race, Wütherich recommended that Dean drive it to Salinas to get more "seat time" behind the wheel. The group had coffee and donuts at the Hollywood Ranch Market on Vine Street across from Competition Motors before leaving around 1:15 p.m. PST. They stopped at the Mobil station for gas on Ventura Blvd. at Beverly Glen Blvd. in Sherman Oaks around 2:00 p.m. The group then headed north on the Golden State Freeway and then over the "Grapevine" toward Bakersfield.[8]

At 3:30 p.m., Dean was stopped by California Highway Patrolman O.V. Hunter at Mettler Station on Wheeler Ridge, just south of Bakersfield, for driving 65 mph (105 km/h) in a 55 mph (89 km/h) zone.[9][10] Hickman, following the Spyder in the Ford with the trailer, was also ticketed for driving 20 mph (32 km/h) over the limit, as the speed limit for all vehicles towing a trailer was 45 mph (72 km/h). After receiving the citations, Dean and Hickman turned left onto SR 166/33 to avoid going through Bakersfield's slow 25 mph (40 km/h) downtown district. SR 166/33 was a known short-cut for sports car drivers going to Salinas, called "the racer's road", which took them directly to Blackwells Corner at U.S. Route 466 (later SR 46). At Blackwells Corner, Dean stopped briefly for refreshments and met up with fellow racers Lance Reventlow and Bruce Kessler, who were also on their way to Salinas in Reventlow's Mercedes-Benz 300 SL coupe. As Reventlow and Kessler were leaving, they all agreed to meet for dinner in Paso Robles.[11]

At approximately 5:15 p.m., Dean and Hickman left Blackwells Corner, driving west on Route 466 toward Paso Robles, approximately 60 miles (97 km) away. Dean accelerated in the "Little Bastard" and left the Ford station wagon far behind. Further along on Route 466, the Porsche crested Polonio Pass and headed down the long Antelope Grade, passing cars along the way toward the junction floor at Route 466 and Route 41. At approximately 5:45 p.m., a black-and-white 1950 Ford Tudor driven at high speed was headed east on Route 466 just west of the junction near Shandon.[12] Its driver, 23-year-old Cal Poly student Donald Turnupseed,[13][14][15] made a left turn onto Route 41 headed north, toward Fresno. As Turnupseed's Ford crossed over the center line, Dean (clearly seeing an imminent crash) apparently tried to steer the Spyder in a "side stepping" racing maneuver, but with insufficient time and space, the two cars crashed almost head-on. A witness, John Robert White, reportedly saw the Spyder smash into the ground two or three times in cartwheels,[16] and landing in a gully beside the shoulder of the road, northwest of the junction. The sheer velocity of the impact sent the much-heavier Ford broad-sliding 39 feet (12 m) down Route 466 in the westbound lane.[17] The accident was witnessed by a number of passersby who stopped to help. A woman with nursing experience attended to Dean and detected a weak pulse in his neck, but according to the woman, "death appeared to have been instantaneous".[18]

California Highway Patrol (CHP) Captain Ernest Tripke and his partner, Corporal Ronald Nelson, had been finishing a coffee break in Paso Robles when they were called to the scene of the accident at the Route 466/41 junction.[19] Before Tripke and Nelson arrived, Dean had been extricated from the Spyder's mangled cockpit, his left foot having been crushed between the clutch and brake pedal. He was severely injured as his vehicle took the brunt of the crash, suffering a broken neck and massive internal and external injuries. Nelson witnessed an unconscious and dying Dean being placed into an ambulance, and a barely conscious Wütherich, who had been thrown from the Spyder, lying on the shoulder of the road next to the wrecked vehicle. Dean and Wütherich were taken in the same ambulance to the Paso Robles War Memorial Hospital, 28 miles (45 km) away. Dean was pronounced dead on arrival at 6:20 p.m. by the attending emergency room physician, Dr. Robert Bossert. The cause of death listed on James Dean's death certificate is listed as a broken neck as well as multiple fractures of the upper and lower jaw along with both right and left arms broken as well as internal injuries.[20] Warren Beath wrote that Dean had died in the arms of his friend, Bill Hickman.[21] Despite reports of Dean's speed being around 85 mph (137 km/h), Nelson estimated that the actual speed was around 55 mph (89 km/h), based on the wreckage and position of Dean's body.[19]

Wütherich survived with a broken jaw and serious hip and femur injuries that required immediate surgery. Turnupseed was only slightly injured with facial bruises and a bloodied nose. After being interviewed by the CHP, Turnupseed hitch-hiked in the dark to his home in Tulare. Hickman and Roth arrived at the accident scene approximately ten minutes after the crash. Hickman assisted in extricating Dean from the wreckage. Roth took photographs of the accident scene (which were acquired by Seita Ohnishi, a retired Japanese businessman who would later erect a memorial near the site).[22]

Some sources give Dean's last known words — uttered right before the impact when Wütherich told Dean to slow down as the Ford Tudor pulled into their lane — as, "That guy's gotta stop ... He'll see us".[23] Raskin believes that any report about Dean and Wütherich communicating prior to the crash is pure conjecture. According to the coroner's deposition taken of Wütherich in the hospital, and later in a 1960 interview given to an official Porsche magazine, Christophorus, he couldn't recall any of the exact moments leading up to and after the crash.[24]

Inquest and aftermath[edit]

At the official coroner's inquest, held at the San Luis Obispo Court House on October 11, 1955, Turnupseed told the jury that he did not see the low-profile Spyder until after he was turning left onto Route 41. After other testimony by the CHP, and witnesses to the accident, the coroner's jury came back with a verdict of "accidental death with no criminal intent," finding Turnupseed not guilty of any contributory wrongdoing in the death of Dean. The deceased Dean was also found not guilty of any criminal intent or contributory wrongdoing for the accident.[25]

Although not charged with any offense, Turnupseed had nevertheless been dealt a devastating blow that would haunt him for the rest of his life.[26] He granted just one interview to the Tulare Advance-Register newspaper immediately following the crash, but after that he refused to speak publicly about the accident. Turnupseed went on to own and operate a very successful family electrical contracting business in Tulare. He died at the age of 63 from lung cancer in 1995.[27]

Wütherich, after having several complicated surgeries on his hip and femur, went back to West Germany in 1957 with psychological and legal problems. He worked for Porsche's testing department and international rally and racing teams during the 1960s. He died in July 1981, in Kupferzell, West Germany, in another auto accident when he lost control of his car and crashed into a residence. Like Dean in the previous crash, Wütherich had to be extricated from the wreck and died at the accident scene. He was 53 years old.[24]

There is an ironic epilogue to James Dean's fatal crash: while filming Giant, Dean also filmed a short public service announcement with actor Gig Young for the National Safety Council. It featured Dean dressed as the young "Jett Rink" talking about how driving fast on the highway can be more dangerous than racing on the track. At the end of the segment, instead of saying the catchphrase "The life you save may be your own", Dean ad-libbed the line "The life you might save might be mine".[28]

Funeral and memorial[edit]

James Dean Memorial in Cholame. Dean died approximately one mile east of this tree.

Dean's funeral was held on October 8, 1955, at the Fairmount Friends Church in Fairmount, Indiana. The coffin remained closed to conceal the severe injuries to his upper torso and face. An estimated 600 mourners were in attendance, while another 2,400 fans gathered outside the church during the procession. Dean's body is buried at Park Cemetery in Fairmount, less than a mile from where he grew up on his aunt and uncle's farm.

In 1977, a memorial to Dean was erected in Cholame, California. The stylized sculpture is composed of stainless steel around a tree of heaven growing in front of the former Cholame post office building. The sculpture was designed in Japan and transported to Cholame, accompanied by the project's benefactor, the aforementioned Seita Ohnishi of Kobe. Ohnishi chose the site after examining the location of the accident, less than a mile away. The original Highway 41 and 46 junction where the accident occurred is now a pasture, and the two roadways were realigned over the decades to make them safer. On September 30, 2005, the junction at Highways 46 and 41 was dedicated as the James Dean Memorial Junction as part of the State of California's official commemoration of the 50th anniversary of his death.[29] (Maps of the intersection 35°44′5″N 120°17′4″W / 35.73472°N 120.28444°W / 35.73472; -120.28444)

The dates and hours of Dean's birth and death are etched into the sculpture, along with a handwritten description by Dean's friend William Bast of one of Dean's favorite lines from Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's The Little Prince: "What is essential is invisible to the eye." It also includes an infinity symbol next to the date of his death, showing that he will never be forgotten.

Dean's grave in his hometown, Fairmount, Indiana.

"Curse" of Dean's car[edit]

The "curse" of James Dean's car, the "Little Bastard", has become part of America's cultural mythology. Warren Beath, a James Dean archivist and author, believes the source of the myth is George Barris, the self-described "King of the Kustomizers", who says he was the first to purchase the wrecked car. Barris promoted the "curse" after he placed the wreck on public display in 1956. Over the years, Barris described a series of accidents that mysteriously occurred from 1956 to 1960 involving the "Little Bastard," resulting in serious injuries to spectators and even a truck driver's death.[30] Raskin states many claims regarding the "curse" appear to have been based on Barris' 1974 book, Cars of the Stars.[31][32]

Raskin's 2005 book James Dean: At Speed states that the wrecked Spyder was declared as a total loss by the insurance company, which paid Dean's father, Winton, the fair market value as a settlement. The insurance company, in turn, through a salvage yard in Burbank, sold the Spyder to a Dr. William F. Eschrich. Eschrich, who had competed against Dean in his own sports car at three race events during 1955, dismantled the engine and mechanical parts and installed the Porsche 4-cam engine in his Lotus IX race car chassis. Eschrich then raced the Porsche-powered Lotus, which he called a "Potus", at seven California Sports Car Club events during 1956. At the Pomona Sports Car Races on October 21, 1956, Eschrich, driving this car, was involved in a minor "shunt" with another driver.[33]

Barris' Cars of the Stars states that a Dr. McHenry, "driving a car powered by the engine from Dean's car, was killed when his vehicle went out of control and struck a tree in the first race in which the motor had been used since Dean's mishap. Another doctor, William F. Eschrid [sic] of Burbank, was injured in the same race when his car, which contained the drivetrain from Dean's car, rolled over."[34] Eschrich, interviewed a day after McHenry's fatal accident, said he had loaned the Dean transmission and several other parts to McHenry: "I don't believe he was using the transmission when he crashed, but he was using the back swinging arms which holds the rear end."[35] McHenry appears to have the distinction of being the only bona fide victim of the "curse".[36]

Raskin states that although Barris may have customized several cars for Rebel Without a Cause, he never customized any of Dean's personal cars and neither of his Porsches.[37] Lew Bracker, Dean's best friend in Los Angeles and fellow Porsche racer, maintains that Barris was not involved with Dean's racing activities; he was never considered to be part of Dean's "inner circle" invited to go to Salinas on September 30, 1955.[38] It is not known exactly how Barris knew Eschrich, but he was given the Spyder's mangled body after Eschrich had stripped out the Porsche. In 1956, Barris announced that he was going to rebuild the "Little Bastard," but that proved to be a Herculean task as the wrecked chassis had no remaining integral strength. Instead, Barris decided to weld aluminum sheet metal over the caved-in left front fender and cockpit area. He proceeded to beat on the aluminum panels with a 2x4 to try to simulate what would appear to be collision damage.[39] Later in 1956, Barris loaned out the "Little Bastard" to the Los Angeles chapter of the National Safety Council for a local rod and custom car show. The gruesome display was promoted as: "James Dean's Last Sports Car". During 1957–1959, the exhibit toured various rod and custom car shows, movie theatres, bowling alleys, and highway safety displays throughout California.[40]

There are a few stories associated with the "curse" that can be corroborated. For example, a wire service story on March 12, 1959, reported that the "Little Bastard", temporarily stored in a garage at 3158 Hamilton Avenue in Fresno, caught fire "awaiting display as a safety exhibit in a coming sports and custom automobile show," The May 12, 1959, The Fresno Bee, reported that the fire occurred on the night of March 11, and only slight damage occurred to the Spyder without any damage to other cars or property in the garage. No one was injured: "The cause of the fire is unknown. It burned two tires and scorched the paint on the vehicle."[41] Later that year, the "Little Bastard" was toured national auto shows and traffic safety exhibitions. Legend also holds that the "Little Bastard" mysteriously disappeared in 1960. According to Barris, the Spyder was returning from a traffic safety exhibit in Florida in a sealed truck. In Barris' book and in many TV interviews, he said the "Little Bastard" was being shipped back in a sealed boxcar. When the train arrived in Los Angeles, Barris said he signed the manifest and verified that the seal was intact—but the boxcar was empty.[42]

Raskin believes that Barris' "Little Bastard" side show had lost its fan appeal just as the 1960s pop culture began to focus on "big block" Muscle Cars.[43] Raskin also believes that Barris opted to misplace the "Little Bastard". The mysterious disappearance stories were Barris' way of perpetuating the Dean myth, especially on the milestone anniversaries of Dean's death.[44]

Although the legendary "Little Bastard" seemingly has disappeared from sight, Historic Auto Attractions in Roscoe, Illinois, claims to have an original piece of Dean's Spyder on display (a small chunk of aluminum, a few square inches in size) that was pried off and stolen from an area near the broken windscreen while the Spyder was being stored in the Cholame Garage following the accident. Also, in 2005, for the 50th Anniversary of Dean's death, the Volo Auto Museum in Volo, Illinois, announced they were displaying what was purported to be the "Little Bastard's" passenger door. Volo and Barris offered $1 million to anyone who could prove that they owned the remains of the "Little Bastard". No one came forth to claim the prize.[32]

The 4-Cam Porsche engine (#90059), along with the original California Owner's Registration (aka CA Pink Slip) listing the engine number, is still in the possession of the family of the late Dr. Eschrich. The Porsche's transaxle assembly (#10046), is currently owned by Porsche collector and restorer Jack Styles in Massachusetts. Raskin originally documented and published all the serial numbers (VINs) for the Spyder (chassis, engine, transmission); as well as for his 356 Super Speedster. To date, neither of Dean's Porsches have been located.[45][46]

Documentary[edit]

On February 15, 2009, all three of the California Highway Patrol (CHP) officers who dealt with Dean on the day of his death — Officer Otie Hunter, who ticketed Dean for speeding, and Officers Ernie Tripke and Ronald Nelson, who investigated the fatal crash — participated and shared their memories of that fateful day in an SCVTV documentary titled The Stuff of Legend: James Dean's Final Ride, co-produced by the Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society.

Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wasef, Basem; Leno, Jay (2007), Legendary Motorcycles, Motorbooks International, pp. 13–19, ISBN 978-0-7603-3070-8, retrieved 2012-05-20 
  2. ^ Raskin, Lee (2005). James Dean: At Speed. Phoenix, Ariz.: David Bull. pp. 47–48; 68–71; 73–74; 78–81; 83–86. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7. 
  3. ^ Raskin, Lee (2005). James Dean: At speed. Phoenix, Ariz.: David Bull. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7. 
  4. ^ Raskin, Lee. "'Little Bastard': The Silver Spyder Porsche/Dean Mystery Revisited". James Dean: At Speed. David Bull Publishing. Retrieved September 21, 2011. 
  5. ^ Raskin, Lee (2005). James Dean: At Speed. Phoenix, Ariz.: David Bull. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7. 
  6. ^ Guinness, Alec. Blessings in Disguise [Random House, 1985, ISBN 0-394-55237-7], ch. 4 (pp. 34-35)
  7. ^ "Premonition of Sir Alec Guinness". YouTube. Retrieved 2010-10-16. 
  8. ^ Raskin, Lee (2005). James Dean: At Speed. Phoenix, Ariz.: David Bull. pp. 111–115. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7. 
  9. ^ Hunter, O. V. (State Traffic Officer, California Highway Patrol), September 30, 1955. Form 215 (Notice to Appear) number D730248 issued on that date to Dean. Picture of yellow copy viewed October 4, 2017.
  10. ^ Middlecamp, David (30 September 2005). "Photos From the Vault". SanLuisObispo.com. San Luis Obispo Tribune. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Raskin, Lee (2005). James Dean: At Speed. Phoenix, Ariz.: David Bull. pp. 116–118. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7. 
  12. ^ Keith Elliot Greenberg (1 August 2015). Too Fast to Live, Too Young to Die — James Dean's Final Hours: James Dean's Final Hours. Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-4950-5041-1. 
  13. ^ Claudia Springer (17 May 2013). James Dean Transfigured: The Many Faces of Rebel Iconography. University of Texas Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-292-75288-7. 
  14. ^ Matt Stone; Preston Lerner (30 November 2012). History's Greatest Automotive Mysteries, Myths, and Rumors Revealed: James Dean's Killer Porsche, NASCAR's Fastest Monkey, Bonnie and Clyde's Getaway Car, and More. Motorbooks. pp. 183–184. ISBN 978-0-7603-4260-2. 
  15. ^ Wheeler W. Dixon (1999). Disaster and Memory: Celebrity Culture and the Crisis of Hollywood Cinema. Columbia University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-231-11317-5. 
  16. ^ Warren Beath (1 December 2007). The Death of James Dean. Grove/Atlantic, Incorporated. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-8021-9611-8. 
  17. ^ Raskin, Lee (2005). James Dean: At Speed. Phoenix, Ariz.: David Bull. pp. 122–127. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7. 
  18. ^ George Perry (27 October 2011). James Dean. Palazzo Editions, Limited. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-9564942-7-6. 
  19. ^ a b Steve Chawkins (October 1, 2005). "Remembering a 'Giant' Fifty years after James Dean's death, fans gather at the site of his fatal crash". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 25, 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  20. ^ Raskin, Lee (2005). James Dean: At Speed. Phoenix, Ariz.: David Bull. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7. 
  21. ^ Beath 2007, p. 51
  22. ^ Raskin, Lee (2005). James Dean: At Speed. Phoenix, Ariz.: David Bull. p. 138,135. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7. 
  23. ^ Frascella, L., Weisel, A. Live Fast, Die Young: The Wild Ride of Making Rebel Without a Cause, p.233, New York: Touchstone, 2005
  24. ^ a b Raskin, Lee (2005). James Dean: At Speed. Phoenix, Ariz.: David Bull. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7. 
  25. ^ Beath, Warren (2005). James Dean in Death: A Popular Encyclopedia of a Celebrity Phenomenon. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. pp. 50–51. ISBN 0-7864-2000-6. 
  26. ^ Riese, Randall (1991). The Unabridged James Dean: His Life from A to Z. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books. p. 534. ISBN 0-8092-4061-0. 
  27. ^ (1995, July 13/14). "Obituary: Turnupseed, Donald", Tulare Advance-Register
  28. ^ YouTube
  29. ^ California State Legislature (2002-08-15). "Senate Concurrent Resolution 52, Chapter 107" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-20. 
  30. ^ Beath, Warren, with Wheeldon, Paula. James Dean in Death: A Popular Encyclopedia of a Celebrity Phenomenon 2005, pp 50-51.(McFarland & Co., Inc, Jefferson, NC) ISBN 0-7864-2000-6
  31. ^ Barris, George, Cars of the Stars,1974, pp.20-23.(Jonathan David Publishers)
  32. ^ a b Raskin, Lee, James Dean: At Speed, 2005, pp. 130,133-134. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7
  33. ^ Raskin, Lee, James Dean: At Speed, 2005, pp. 131-134. ISBN 978-1-893618-49-7
  34. ^ Barris, George, Cars of the Stars, 1974, pp. 21-22.
  35. ^ Beath, Warren, with Wheeldon, Paula; James Dean in Death: A Popular Encyclopedia of Celebrity Phenomenon, 2005, Pomona Progress-Bulletin, Pomona, CA; Oct 24, 1956; pp. 6
  36. ^ Beath, Warren, with Wheeldon, Paula; James Dean in Death: A Popular Encyclopedia of a Celebrity Phenomenon, 2005, pp. 151.
  37. ^ Raskin, Lee, James Dean: At Speed, 2005, pp. 74, Interview with Frank Mazola, Rebel Without a Cause, cast member, "Crunch," Los Angeles, 2004.
  38. ^ Raskin, Lee, James Dean: At Speed, 2005, pp. 113, Interview with Lew Bracker, (close friend of James Dean invited to the Salinas races) pp. 113, Los Angeles, 2004.
  39. ^ Raskin, Lee, James Dean: At Speed, 2005, pp. 133. Interview with car customizer, Dean Jeffries, Los Angeles, 2004.
  40. ^ Raskin, Lee, James Dean: At Speed, 2005, pp. 134.
  41. ^ Beath, Warren, with Wheeldon, Paula; James Dean in Death: A Popular Encyclopedia of Celebrity Phenomenon, 2005, pp 51.
  42. ^ Beath, Warren, with Wheeldon, Paula; James Dean in Death: A Popular Encyclopedia of a Celebrity Phenomenon, 2005, pp. 51.
  43. ^ "Muscle Car Songs". Musclecarclub.com. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012. 
  44. ^ Raskin, Lee, James Dean: At Speed, 2005, pp. 133-134.
  45. ^ Porsche Panorama, Porsche Club of America, Inc; Little Bastard: Search for James Dean's Spyder, July 1984, Lee Raskin, pp. 12-16, 19-20. ISSN 0147-3565.
  46. ^ Henrichs, Steve;Marinello, Marco; Perrin, Jim, Raskin, Lee; Stoddard, Charles A; Zigg, Donald; Porsche Speedster TYP 540: Quintessential Sports Car, 2004, Big Lake Media, Inc., Incline Village, Nevada. ISBN 0-9746468-0-6, pp.186-190

Coordinates: 35°44′04″N 120°17′12″W / 35.73454°N 120.286567°W / 35.73454; -120.286567

External links[edit]