Death of Mark Duggan
29th birthday in Thailand
|Date||4 August 2011|
|Location||Tottenham Hale, London, England, United Kingdom|
|Participants||Metropolitan Police Service, Mark Duggan|
|Non-fatal injuries||1 (police officer)|
|Inquiries||Independent Police Complaints Commission|
|Inquest||16 September 2013 – 8 January 2014|
|Children||Kemani (Bandokay, rapper from group OFB), 5 others|
Mark Duggan, a 29-year-old British man, was shot and killed by police in Tottenham, North London on 4 August 2011. The Metropolitan Police stated that officers were attempting to arrest Duggan on suspicion of planning an attack, and that he was in possession of a handgun. Duggan died from a gunshot wound to the chest. The circumstances of Duggan's death resulted in public protests in Tottenham, which led to conflict with police and escalated into riots across London and other English cities.
Duggan was under investigation by Operation Trident, a subdivision of the Metropolitan Police. He was known to be in possession of a BBM Bruni Model 92 handgun (a blank-firing replica of a Beretta 92 converted to fire live rounds), given to him by Kevin Hutchinson-Foster, 15 minutes before he was shot. At a trial of Hutchinson-Foster in September–October 2012 the jury failed to reach a verdict. At his re-trial, on 31 January 2013, Hutchinson-Foster was convicted of supplying Duggan with the gun and jailed. The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) has been investigating the case but has delayed release of its report for more than a year. A public inquest on the Duggan death began on 16 September 2013, and ended on 8 January 2014 with an 8–2 majority concluding that Duggan's death was a lawful killing.
The official account of Duggan's death has undergone numerous changes, attracting criticism and suspicion from interested parties and other supporters. These critics accuse police of misconduct and of failing to cooperate with those investigating Duggan's death.
Mark Duggan was born on 15 September 1981 and grew up in Broadwater Farm, north London. His parents were of mixed Irish and African-Caribbean descent. Between the ages of 12 and 17, he lived with his maternal aunt Carole in Manchester. His maternal aunt Julie was married to Manchester gangland boss Desmond Noonan.
At the time of his death, Duggan and his long-term partner Semone Wilson had three children together aged 10 years, 7 years, and 18 months. He had a fourth child with another woman, and a third woman was pregnant with his baby at the time of his death. He fathered six children in total, the youngest of whom was born after his death.
Duggan had worked at Stansted Airport, and had applied for a job as a firefighter, according to his cousin. Duggan's son, Kemani, is a member of London-based Drill collective OFB going by the moniker Bandokay.
According to Tony Thompson of the London Evening Standard, Duggan may have been a founding member of North London's "Star Gang", an offshoot of the Tottenham Mandem gang. Unnamed police sources alleged via The Daily Telegraph that Duggan was a "well known gangster" and a "major player and well known to the police in Tottenham".
Officers attached to Operation Trident had Duggan under surveillance; police stated that they suspected Duggan was planning to commit a crime in retaliation for the killing of his cousin, Kelvin Easton, who was stabbed to death outside a bar in East London in March 2011. Duggan was described as having been increasingly paranoid as a consequence of his cousin's death. The Daily Telegraph alleged that Duggan was bound to avenge his cousin's death by the "street code" of the gang.
After Duggan's death, he was described as a drug dealer by the police and others, an allegation denied by his family and friends. Duggan's family said the allegations against Duggan were "disinformation", and that he was "not a gang member and he had no criminal record". But Duggan had been convicted of cannabis possession and handling stolen goods. His fiancée said he had spent time on remand.
Officers of the Metropolitan Police Service stopped a minicab which was carrying Duggan as a passenger at about 18:15 BST on 4 August 2011. There was no CCTV coverage of the place where they stopped the cab, and some witnesses allege that police chased away onlookers.
According to an unnamed firearms officer at the trial of Kevin Hutchinson-Foster in September 2012, Duggan pivoted out of the cab and pulled a selfloading pistol or handgun from his waistband. According to the taxi driver, who was granted anonymity at the subsequent inquest, Duggan left the car and ran:
The car that had stopped – men got out of it very quickly who were carrying guns in their hands. Then I heard the sound of my rear door opening. I saw that Mark Duggan got out and ran. At the same time, I heard firing from the front. I saw shots strike Mark Duggan. He fell to the ground. 'Mark Duggan only got 2ft–3ft from my car when he was shot'.
At the same time a man came and he opened my door. Very angrily he pulled me out by my arm and then he dropped me or knelt me down on the ground by the rear tyres of the car.
The taxi driver told the inquest that an armed officer had threatened to shoot him if he did not stop looking at where Duggan had fallen to the ground and was being handled "quite harsh[ly] and callous[ly]" by officers.
The police fired twice, hitting Duggan in the biceps and chest, killing him. A firearm was not found on Duggan after he had been shot. Paramedics from the London Ambulance Service and medical staff from London's Air Ambulance attended, but Duggan was pronounced dead at the scene at 18:41 BST.
According to one eyewitness cited by The Independent, Duggan "was shot while he was pinned to the floor by police" – though evidence in the inquest since contradicts this. According to another eyewitness cited in The Telegraph, a police officer had "shouted to the man to stop 'a couple of times', but he had not heeded the warning". According to a witness cited by the BBC, a police officer twice shouted: "Put it down" before Duggan was shot. However, the taxi driver who was travelling with Duggan told the inquest the police shouted no warning before shooting. A Metropolitan Police Federation representative asserted that the officer who killed Duggan had "an honest-held belief that he was in imminent danger of him and his colleagues being shot".
One of the officers who had surrounded Duggan was hit by a bullet, which lodged in his radio. It had been fired by the policeman identified only as V53 and had passed through Duggan's arm and then hit the officer. The shot policeman was taken to a hospital and released the same evening.
Subsequent police actions
Police proceeded to move the taxi in which Duggan had been travelling. After some dispute over when the vehicle was moved, it was stated that police moved the taxi for examination and then returned it to the scene. A local equality advocate said that the IPCC initially had no knowledge of these events, but later stated that it had sanctioned removal of the vehicle and then requested that it be restored to the scene.
An initial "short-form" report of the incident—filed by an officer identified as "W70"—did not say that Duggan had raised a gun. W70 filed another report 48 hours later which described Duggan drawing a gun from his waistband. Officer W70 later testified that short-form reports are "deliberately brief".
Police did not inform Duggan's family of his death until a day and a half after he was killed. The police later apologised for this delay.
Initially, a spokesman of the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) stated that they "understand the officer was shot first before [Duggan] was shot;" police later called this statement a mistake. A bullet was found embedded in a radio worn by a policeman, and ballistics tests on the projectile indicate it was a "jacketed round", or police issue bullet fired from a Heckler & Koch MP5 semi-automatic carbine used by the police. Its presence may have been due to a ricochet or overpenetration.
The IPCC had commissioned tests on the pistol by the Forensic Science Service and had received advice that it was an illegal firearm. The gun was wrapped in a sock, a practice allegedly used to avoid leaving evidence if it was used. The IPCC announced on 9 August that there was no evidence that the gun had been fired, that this had not been ruled out and further tests were being conducted.
On 18 November 2011, the IPCC announced that the 9mm gun associated with the scene of the killing had been found 10–14 feet away, on the other side of a fence. QC Michael Mansfield, barrister for the Duggan family, told the IPCC that witnesses had told him they saw police throw the gun over the fence. The IPCC initially reported that three officers had also witnessed an officer throw the gun, but later retracted this report.
It was also announced on 18 November 2011 that the IPCC would investigate whether the same gun had been used in an incident 6 days earlier, on 29 July 2011, when barber Peter Osadebay was assaulted in Hackney by 30-year-old Kevin Hutchinson-Foster after Hutchinson-Foster brandished a gun. On 31 January 2013, Kevin Hutchinson-Foster was found guilty of supplying the gun to Duggan, during which he admitted using the same weapon to beat Osadebay. Duggan's fingerprints were found on a cardboard box which appeared to have contained the gun when he collected it. The sock, with the gun inside, was found out of this box as much as 20 feet (6.1 m) away from where Duggan was shot. Neither his DNA nor fingerprints were found on the sock which wrapped the gun, nor on the weapon itself. Additional tests found no gunshot residue on Duggan.
News of Duggan's death was publicised quickly. Soon after Duggan was shot, an image was posted on Facebook showing police standing over a body that may have been his. Outrage about the police killing quickly escalated.
Protest and unrest
Tension with police
There was a long history of tension between black communities and the police before and since the Broadwater Farm riot in 1985, in which, according to David Lammy, Labour MP for Tottenham, the "cracks that already existed between the police and the community became deep fissures". Since 1985 "there had been some progress made in the relationship between the local community and the police", but the shooting "raised tension". Lammy stated that Duggan's death occurred as part of "a history in Tottenham that involves deaths in police custody". Claudia Webbe, the chairperson of Operation Trident, asserted that many black people see Duggan's shooting as "yet another unjust death in custody" and that young black people in Tottenham are "still six, seven, eight times more likely to be stopped and searched than their white counterparts".
Black British novelist Alex Wheatle, who served a term of imprisonment for crimes he committed in the 1981 Brixton riot, asserted that there was "a deep aggravation" that despite many black deaths in police custody there had never been a conviction of a police officer.
In 2017, Tony Hanley, the firearms officer who recommended the bullets used to kill Duggan, had a mental breakdown and attempted suicide by police before fatally shooting himself. Hanley described feeling responsible for Duggan's death, seeing his ghost.
At about 17:30 BST on 6 August 2011, Duggan's relatives and local residents marched from Broadwater Farm to Tottenham Police Station. The demonstrators chanted "we want answers" and requested information from police about the circumstances of Duggan's death. They also made broader demands for "Justice", seeking to publicise ongoing poor relations with police in their community.
A chief inspector spoke with the demonstrators, who demanded to see a higher-ranking officer. About 20:00 BST, a 16-year-old girl approached them and may have thrown a leaflet or a stone. Police swarmed the girl with shields and batons, allegedly causing head injuries. At about 20:20 BST, members of the waiting crowd attacked two nearby police cars, setting them on fire. According to Metropolitan Police Commander Adrian Hanstock, the violence was started by "certain elements, who were not involved with the vigil". Other observers state that the rally began peacefully but was incited by the police attack.
Rioting, arson and looting spread to other parts of London, and to elsewhere in England. Rioters expressed mixed motivations for rioting, including policing issues, poverty, and racial tension with police.
Duggan's family condemned the disorder. His older brother said, "We're not condoning any kind of actions like that at all." While Duggan's shooting was perhaps the trigger for the violence, several other causes of the rioting have been suggested. Former British Prime Minister David Cameron rejected a causal relationship between the death of Duggan and the subsequent looting.
Duggan's death quickly became a major media story. Initially the media including the BBC incorrectly reported that one shot was 'discharged from an illegal firearm inside the car'. The Independent stated on 8 January 2014: "The authorities wrongly said that he had been hit in an exchange of fire".
Some of the media were criticized for portraying Duggan as a gangster, confused by his criminal record being reported as either extensive or non-existent by different outlets. The media was faulted for uncritically reporting the police's story that Duggan had shot first—also shown to be false.
The riots brought international attention to Duggan's death, which one Iranian official described as a "human rights violation".
The incident was immediately referred to the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC), in accordance with standard practice when anyone dies or is seriously injured following police contact. Investigators distributed leaflets appealing for witnesses to come forward. IPCC officers also searched CCTV footage, 999 calls and radio transmissions.
On 12 August 2011 the IPCC announced that in the immediate aftermath of the incident they may have given misleading information to journalists to the effect that shots were exchanged between Duggan and the police. Although a bullet had been found lodged in a police radio, there was no evidence that it had come from the gun in Duggan's possession.
In response to rumours that the killing of Duggan was an "execution", the IPCC announced: "Speculation that Mark Duggan was 'assassinated' in an execution style involving a number of shots to the head are categorically untrue."
Duggan's family stated that they did not trust the IPCC to conduct a fair and independent investigation of the killing and asked for an independent inquiry into the relationship between the Metropolitan Police and the IPCC. They sought to commission an independent second postmortem. Coroner Andrew Walker scheduled an initial hearing for 12 December 2011.
In November 2011, two members of the public who were appointed[by whom?] to liaise with the IPCC, resigned from those posts. A third remained in post. One of those who left said that the IPCC work was "shoddy."
On 29 February 2012 the IPCC upheld a complaint that the Metropolitan Police had not adequately informed Duggan's family of his death on 4 August 2011. The IPCC's inquiry expressly did not address the events of 6 August 2011 and afterwards. Deputy Assistant Commissioner Steve Kavanagh of the Metropolitan Police had already issued an apology (in August 2011) to the Duggan family for the manner in which police initially communicated with them, suggesting that the IPCC had a responsibility to provide information to Duggan's family.
In late March 2012 the IPCC indicated that the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 made it impossible for the organisation to reveal information obtained during its investigation into Duggan's death, making it doubtful if a public coroner's inquest into the killing could ever be held.
In April 2012, the BBC aired footage of the immediate aftermath of the shooting. The footage showed paramedics handling Duggan's body. The IPCC condemned the BBC for showing the footage without first consulting them.
The IPCC was expected to release its report on the killing in summer of 2012. Because no report had been issued by January 2013, a planned inquest into the killing was delayed until September. The IPCC announced in March 2013 that it would issue a report in April, for delivery to the inquest in May. Referring to the officers who killed Duggan, an IPCC spokesperson announced on 2 August 2013 that "We have found no evidence to indicate criminality at this stage." The IPCC said its investigation had substantially ended and that a final report would be issued later in August.
The 11 officers involved initially refused interviews with the IPCC. The officer who killed Duggan, now known as "V53", later submitted testimony in writing.
Police stated that "no officer had done wrong" but announced that the person who shot Duggan would not remain on active firearms duty.
The firearms officer involved in the operation known only as V53 provided written statements to the IPCC but refused to be interviewed. David Lammy, the MP for Tottenham, was critical of his refusal. The IPCC asked for the power to interview police officers even if they are not suspected of having committed a crime.
Trial of Kevin Hutchinson-Foster
In November 2011, the IPCC began an investigation into the "quality of the investigative response" by police to an incident on 29 July 2011, for which police charged Kevin Hutchinson-Foster with possession of a handgun, believing the gun may be the same found at the shooting of Mr. Duggan.
On 18 September 2012, Hutchinson-Foster's trial commenced in the Crown Court at Snaresbrook. The defendant was charged with supplying Duggan with the BBM Bruni Model 92 handgun, found near Duggan's car after his death. The defendant denied the charge and gave his explanation for the presence of his DNA on the gun by alleging he had been beaten with the weapon by a gang that included Duggan.
During the trial, prosecutor Edward Brown QC of QEB Hollis Whiteman contended that Duggan travelled to Leyton to collect the gun from Hutchinson-Foster, before driving to Tottenham with it. The police alleged that Duggan had received a gun from Hutchinson-Foster 12–15 minutes before he was shot.
The trial included testimony from seven police officers who were allowed to remain anonymous and use pseudonyms. The Police alleged that Duggan had pulled the gun from his waistband and pointed it at police before they shot him.
According to the evidence given by the cab driver and corroborated by one policeman present at the scene, Duggan got out of the taxi and ran in an attempt to escape. The driver stated, "I saw that Mark Duggan got out and ran. At the same time, I heard firing from the front. I saw shots strike Mark Duggan. He fell to the ground." "Mark Duggan only got 2ft–3ft from my car when he was shot", the taxi driver later testified.
Simon Poole, a pathologist who had performed a post-mortem on Duggan's body, testified in January 2013 at the retrial of Kevin Hutchinson-Foster and asserted that the injuries Duggan sustained in the shooting were not consistent with the account of the incident that was given by the police officer who fired the lethal shot. Questioned by a barrister representing Hutchinson-Foster, Poole said that the police bullet had penetrated Duggan's body on the right side and travelled from right to left. Poole agreed with the barrister's statement: "So the scenario can't be right? The officer fires to his left and the bullet hits Mr Duggan in the chest and it should go from left to right – but it went right to left. Therefore the scenario can't be right?"
Poole also later agreed with the prosecution that the bullet's trajectory might be consistent with the same angle of firing if Duggan had turned to face the officer.
A December 2011 IPCC statement had cited Poole for discovering that a second bullet struck Duggan's arm.
On 17 October 2012, the jury failed to reach a verdict. The re-trial date was set for January 2013, and on 31 January 2013 the defendant was convicted of supplying Duggan with the handgun. On 26 February 2013, the defendant was sentenced to eleven years in prison; seven years for supplying the gun, four years for related offences.
The Hutchinson-Foster case did not resolve a number of significant unknown questions related to the Duggan killing.
Reaction to official response
Following interviews in the Tottenham area, some residents have revealed that they do not trust police or investigators, and say that Duggan was executed by police. A report due in summer of 2012 was announced delayed in October 2012. Duggan's family and members of his community suggested that they did not consider the IPCC impartial and did not believe that its investigation was succeeding.
Frustration with the official investigation mounted in May 2012 when it was announced that the 31 police witnesses would not be required to answer questions—instead submitting written testimony. David Lammy, MP from Tottenham, stated: "It is unacceptable that the police officers have not made themselves available for interview, and it is unacceptable that the IPCC does not have the power to compel them to do so."
Duggan's family did not believe that the police have been honest about the shooting, and have pressured the police and IPCC for greater transparency. Duggan's sister, Paulette Hall, has stated: "We want justice. We want them to come clean and tell us what happened. The police are human like us. If you kill someone, you should do the time, just like we would have to do." Hall has reiterated concerns about media portrayals, and produced her own film titled The Real Story of Mark Duggan.
Duggan's mother, Pamela, has said: "We still don't have justice. I won't give up until I get justice for Mark. People need to be held to account for my son's death. There needs to be a full inquest, in front of a jury of ordinary men and women, to find out the truth." Mrs. Duggan has sought judicial review for the case, requesting oversight of the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) and the IPCC. London's High Court of Justice rejected her application for judicial review on 18 June 2013.
The family have criticized the IPCC for delaying the investigation. Expecting an inquest to begin on 28 January and instead facing indefinite postponement, a barrister for the Duggan family commented: "It is absolutely shocking to find ourselves here today and to hear your counsel saying that there are further investigations, basic investigations, to be conducted such as a reconstruction and forensics."
Stafford Scott, originally appointed as an advisor to Operation Trident, resigned from the investigation because he felt that it was not being conducted fairly. Writing in The Guardian, he stated:
The IPCC has broken its own guidelines by giving out erroneous information to journalists regarding the "shoot-out" involving Duggan and police that didn't actually happen. And its investigation is flawed and in all probability tainted – so much so that we can never have faith in its final report.
Scott blames the police response to the Duggan shooting for the escalation of the 2011 riots. He later criticized authorities for treating the Hutchinson-Foster as a proxy for the Duggan investigation, while continuing to delay the official inquest on Duggan's death. He says that members of Duggan's community feel ignored and lied to by authorities, writing in March 2012: "In August 2011 the word on the streets was that 'they executed Mark'. Seven months later the word is that the police had control of the gun or worse."
After the Hutchinson-Foster trial, Scott criticized the Trident police for inaction, writing: "So it is now clear that the police had a golden opportunity to remove an identified gunman and a firearm off of the streets but somehow managed not to do so. And this is all the more shocking because the police have a special unit, Trident, established specifically to deal with gun crime in the black community."
At a pre-inquest hearing in June 2012, coroner Andrew Walker said it was "quite extraordinary" that the IPCC refused to provide witness statements. He ordered the material to be disclosed within 28 days. Representing the Duggan family, Michael Mansfield QC said the IPCC's position was "utterly unacceptable", and warned them they would be in contempt if they refused the coroner's order.
A public inquest on the killing had been scheduled for 28 January 2013. On 25 January, the inquest was declared indefinitely postponed because the IPCC had not yet released its report. Judge Keith Cutler later announced that the inquest would begin on 16 September 2013. The inquest was expected to last for six to eight weeks. It was assigned the same group who were assigned to the inquest into the death of Azelle Rodney.
The government created a website for publicizing materials related to the inquest, and considered live broadcast for some of the proceedings. Testimony from firearms officers was to remain entirely anonymous. Members of the inquest jury may also be kept anonymous.
Inquest hearings began on 16 September 2013. The jury began with a visit to the street in Tottenham where Duggan was killed in 2011.
Police maintained that Duggan was a gang member linked to violent crime. "As well as gun crime, he was involved in supply of class A drugs and possession of ammunition", said Detective Inspector Mick Foote.
Foote denied making the claim that Duggan had fired at police, saying he was "surprised" that early reports of the incident described a "shoot out". The IPCC later conceded it had misled journalists shortly after the shooting by saying that shots were exchanged.
A police officer appearing in support of the IPCC, wrote in a statement that during informal briefings at the scene of death "officers had apparently thrown a firearm found in his [Duggan's] possession over a fence so that it was out of reach and it would no longer pose a threat to them". No other officer confirmed this.
Manner of death
Pathologist Derrick Pounder said that police had "simply got it wrong" in their accounts of the shooting. Pounder testified that Duggan was hit first by a non-fatal shot to the arm, then killed by a second shot to his chest.
Lawyers for the Duggan family argued that police had planted the handgun found on the scene. Two witnesses testified that they saw a police officer move something from the minicab to the place where the gun was found, 20 feet away from Duggan's body. One witness ("Miss J") said she saw the officer pick up the gun, adding: "It will never leave me for the simple reason it's not often you see a gun in broad daylight." She said the officer "had an expression like he'd found gold." Miss J was standing 50 metres away from the scene (with a fence in between), and the final IPCC report noted that there were, "many discrepancies between her accounts, which overall lessens the weight that can be attached to her observations, as they render her evidence unreliable and contradictory."
The driver of the minicab testified that he did not see a gun in Duggan's hand, nor did he see one fly through the air. He said Duggan was shot in the back. Another witness said there was "definitely" a phone in Duggan's hand. During the inquest Ian Stern, counsel for the police, suggested that the same witness – the only one to actually see Duggan being shot – had earlier told a journalist that he (Duggan) had been holding a handgun. The witness denied ever making such statements.
"V53", the officer who shot and killed Duggan, testified that Duggan was still holding a gun after both of the shots were fired, saying his eyes were "glued to the gun." Military surgeon Jonathan Clasper testified that it would be difficult to imagine Duggan throwing his gun 20 feet after being hit by the two shots.
Near the end of the hearings, lawyer Leslie Thomas confronted the police officer "V59" with the possibility that a gun had been planted, saying: "I'm going to suggest to you, V59, that you knew where the gun was before the officers had gone round (the fence), because you, and all of your colleagues had planted it there." The officer replied: "I did not plant any gun at any scene. I find that highly offensive." Thomas also accused officer "W70" of inconsistencies and omissions in testimony.
During the inquest, student protesters were heard chanting: "Who killed Mark Duggan? You killed Mark Duggan." On 11 December, students protested outside the Royal Courts of Justice while the inquest was underway.
Deliberation and verdict
The jury began deliberations on 10 December 2013, asked to render a verdict of unlawful killing, lawful killing, or open verdict. Subsequently, Cutler told the jury that he would accept a conclusion based on a majority agreement by 8 of the 10 jurors.
The jury interrupted deliberations over Christmas and resumed on 7 January 2014. They delivered their conclusions at approximately 16:00 on 8 January, concluding (by an 8–1 majority) that Duggan's death was a lawful killing.
Legal challenge and appeal
Following the inquest, a case was brought by Duggan's mother to the High Court seeking judicial review, arguing that the coroner's directions to the jury were legally incorrect. The direction to the jury instructed them to determine whether or not the officer who shot Duggan was acting on an honest belief that Duggan was a threat, not whether his belief was reasonable. The case challenged the legal standard for self-defence as being incompatible with Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights which protects the right to life.
In October 2014, the High Court rejected this challenge. Leave was given to appeal the case to the civil division of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, but the appellate court also rejected the claims in 2017. Metropolitan Police Service firearms specialist, 51 years old Anthony Hanley allegedly shot himself in the head after he turned suicidal, on Saturday, 30 January 2016, in spite of being deterred by fellow officers, near his home in Wallington, London. The inquest started on Monday, 30 October 2017.
In March 2019, Duggan's family brought a civil claim against the Metropolitan Police.
In December 2019, investigators called for the 2011 case to be reopened, claiming that a virtual model of the shooting casts doubt on its findings.
- Race and crime in the United Kingdom
- List of people killed by law enforcement officers in the United Kingdom
- Police use of firearms in the United Kingdom
- List of cases of police brutality in the United Kingdom
- Causes of 2011 England Riots
- Death of Azelle Rodney
- Death of Anthony Grainger
- Deaths after contact with the police
- Ferguson unrest
- The Hard Stop
- Thapar, Ciaran. "UK drill rappers OFB: 'No one helps us round here. Music is the only way'". Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- Prasad, Rhaeka (4 December 2011). "Reading the riots: Rebels with a cause? Rioters claim 'payback' against the police: On the streets Those involved in the unrest speak of a common enemy - and a shared hatred of stop and search". The Guardian.
- Lewis, Paul (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riots: a peaceful protest, then suddenly all hell broke loose". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Mark Duggan inquest latest". BBC Online. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- Vikram Dodd, "Mark Duggan was shot after raising weapon, firearms officer tells court", The Guardian, 20 September 2012. Archived 20 November 2012.
- Vikram Dodd; Diane Taylor (12 December 2011). "Mark Duggan's family have little confidence in police probe, court hears". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Daniel Briggs, "Frustrations, urban relations and temptations: contextualising the social disorder in London"; in The English riots of 2011: a summer of discontent, ed. Daniel Briggs; Hampshire: Waterside Press, 2012.
- Barkham, Patrick; Henley, Jon (8 August 2011). "Mark Duggan: profile of Tottenham police shooting victim". the Guardian.
- Sean O'Neill[relevant? ] (29 February 2012). "Shot man who sparked violence grew up on Broadwater Farm". The Times (London).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Prodger, Matt (8 January 2014). "BBC News - Profile: Who was Mark Duggan?". bbc.co.uk/news. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- Taylor, Adam (12 August 2011). "The Man Whose Death Sparked The British Riots Was A Notorious Crime Lord's Nephew". Business Insider. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Fay Schlesinger (29 February 2012). "Two sides of a family man". The Times (London).
- "Lawful Killing", BBC One, 5 December 2016
- Tom Morgan (9 September 2011). "Mourners bid final farewell to shooting victim Mark Duggan". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 25 January 2014.
- Thapar, Ciaran (6 September 2019). "UK drill rappers OFB: 'No one helps us round here. Music is the only way'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
- Thompson, Tony (9 August 2011). "When I grew up in Tottenham, we stole sweets; now it's revenge shootings". Evening Standard. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Schlesinger, Fay; O'Neill, Sean (10 August 2011). "Mark Duggan: loving family man or violent, armed thug who led a double life?". The Australian. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "Man killed in shooting incident involving police officer". The Telegraph. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Whitehead, Tom (8 August 2011). "Dead man Mark Duggan was a known gangster who lived by the gun". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Lewis, Jason (13 August 2011). "The street code of vengeance that sparked the riots". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Youle, Emma (31 March 2011). "Neighbours' tributes to murdered Tottenham rapper 'everyone loved'". Tottenham& Wood Green Journal. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Moore-Bridger, Benedict; Parsons, Rob; Davenport, Justin (5 August 2011). "Father dies and policeman hurt in 'terrifying' shoot-out". London Evening Standard. UK. Archived from the original on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Tottenham police shooting: Dead man was minicab passenger". BBC. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Patrick Barkham; Jon Henley (8 August 2011). "Mark Duggan: profile of Tottenham police shooting victim". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Townsend, Mark (14 August 2011). "London riots: the family of Mark Duggan says it has no trust in the IPCC". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "Duggan 'one of 48 most violent'". 23 September 2013 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Fifth death in British riots". australianetworknews.com. 12 August 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- Stafford Scott, "Mark Duggan shooting: give the IPCC the powers it needs to investigate", The Guardian, 27 April 2012.
- "Mark Duggan 'pulled gun from waistband'". BBC. 20 September 2012.
- "Mark Duggan shooting: taxi driver tells court how police surrounded cab". the Guardian. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- "London riots: Mark Duggan died of gunshot wound to chest, inquest told". Metro. 14 October 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Update on Mark Duggan investigation including details of ballistic tests". ipcc.gov.uk. 9 August 2011. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "London riots: Mark Duggan died of gunshot wound to chest, inquest told". The Guardian. UK. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "A death at the hands of police – and a vigil that turned to violence", The Independent, 8 August 2011.
- "Duggan shooting witness emerges". BBC. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "UK riots: Mark Duggan was nephew of Manchester gangster Desmond Noonan". telegraph.co.uk. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- Dodd, Vikram (8 January 2014). "Mark Duggan's death: two shots fired and two conflicting stories". the Guardian.
- Elizabeth Pears, "Man 'Shot By Police' Was Friends With Nightclub Stab Victim", The Voice, 5 August 2011.
- Sandra Laville, "Mark Duggan investigation undermined by 'inaccuracies'", The Guardian, 24 November 2011. Archived 20 November 2012.
- Stafford Scott, "The investigation of Mark Duggan's death is tainted. I want no part in it", The Guardian, 20 November 2011.
- Akilah Russell, "Police Apologise To Duggan Family", The Voice, 10 August 2011.
- "Mark Duggan inquiry: Police watchdog investigator admits 'mistake' over information that Duggan fired at officers first", Daily Mirror, 12 December 2011; see "Statement intended to be read out to HM Coroner at pre-inquest hearing into death of Mark Duggan".
- Sandra Laville; Paul Lewis; Vikram Dodd; Vikram Dodd (7 August 2011). "Doubts emerge over Duggan shooting as London burns". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- Adam Gabbatt; Ben Quinn (7 August 2011). "London disturbances – Sunday 7 August". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Lewis, Jason (13 August 2011). "The street code of vengeance that sparked the riots". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- "'No evidence' that Mark Duggan shot at police, says IPCC". London Evening Standard. 10 August 2011. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- "UK RIOTS: MARK DUGGAN 'HAD A LOADED PISTOL'". express.co.uk. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- Bentham, Martin (12 August 2011). "Mark Duggan's uncle was gang boss 'with more guns than the police'". Evening Standard. London. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Bentham, Martin (12 August 2011). "Mark Duggan's uncle was gang boss 'with more guns than the police'". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- Hall, Richard (10 August 2011). "Gang suspect killed by police did not fire his gun, tests show". The Independent. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Mark Duggan death: 'No evidence' Tottenham man opened fire". BBC. London. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Vikram Dodd, "New questions raised over Duggan shooting", The Guardian, 18 November 2011. Archived 20 November 2012.
- Rayner, Gordon (31 January 2013). "Revealed: gang rivalry, Mark Duggan and the unavenged murder behind the London riots". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Metropolitan Police probed over 'Mark Duggan gun' incident". BBC. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "Hutchinson-Foster guilty of supplying gun". BBC News. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- Dodd, Vikram (19 November 2011). "Revealed: Mark Duggan was not armed when shot by police". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
- Vikram Dodd, "IPCC report on Mark Duggan shooting to be completed next month: Watchdog will finish report a year late into police shooting that sparked riots", The Guardian, 25 March 2013.
- Jackson, Peter (7 August 2011). "London riots: Tensions behind unrest revealed". BBC News. London. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Lammy, David (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riot: The lesson of Broadwater Farm". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- Newton, Simon (7 August 2011). "Tottenham Burns: Rioting Erupts On Streets". Sky. London. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Moore, Andy (7 August 2011). "Riots in Tottenham after Mark Duggan shooting protest". BBC. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Hattenstone, Simon (14 August 2011). "David Lammy: 'There is a history in Tottenham that involves deaths in police custody'". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Claudia Webbe". guardian.co.uk. 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Webbe, Claudia (7 August 2011). "Tottenham's violence was wrong. Now police need to show justice is being done". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Connolly, Matthew (16 August 2011). "Do riots show that tensions of earlier decades still smoulder?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Moore, Charles (28 March 2011). "Things the BBC didn't tell us about the Brixton riots". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Wheatle, Alex (9 August 2011). "We need answers about the death of Mark Duggan". Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Gayle, Damien (3 November 2017). "Police officer says he thought Met armourer wanted to be shot dead". the Guardian.
- Paul Lewis, "Tottenham riots: a peaceful protest, then suddenly all hell broke loose", The Guardian, 7 August 2011. Archived 20 November 2012.
- Beckford, Martin (8 August 2011). "'Attack' on teenage girl blamed for start of Tottenham riot". The Daily Telegraph.
- on YouTube
- Mark Hughes, "Tottenham riot: bullet lodged in officer's radio at time of Mark Duggan death 'was police issue'", The Telegraph, 8 August 2011.
- "Timeline – British disorder by dates". The Irish Times. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Jones, Owen (23 July 2012). "London riots - one year on: Owen Jones commences a series of special reports". The Independent. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Green, Michael (20 March 2012). "How did Michael Atakelt die?". The Age.
- "Victim's family condemn riot". The Independent. 7 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Malcolm Maurice, The London and UK Riots: 'It's Not Just Black Youths Involved', The Afro, 10 August 2011.
- "Riots: David Cameron's Commons statement in full". BBC. 11 August 2011.
- "Tottenham police shooting: Dead man was minicab passenger". BBC News. 5 August 2011.
- Mark Duggan inquest key evidence: Was he really armed? Were the police under threat?. The Independent
- "How The Media Shamefully Manipulated Mark Duggan's Death", The Voice, 10 August 2011.
- "Iran/United Kingdom: Iranian Legislator Condemns Blatant Violation of Human Rights in Britain", Asia News Monitor, 12 August 2011; accessed via ProQuest.
- Walker, Peter; Hugh Muir; Alexandra Topping (9 September 2011). "Thousands gather for Mark Duggan funeral". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Man dead and police officer hurt in Tottenham shooting". BBC News. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- "Mark Duggan death: IPCC appeals for witnesses". BBC. London. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Appeal over death that sparked riot". Belfast Telegraph. 12 August 2011.
- "Release of information in early stages of Mark Duggan investigation". IPCC. Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- "Could the Tottenham riots have been prevented?". Channel 4. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Cerfontyne, Rachel (7 August 2011). "Statement from IPCC on Mark Duggan shooting". IPCC. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Dodd, Vikram (21 November 2011). "Adviser quits Duggan inquiry with attack on 'shoddy investigation'". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- "Loading site please wait..." www.ipcc.gov.uk.
- Milmo, Cahal; Rob Hastings (9 August 2011). "A dead man, a crucial question: should police have shot Mark Duggan?". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Dodd, Vikram (8 August 2011). "Police apologise to Mark Duggan's family for failing to keep them informed". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Malik, Shiv; Sandra Laville (29 March 2012). "Mark Duggan death: IPCC says hands are tied over release of evidence". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- "Witness Films Scenes After Mark Duggan Was Shot", The Voice, 27 April 2012.
- Vikram Dodd and Owen Bowcott, "Mark Duggan inquest could be shown live over the internet: Officials consider unprecedented move but testimony from firearms officers will not be broadcast", The Guardian, 28 January 2013.
- Vikram Dodd, "Mark Duggan police shooting: IPCC inquiry finds no evidence of criminality: Shooter declined to answer questions orally, instead submitting written answers later"; The Guardian, 2 August 2013.
- "Officer Who Shot Mark Duggan 'Will Not' Return To Duty", The Voice, 8 September 2012.
- Dodd, Vikram (26 April 2012). "Mark Duggan death: Met officers refuse IPCC interviews". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Cox, Simon (26 April 2012). "IPCC seeks increased powers to investigate police". BBC. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- "Mark Duggan 'given loaded gun' before police shooting". BBC. 18 September 2012.
- "Mark Duggan police shooting: Death was 'karma'". BBC. 28 September 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "Duggan Was 'Given Loaded Gun Minutes Before Being Killed'", The Voice, 18 September 2012.
- "Police To Keep Anonymity In Duggan Gun Trial", The Voice, 27 July 2012.
- "Duggan 'in contact' with accused". 25 September 2012 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- Dodd, Vikram (26 September 2012). "Police marksman was 'absolutely certain' Mark Duggan was holding gun". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- "Police account of Mark Duggan's injuries 'differs' from pathologist". BBC. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Mark Duggan: No verdict in Kevin Hutchinson-Foster gun trial". BBC. 17 October 2012.
- "Kevin Hutchinson-Foster retrial set for January". BBC. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Hutchinson-Foster guilty of supplying gun". BBC. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Press Association (26 February 2013). "Man who gave gun to Mark Duggan jailed for 11 years". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Vikram Dodd, "Mark Duggan shooting still a mystery despite gun supplier verdict: Kevin Hutchinson-Foster's guilt does little to clarify events that triggered Duggan being stopped and shot dead by police", The Guardian, 31 January 2013.
- Alan White, "This investigation is about more than Mark Duggan", New Statesman, 28 April 2012.
- Stafford Scott, "The shooting of Mark Duggan must be investigated openly", The Guardian, 27 March 2012.
- Vikram Dodd, "Mark Duggan shooting: police watchdog's report delayed further", The Guardian, 23 October 2012.
- "Fresh Controversy Over Mark Duggan Death: Refusal from police officers to be interviewed by investigators is another blow to public trust", The Voice, 5 May 2012.
- Elizabeth Pears, "'We Want Justice For Mark'", The Voice, 14 October 2011.
- Matthew Taylor, "Brother of Mark Duggan demands justice over death that sparked riots", The Guardian, 5 October 2011.
- Mark Williams, "Mark Duggan's Sister Urges Police: 'Come Clean!'", The Voice, 16 June 2012.
- Trudy Simpson, ""i-won't-give-until-i-get-justice-mark Duggan's Mum: 'I Won't Give Up Until I Get Justice For Mark'[dead link]", The Voice, 3 August 2012.
- "Mark Duggan death: application for judicial review into police protocol rejected Archived 22 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine", Tottenham & Wood Green Journal, 18 June 2013.
- "Mark Duggan death: Application for police collusion review rejected", BBC, 18 June 2013.
- "Duggan Family Have Police Protocol Review Rejected: Pamela Duggan had called for an examination into how police collaborate on incident reports", The Voice, 18 June 2013.
- Stafford Scott, "Mark Duggan: the lessons the police haven't learned: A year after the killing of Mark Duggan, his family and community still feel ignored and marginalised", The Guardian, 3 August 2012.
- Stafford Scott, "Mark Duggan's family have had to endure yet again", The Guardian, 18 October 2012.
- Stafford Scott, "Gun conviction only raises more questions over Mark Duggan's death: Hutchinson-Foster has been jailed for supplying a gun, but if police had done their duty, Duggan might still be alive", The Guardian, 27 February 2013.
- "IPCC defies coroner over Duggan statements". BBC News. 28 June 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- Bart Chan and Dionne Grant, "Mark Duggan's Mother Leaves Court On Hearing Death Details: Judge sets September date for full inquest into 29-year-old's death", The Voice, 28 January 2013.
- Bart Chan, "Full Inquiry Into Mark Duggan's Death Set For September", The Voice, 28 January 2013.
- Terri Judd, "Mark Duggan inquest: commission investigating police shooting that sparked summer riots 'not fit for purpose': Death in 2011 in Tottenham led to widespread rioting across London and England", The Independent, 25 March 2013.
- Jermaine Haughton, "Inquest jury visits Mark Duggan shooting scene: Anonymous members of the court to get firsthand walkthrough of the places Duggan was before he was shot", The Voice, 19 September 2013.
- Haroon Siddique, " Mark Duggan was involved in gun crime, police officer tells inquest: Senior officer says Duggan, whose shooting by police triggered 2011 riots, was member of gang that included violent criminals", The Guardian, 23 September 2013.
- Jermaine Haughton, "Senior officer 'said Mark Duggan came firing' at police", The Voice, 24 September 2013.
- Peachey, Paul (8 January 2014). "Mark Duggan inquest: Was he really armed? Were the police under threat? All the key evidence". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Josh Halliday, "Mark Duggan marksman 'got it wrong' over account of shooting – pathologist: Professor Derrick Pounder contradicts armed police officer by concluding that Duggan was shot in the arm – then the chest", The Guardian, 14 November 2013.
- Josh Halliday, "Bullet that killed Mark Duggan 'had only recently been authorised for use': Hollow-point 9mm bullet is designed to cause instant incapacitation and 'mushrooms' in body, inquest hears", The Guardian, 14 November 2013.
- "Mark Duggan inquest: Armed police 'simply got it wrong: Pathologist professor gives evidence at inquest into death of Tottenham resident", The Voice, 14 November 2013.
- Jermaine Haughton, "Mark Duggan inquest to hear 'police planted gun' evidence The gun was found 20 feet away from where Duggan was shot dead by officers", The Voice, 19 September 2013.
- "New evidence backs theory police planted Mark Duggan gun Witness tells inquest jury officer 'ran from scene with object'", The Voice, 25 November 2013.
- Tom Pettifor, "Mark Duggan inquest: Key witness claims police moved a gun AFTER the shooting", Daily Mirror, 16 October 2013.
- Vikram Dodd, "Mark Duggan witness says she saw officer remove gun from car: Woman tells inquest she saw officer emerge from cab with expression 'like he had found gold' 10 minutes after shooting", The Guardian, 16 October 2013.
- Moore, Stephen (17 October 2013). "Mark Duggan inquest: Witness 'saw police drag Duggan from cab' and 'remove gun'". Tottenham & Wood Green Journal. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Loading site please wait..." www.ipcc.gov.uk.
- Natricia Duncan, "'Police shot Mark Duggan in back', says taxi driver: Minicab driver giving evidence at inquest claims officer who opened fire 'lost his senses'", The Voice, 14 October 2013.
- Stephen Moore, "Mark Duggan inquest: Duggan 'clutching phone' when shot, says key witness Archived 25 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine", Tottenham Journal, 5 December 2013.
- Sam Jones, "Mark Duggan was holding phone as he was shot by police, inquest hears: Witness says Duggan, whose death in London sparked riots in 2011, had stopped and put his hands up before he was shot", The Guardian, 3 December 2013.
- Casciani, Dominic (14 March 2018). "Duggan did not need to die - witness" – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- Josh Halliday, "Duggan inquest: police evidence 'fails to explain how gun was found 20ft away': Military surgeon tells inquest discovery of gun behind a wall was unexplained by evidence of officer who shot Duggan", The Guardian, 18 November 2013.
- Natricia Duncan, "Gun plant claims 'highly offensive' says Mark Duggan officer", The Voice, 5 December 2013.
- Vikram Dodd, "Armed police officer admits his account of Mark Duggan killing changed: Officer told inquest Duggan was holding a gun when he was shot by police, something he omitted in initial account", The Guardian, 23 October 0213.
- Aaron Bastani, "Student protests are changing tack – and facing heavy police repression", The Guardian, 5 December 2013.
- Robin De Peyer, "Protests in London as students make 'cops off campus' rallying call", London Evening Standard, 11 December 2013.
- Martin Brunt, "Mark Duggan Inquest: Jury Begin Deliberations", SkyNews, 11 December 2013.
- "Mark Duggan inquest coroner tells jury he will accept majority conclusion: Coroner tells panel of 10 jurors they may reach conclusions and findings on which at least eight of them are agreed", The Guardian, 18 December 2013.
- Natricia Duncan, "Mark Duggan inquest adjourned until next year: Anonymous inquest jurors will return in January to decide verdict", The Voice, 19 December 2013.
- "R (Duggan) v Deputy Coroner for North London". www.judiciary.gov.uk. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- Taylor, Diane (2 March 2017). "Mark Duggan shooting: court considers appeal against inquest verdict". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- "Mark Duggan's family lose inquest appeal". BBC News. 29 March 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- Kirk, Tristan (31 October 2017). "Met firearms expert killed himself in a stand-off with armed police after blaming himself for the fatal shooting of Mark Duggan". Evening Standard.
- "Mark Duggan death: Timeline of events". BBC News. 27 October 2015.
- "Mark Duggan's family lodges civil claim against Metropolitan police". The Guardian. 23 March 2019. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- Dodd, Vikram (5 December 2019). "Mark Duggan shooting report challenged by human rights groups". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 5 December 2019.