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Death of Jeffrey Epstein

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Death of Jeffrey Epstein
Epstein Final Mugshot.png
Epstein in his final mugshot, taken July 8, 2019 (age 66)
DateAugust 10, 2019; 14 months ago (2019-08-10)
LocationMetropolitan Correctional Center, New York City
Coordinates40°42′48″N 74°00′05″W / 40.7132°N 74.0015°W / 40.7132; -74.0015Coordinates: 40°42′48″N 74°00′05″W / 40.7132°N 74.0015°W / 40.7132; -74.0015
CauseRuled suicide by hanging (disputed)
OutcomeRemoval of warden, indictments of guards on duty
InquiriesFBI and DOJ investigations
CoronerNew York City Medical Examiner
ArrestsMichael Thomas and Tova Noel
ChargesRecord falsification and conspiracy

On August 10, 2019, American financier and convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein was found unresponsive in his Metropolitan Correctional Center jail cell, where he was awaiting trial on sex trafficking charges. After prison guards performed CPR, he was transported in cardiac arrest to the New York Downtown Hospital, where he was pronounced dead at 6:39 a.m. The New York City medical examiner ruled Epstein's death a suicide by hanging. Epstein's lawyers challenged that conclusion and opened their own investigation, hiring pathologist Michael Baden.

After initially expressing suspicion, Attorney General William Barr described Epstein's death as "a perfect storm of screw-ups".[1] Both the FBI and the Department of Justice's Inspector General are conducting investigations into the circumstances of his death. The guards on duty were later charged with multiple counts of conspiracy and record falsification.[2] Many public figures accused the Federal Bureau of Prisons of negligence; several lawmakers called for reforms to the federal prison system. In response, Barr removed the Bureau's director.

As a result of Epstein's death, all charges against him were dismissed, and ongoing sex-trafficking investigations shifted attention to his alleged associates, notably purported madam Ghislaine Maxwell, who was arrested and indicted in July 2020.

Due to violations of normal jail procedures on the night of Epstein's death,[note 1] the alleged malfunction of two cameras in front of his cell, and his claims to have compromising information about powerful figures, his death generated speculation and conspiracy theories about the possibility that he was murdered.[5][6] Other unfounded theories claimed that his death had been faked. In November 2019, the contested nature of his death spawned the "Epstein didn't kill himself" meme. According to public opinion polls, a majority of Americans believe Epstein was murdered.

Arrest and imprisonment

Apprehension and indictment

Large brown tower
The Metropolitan Correctional Center, where Epstein was held after his 2019 arrest

On July 6, 2019, Epstein was arrested in New York on multiple charges, including sex trafficking, and placed at the Metropolitan Correctional Center[note 2] in Lower Manhattan.[8][9] He pleaded not guilty.[10][11] He had faced similar charges in Florida in 2008, but escaped federal charges in a plea deal. Under its provisions, he pleaded guilty to two state felony charges, paid restitution to three dozen victims identified by the FBI, and registered as a sex offender in both Florida and New York.[12]

On July 18, 2019, Epstein was denied bail after offering $600,000 to be able to wear an ankle tracker at his New York City townhouse. He was viewed as a potential flight risk due to his 20 international flights in the prior 18 months.[13][14] Epstein appealed the bail denial decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, and at the time of his death, the appeal was still pending.[15]

Initial incident and final weeks

At 1:27 a.m. on July 23, 2019, Epstein was found semiconscious in his cell with injuries to his neck.[16][17] He told his lawyers that he had been assaulted by his cellmate.[17] His cellmate, multiple murder and drug conspiracy suspect Nicholas Tartaglione, was questioned by prison officials but denied harming Epstein.[18][19] Tartaglione claimed that he had actually saved Epstein.[20] An internal prison investigation cleared Tartaglione of connection with the event.[21] After Epstein's death, Tartaglione was reportedly threatened by jail guards and told to "stop talking" after describing Epstein's death and conditions in the jail to the media.[22] An unnamed source claimed that Epstein staged the incident in order to be transferred.[23] Spencer Kuvin, a lawyer who represented three alleged victims of Epstein, said in July 2019, after Epstein's first apparent suicide attempt, that he believed it was an attack on his life, and that there was a high probability that he would be murdered in prison.[24][25]

As a result of the incident, Epstein was placed on suicide watch.[26] He was placed in an observation cell, surrounded by windows, where lights were left on and any devices that he could use to to kill himself were not permitted.[27] After six days, psychological staff dismissed Epstein from suicide watch following a psychiatric examination.[28][29] Sources reported that Epstein was removed from suicide watch after claiming that it was Tartaglione who "roughed him up."[30] Epstein then returned to the special housing unit (SHU), where he was supposed to have a cellmate and be checked on every 30 minutes.[31]

Epstein was reportedly depositing funds into other prisoners' accounts to gain their favor or buy protection.[32] A paper note by Epstein was found in his cell after his death. In it, he complained about large bugs crawling on his body, guard Tova Noel giving him burnt food, and a guard intentionally locking him in a shower cell without clothes for an hour.[note 3][28] On August 8, Epstein signed his last will and testament, witnessed by two attorneys who knew him. The will named two longtime employees as executors, and immediately gifted all his assets, and any assets remaining in his estate, to a trust.[33]

Death

When Epstein was placed in the SHU, the jail informed the Justice Department that he would have a cellmate and that a guard would look into the cell every 30 minutes. These procedures were not followed on the night he died.[34] On August 9, Epstein's cellmate[note 4] was transferred, and no replacement was brought in. The evening of his death, Epstein met with his lawyers, who described him as "upbeat" before being escorted back to the SHU at 7:49 p.m. by guard Tova Noel.[28] CCTV footage shows that the two guards failed to perform the required institutional count at 10:00 p.m. and recorded Noel briefly walking by Epstein's cell at 10:30 p.m., the last time the guards entered the tier where his cell was.[36] Through the night, in violation of the jail's normal procedure, Epstein was not checked every 30 minutes.[34] The two guards who were assigned to check his cell overnight, Noel and Michael Thomas, fell asleep at their desk[note 5] for about three hours and later falsified related records.[37][38] Two cameras in front of Epstein's cell also malfunctioned that night.[39] Another camera had footage that was "unusable".[39]

Discovery

Epstein's body being moved to the medical examiner's office

As the guards were distributing breakfast shortly after 6:30 a.m. on the morning of August 10, Epstein was found unresponsive in cardiac arrest in his cell.[36] He was found in a kneeling position with a strip of bedsheet[note 6] wrapped around his neck. The sheet was tied to the top of his bunk.[41] He is believed to have been dead for about two hours. The guards performed CPR on Epstein, and other prisoners heard them yell "Breathe, Epstein, breathe."[28] At 6:33 a.m., the guards pulled an alarm, notifying their supervisor, to whom Noel said, "Epstein hung himself."[36] He was rushed to the New York Downtown Hospital where he was pronounced dead at 6:39 a.m..[42] His body was transported to the medical examiner's office soon after.[43] The news of the death was posted on 4chan about 38 minutes before ABC News reported it. If this 4chan post was by a first responder, as it has been speculated, it would likely be a violation of privacy law.[44][45]

The removal of Epstein's body from his cell was a violation of protocol, as the Bureau of Prisons (BOP) mandates that a suicide scene be treated with the "same level of protection as any crime scene in which a death has occurred."[28] Consequently, prison personnel also failed to photograph Epstein's body as it was found.[46]

Discrepancies

Epstein's death was the first death ruled a suicide at the MCC in 14 years. Michael Baden and 60 Minutes questioned whether Epstein, who was almost 6 ft (1.8 m) tall and weighed 185 pounds (84 kg), could have been able to hang himself from the lower bunk. Photos taken after the death also show bottles and medicine standing upright on the top bunk.[28] Moreover, a former MCC inmate described the prison's sheets as "paper level, not strong enough" to support Epstein's body.[27] Baden also questioned why Epstein did not use other materials available in his cell as a ligature, such as wires and tubing from a sleep apnea machine, which were stronger and longer.[28]

Autopsy and medical evidence

Autopsy

A four-hour autopsy on Epstein's body was conducted on August 11 by New York City's Chief Medical Examiner Barbara Sampson. Epstein's lawyers sent pathologist Michael Baden to observe the city's autopsy.[28][47] Following the autopsy, the medical examiner's office reported that Epstein had hanged himself with a sheet from his bed.[48] On August 14, unofficial sources reported that broken bones were found in Epstein's neck, although this can occur in the suicide of the elderly. According to forensic experts and studies, these broken bones are "more common in victims of homicide by strangulation",[49] though multiple studies have found different percentages for both manners of death.[50] The last death ruled a suicide at the MCC was in 1998.[51] Epstein's lawyers released a joint statement after the medical examiner's report expressing that they were not satisfied, challenging its conclusions and saying that a more complete response was forthcoming.[52] They also indicated that the defense team fully intended to continue its own investigation into the circumstances and cause of Epstein's death,[52] including taking legal action, if necessary, to view the camera footage near his cell during the night of his death.[53] They later said that the evidence concerning Epstein's death was "far more consistent" with murder than suicide.[54]

Autopsy report and criticism

A human skeleton, with the hyoid bone highlighted in red
Epstein's hyoid bone, among others, was broken. It is disputed whether this is more indicative of hanging or strangulation.

On August 16, Sampson announced that Epstein's death had been ruled a suicide by hanging.[55] Later, conflicting reports stated that the injuries Epstein sustained were as consistent, if not more so, with strangulation or homicide as with suicide.[49][56] Sampson's report found that there was no foul play in his death.[57][58][59] Three of Epstein's lawyers expressed their dissatisfaction with Sampson's conclusion, having hired forensic pathologist Michael Baden to observe the autopsy; they said they would initiate their own investigation and provide a more detailed statement in the future.[60][61] Baden observed Sampson's autopsy when it was conducted; after the autopsy he said that he was unable to comment because of gag orders filed by Sampson's office and Epstein's estate.[55]

On October 30, 2019, Baden issued a report stating that Epstein's neck injuries were much more consistent with "homicidal strangulation" than suicide. He stated that Epstein "had two fractures on the left and right sides of his larynx, specifically the thyroid cartilage or Adam's apple, as well as one fracture on the left hyoid bone above the Adam's apple." In particular, Baden claimed that Epstein's hyoid bone was broken in a way indicative of strangulation from behind.[62] Later that day, Sampson refuted Baden's claims, saying, "I stand firmly behind our determination of the cause and manner of death for Mr. Epstein. The cause is hanging, the manner is suicide."[63] Baden later said, "Going over a thousand jail hangings, suicides in the New York City state prisons over the past 40-50 years, no one had three fractures."[28] Neurosurgeon and CNN medical correspondent Sanjay Gupta asserted that Epstein could have easily broken his hyoid bone in a hanging because of the bone's weakening and loss of flexibility with age. Gupta also suggested that the presence of multiple broken neck bones was more characteristic of hanging. Gerald Rodts, chief of spinal surgery at Emory University Hospital, also stated that the presence of multiple broken neck bones is consistent with hanging.[64]

See caption
Marks on Epstein's neck

According to Baden, the neck wound was in the center of Epstein's neck, not under his mandibles as in a typical hanging. Baden said this is more common when a victim is strangled by a wire or cord. Baden also said that the wound was much thinner than the strip of bedsheet, and although there was blood on Epstein's neck, it was absent on the bed-sheet ligature.[28] According to the autopsy files, Epstein also had contusions on both of his wrists, an abrasion on his left forearm, and deep muscle hemorrhaging of his left deltoid or shoulder. His brother, Mark, later suggested that he was "handcuffed and struggled."[65] Epstein also had hemorrhages in his eyes, which, although not unheard of in hangings, are more common in strangulations.[66] Baden also said that Epstein's lower legs lacked lividity, suggesting that he did not die in the upright position in which he was found.[67]

Burial

Following the autopsy, Epstein's body was claimed by an "unidentified associate", later revealed to be his brother, Mark.[68][69] On September 5, the body was buried in an unmarked tomb next to those of his parents at the IJ Morris Star of David mausoleum in Palm Beach, Florida. His parents' names were removed from their tombstone to prevent vandalism.[70]

Aftermath

Reaction

External video
video icon Trump: 'I have no idea' if Clintons were involved in Epstein's death on YouTube (0:51)
video icon Attorney General William Barr says he's "appalled" by Jeffrey Epstein's death in jail on YouTube (1:50)

A few hours after Epstein's death was announced, President Donald Trump responded by retweeting a post related to the "Clinton Body Count", a conspiracy theory purporting to link Epstein's death to former president Bill Clinton and former secretary of state Hillary Clinton.[71] At a speech in Pennsylvania three days later, Trump told reporters he wanted "a full investigation."[72] Attorney General William Barr said he was "appalled" by Epstein's death in federal custody and that it "raises serious questions that must be answered." He ordered an investigation by the Justice Department's Inspector General in addition to the FBI investigation.[73] Senator Ben Sasse, chairman of the United States Senate Judiciary oversight subcommittee, later wrote Barr a letter saying, "The Department of Justice failed." He added, "Given Epstein's previous attempted suicide, he should have been locked in a padded room under unbroken, 24/7, constant surveillance. Obviously, heads must roll."[74] Representative Matt Gaetz, who sits on the United States House Judiciary Committee, called on chairman Jerry Nadler to prioritize investigating the circumstances around Epstein's death over other probes the committee was carrying out.[75] Representative Lois Frankel called for a congressional investigation into Epstein's 2008 plea deal.[76] Senators Kirsten Gillibrand and Rick Scott called for an investigation and expressed their dissatisfaction that Epstein's victims would not find closure in a trial.[77][78]

"I do think there needs to be a full investigation about why he was taken off the suicide watch list; I think it’s a strange decision, given that he attempted suicide once already. I want to know why he was left in a circumstance where suicide was even possible."

Senator Kirsten Gillibrand[77]

On August 11, New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio, then campaigning for president in Iowa, said, "I'm not a conspiracy theorist, but something's way too convenient here, and we need to get down to the bottom of what happened."[79] The next day, the leaders of the House Judiciary Committee, Chairman Jerry Nadler and ranking member Doug Collins, sent the BOP 23 questions about Epstein's death. "The apparent suicide of this high-profile and—if allegations are proven to be accurate—particularly reprehensible individual while in the federal government's custody demonstrates severe miscarriages of or deficiencies in inmate protocol and has allowed the deceased to ultimately evade facing justice," they wrote. "Any victims of Mr. Epstein's actions will forever be denied proper recourse and the scintilla of recompense our justice system can provide in the face of such alleged atrocities; the competency and rigor of our criminal justice system has been marred by this apparent oversight."[80] On August 13, Nebraska senator Ben Sasse, the chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee, wrote a letter to Attorney General Barr urging him to "rip up" the 2008 non-prosecution deal for Epstein and his co-conspirators. Sasse argued that the Justice Department must bring Epstein's co-conspirators to justice despite his death, and added, "This crooked deal cannot stand."[81] On August 19, Barr replaced the BOP director with former director Kathleen Hawk Sawyer.[82][83] The move was praised by Sasse.[83]

"For them to pull him off suicide watch is shocking," Cameron Lindsay, a former warden at three federal facilities, told NBC News. "For someone this high-profile, with these allegations and this many victims, who has had a suicide attempt in the last few weeks, you can take absolutely no chances. You leave him on suicide watch until he's out of there."[84] Federal prosecutors in the case called Epstein's death "disturbing" and emphasized that they would continue to seek justice for his accusers even after the financier's death. Geoffrey Berman, the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, said in a statement, "To those brave young women who have already come forward and to the many others who have yet to do so, let me reiterate that we remain committed to standing for you, and our investigation of the conduct charged in the indictment—which included a conspiracy count—remains ongoing."[85]

Investigations

William Barr speaking at a podium
Attorney General William Barr described Epstein's death as "a perfect storm of screw-ups."

The BOP subsequently launched an investigation of the circumstances surrounding Epstein's death,[86] with Attorney General Barr saying that Justice Department officials would thoroughly investigate "serious irregularities" at the Metropolitan Correctional Center.[87] As Barr received more information surrounding Epstein's death, however, he came to believe that it was only "a perfect storm of screw-ups."[1]

In November 2019, BOP director Sawyer told the Senate Judiciary Committee that the FBI was investigating whether a "criminal enterprise" was involved in Epstein's death. She added that there is "no indication, from anything I know" that his death "was anything other than a suicide." A spokesperson later explained that she had used the phrase "criminal enterprise" because that was what Senator Lindsey Graham has asked her about, and that "she was referring to looking into possible criminal conduct by staff."[88]

On August 13, Attorney General Barr ordered the BOP to temporarily reassign the warden of the MCC, Lamine N'Diaye, while the FBI and Justice Department inspector general investigate the circumstances surrounding Epstein's death. James Petrucci, the warden of FCI Otisville, was named acting warden.[89] Two staff members assigned to Epstein's unit were also placed on administrative leave.[89][90] On August 14, Manhattan federal court judge Richard Berman, who was overseeing Epstein's criminal case, wrote to the N'Diaye inquiring as to whether an investigation into Epstein's death would include a probe into his prior (July 23) injuries. Judge Berman wrote that to his knowledge it has never been definitely explained what they concluded about the incident.[91] In November 2019, Berman called for widespread prison reforms in an open letter to Barr in the New York Times.[92]

External video
video icon Ben Sasse presses prison bureau director on Jeffrey Epstein death on YouTube (5:43)
video icon Epstein guards appear in court on YouTube (1:24)

Two French Cabinet officials Marlène Schiappa and Adrien Taquet subsequently called for an investigation into the "many unanswered questions" about Epstein's ties to France, calling for the French government to launch its own probe. "The US investigation has highlighted links with France," Schiappa and Taquet said in the statement, according to ABC. "It thus seems to us fundamental for the victims that an investigation be opened in France so that all is brought to light," a spokesperson for the office told ABC News, "The elements received at the Paris prosecutor's office are being analyzed and cross-referenced."[93] In August, an investigation was launched into alleged Epstein associate Jean-Luc Brunel, who was reported to be hiding in South America.[94][95]

All charges against Epstein were officially dismissed on August 29.[96] As a result, the sex-trafficking investigations and media attention shifted attention towards his alleged associates, such as Brunel, Prince Andrew, and Ghislaine Maxwell.[97][98][99]

Subsequent criminal trials and developments

On November 19, 2019, federal prosecutors in New York indicted MCC guards Michael Thomas and Tova Noel, charging them with multiple counts of falsifying records and conspiracy.[2][100] The charges were based on video footage obtained by prosecutors, indicating that Epstein was not observed by them for eight hours, while the two guards made personal searches on their computers and slept. According to Geoffrey Berman, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, during that time they repeatedly signed records affirming that they had performed the required checks.[2] Their bail was set at $100,000.[101] They claimed that they were "scapegoats" for larger issues within the federal prison system.[102][103]

In a December 2019 court proceeding against Epstein's cellmate Nick Tartaglione, federal prosecutors reported that the surveillance footage from outside Epstein's cell during the July 23 incident had disappeared. Tartaglione's defense, who claimed that the footage showed Tartaglione saving Epstein's life, hoped that it would illustrate Tartaglione's character. His lawyer had requested that the footage be retained on July 25, two days after the incident.[104] Judge Kenneth Karas requested that the government determine what had happened to the footage.[105] Several days later, federal prosecutors reversed their statement, claiming that they had found the missing footage. But in January 2020, they admitted that the footage had been permanently deleted due to a "clerical error".[106][107]

On July 2, 2020, almost a year after Epstein was arrested, the FBI arrested and charged Maxwell in Bradford, New Hampshire. The charges included "enticement and conspiracy to entice minors to travel to engage in illegal sex acts, transportation and conspiracy to transport minors with intent to engage in criminal sexual activity, and two counts of perjury."[108][109] Federal authorities have expressed concerns that she could also die in custody and have reportedly implemented additional safety protocols.[110] In an August 2020 interview, President Trump said that he "wish[ed] her well," and again questioned whether Epstein's death was a suicide or homicide.[111]

Homicide suspicions and conspiracy theories

See caption
A partisan protestor alleging outside involvement five days after Epstein's death

Because of violations of standard prison procedures, and Epstein's knowledge of compromising information about famous individuals, his death spawned skepticism, as well as multiple conspiracy theories.[112][113] Epstein conspiracy theorists have been pejoratively labeled "Epstein Truthers", similar to those who dispute the accepted account of the 9/11 attacks.[112] A Rasmussen poll conducted shortly after his death in August 2019 found that only 29% of U.S. adults believed Epstein actually committed suicide, while 42% thought he was murdered to prevent him from testifying against powerful people with whom he associated, and 29% of people were undecided.[114] By November 2019, a Business Insider poll found that those who believed Epstein was murdered outnumbered suicide proponents three to one.[115] In a 2020 poll, Rasmussen found that a majority of Americans believed Epstein was murdered, with just 21% believing that he committed suicide.[116][117] University of Chicago professor Eric Oliver, a conspiracy theory expert, labeled populist sentiment and a mistrust of the political system as major contributors to the widespread rejection of the official narrative.[118]

Because of his connections to many wealthy and powerful people, there was speculation that one or more co-conspirators or participants in his sex crimes might have arranged for him to be silenced.[24] In the hours after the death, the hashtag #ClintonBodyCount and the countering #TrumpBodyCount were trending on Twitter as users accused Bill and Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump of being involved in Epstein's death.[119][120] Several hours after Epstein was found dead, Trump retweeted a conspiracy theory by Terrence K. Williams, a comedian and conservative commentator, suggesting that there was a connection between the Clintons and Epstein's death—furthering a perennial conspiracy theory dating to the early 1990s that the Clintons have had numerous people killed to silence them.[121][120]

At an August 27 hearing, Epstein defense attorney Reid Weingarten expressed "significant doubts" that Epstein's death was due to suicide. According to Weingarten, when attorneys met with their client shortly before his death, "we did not see a despairing, despondent, suicidal person".[122] Epstein's brother, Mark, has rejected the possibility of Jeffrey's suicide, claiming, “I could see if he got a life sentence, I could then see him taking himself out, but he had a bail hearing coming up."[123] He also claimed that his "life may also be in danger," if Epstein was indeed murdered.[124] In a press conference about two months after Epstein's death, de Blasio declined to endorse chief medical examiner Sampson's conclusions, saying, "Something doesn't fit here. It just doesn’t make sense that the highest-profile prisoner in America—you know, someone forgot to guard him."[125] Podcast host Joe Rogan also expressed doubts that Epstein's death was a suicide.[119] Former US Attorney and Senate Judiciary Committee counsel Brett Tolman said the death was "more than coincidental" considering Epstein's "many connections to powerful people".[126] Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said, "American billionaire Jeffrey Epstein was killed several weeks ago—they said he had committed suicide in jail. However, he was killed because he knew a lot of vital secrets connected with very important people in the British and American regimes, and possibly in other countries as well."[127]

Immediately after his death, online conspiracy theorists falsely claimed that the images of Epstein in transport to the hospital were actually that of a body double. They relied on purported differences between the body's ear and Epstein's ear in a juxtaposed photo. Fact-checker Snopes pointed out that the image of Epstein was 15 years old and that it was "more plausible that these discrepancies were the result of aging."[128] Nonetheless, the American band Foster the People promoted these claims on Twitter.[129] In October 2020, over a year after his death, similar false theories emerged that claimed that Epstein was living at Zorro Ranch, his residence in New Mexico.[130][131]

In popular culture

Graffiti on a bridge over a highway
A simple white sticker reading, "Epstein Didn't Kill Himself."
The meme appeared in a variety of forms and places, such as this graffiti on an Ohio interstate overpass or this sticker at a bus stop in Canada.

As more information surrounding Epstein's death became public in November 2019, his death and the possibility of murder became a popular meme, particularly in the form of the phrase "Epstein didn't kill himself". The meme gained prominence as it was interjected at the end of live interviews, such as by a Navy SEAL on FOX News, or later a University of Alabama student on MSNBC.[132][133] The meme often appears as a non sequitur after a body of text or within an image.[134] NPR's Scott Simon likened the bait-and-switch aspect of the meme to Rickrolling. Simon also worried that media attention to the meme could spread misinformation.[135] The Associated Press noted, "[t]he phrase 'Jeffrey Epstein didn't kill himself' has taken on a life of its own—sometimes more as a pop culture catchphrase than an actual belief."[136]

Celebrities have comedically referenced Epstein's death. Ricky Gervais remarked at the 77th Golden Globe Awards that Epstein didn't commit suicide, and Adam Driver played a murdered Epstein in hell on Saturday Night Live.[137][138] U.S. Representative Paul Gosar posted 23 tweets in which the first letter of each tweet spelled out the meme's phrase.[139] Holiday-themed merchandise (such as Christmas sweaters) that prominently featured the phrase also became available for sale through several online retailers.[140][141] In an interview with Slate, independent merchandisers indicated that the Christmas/Epstein product lines were selling comparatively well, citing the mashup's dark humor as the reason for their popularity.[141] According to Variety, the Christmas-themed paraphernalia was outselling Game of Thrones merchandise.[142] In the Season 2 finale of the streaming televison series The Boys, it was revealed that Stormfront secretly killed Jeffery Epstein in its alternate timeline.[143][144]

Several television documentaries were created due to increased public interest after his death. In May 2020, Netflix released Jeffrey Epstein: Filthy Rich. As of September 2020, HBO, SonyTV, and Lifetime also have similar works in progress.[145][146][147]

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ E.g. the removal of his cellmate without a replacement, possession of banned objects, the falling asleep of two guards who were meant to check on him.[3][4]
  2. ^ Within the MCC, Epstein was placed in the Special Housing Unit to protect him from violence from inmates in the general population.[7]
  3. ^ This letter was written in ball point pen, despite the fact that no prisoners, especially those on suicide watch, were allowed to have one under jail protocol.
  4. ^ This cellmate, Bill Mersey, noted that Epstein did not seem depressed or suicidal, but that it was feasible for someone to hang themselves in an MCC cell.[35]
  5. ^ Their desk was about 15 feet away from Epstein's cell, but up a flight of stairs and through a locked gate.[28]
  6. ^ Epstein's possession of a bedsheet was also against jail protocol.[40]

References

  1. ^ a b Benner, Katie (November 22, 2019). "Barr Says Epstein's Suicide Resulted From 'Perfect Storm of Screw-Ups'". The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Allyn, Bobby (November 19, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein's Prison Guards Are Indicted On Federal Charges". NPR. All Things Considered. Archived from the original on July 10, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  3. ^ Benner, Katie; Ivory, Danielle; Oppel Jr, Richard A. (August 11, 2019). "Before Jail Suicide, Epstein Was Left Alone and Not Closely Monitored". The New York Times. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  4. ^ Hosenball, Mark (August 28, 2019). "FBI studies two broken cameras outside cell where Epstein died: source". Reuters. London. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  5. ^ Gold, Michael; Bromwich, Jonah Engel (August 12, 2019). "Epstein Conspiracy Theories: De Blasio, and Others Join Speculation". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  6. ^ Stewart, James B. (August 12, 2019). "The Day Jeffrey Epstein Told Me He Had Dirt on Powerful People". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  7. ^ Mangan, Dan; Breuninger, Kevin (July 24, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein on suicide watch after accused sex trafficker is found injured in New York jail". CNBC. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  8. ^ Wang, Vivian; Watkins, Ali (July 7, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein Is Accused of Luring Girls to His Manhattan Mansion and Abusing Them". The New York Times. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  9. ^ "Jeffrey Epstein Charged In Manhattan Federal Court With Sex Trafficking Of Minors". The United States Attorney's Office: Southern District of New York. United States Department of Justice. July 9, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  10. ^ Watkins, Ali (July 8, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein Is Indicted on Sex Charges as Discovery of Nude Photos Is Disclosed". The New York Times.
  11. ^ Pierson, Brendan (July 8, 2019). "Financier Epstein pleads not guilty to sex trafficking charges involving girls". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020.
  12. ^ Brown, Julie K. (November 28, 2018). "How a future Trump Cabinet member gave a serial sex abuser the deal of a lifetime". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  13. ^ Allyn, Bobby; Booker, Brakkton (July 18, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein Is Denied Bail In Sex Trafficking Case". NPR.
  14. ^ Mangan, Dan; Breuninger, Kevin (July 18, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein's lust for young girls appears 'uncontrollable', judge says in denying bail to accused sex trafficker". CNBC.
  15. ^ Breuninger, Kevin; Mangan, Dan (July 23, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein appeals bail denial decision in child sex trafficking case". CNBC. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020.
  16. ^ Vincent, Isabel (July 4, 2020). "The questions that still need answering about Jeffrey Epstein's death". The New York Post. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  17. ^ a b Golding, Bruce; Saul, Emily (August 15, 2019). "Epstein told lawyers that cellmate Nicholas Tartaglione 'roughed him up'". The New York Post.
  18. ^ Goldstein, Joelle (July 25, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein Found Injured in NYC Jail Cell as Fellow Inmate Denies Assaulting Accused Pedophile". People.com. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  19. ^ Darrah, Nicole (August 12, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein feared cellmate, a muscle-bound ex-cop charged in murder who was moved before financier's death: report". Fox News.
  20. ^ Brown, Stephen Rex; Parascandola, Rocco (July 26, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein's ex-cop cellmate says he saved multimillionaire sex offender from hanging: source". Daily News. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  21. ^ Schapiro, Rich; Dienst, Johnathan (August 16, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein's former cellmate cleared of wrongdoing in incident that preceded his death". NBC News. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  22. ^ Saul, Emily (August 20, 2019). "Jail guards threatening former Epstein cellmate Nicholas Tartaglione: lawyer". The New York Post.
  23. ^ "Jeffrey Epstein found injured in New York jail cell". NBC News. July 25, 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  24. ^ a b Ramadan, Lulu (August 10, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein: 'He could buy anything, including his own death'". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
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Further reading

External links